Summary: Mucoproteins isolated from the kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris); some of them are mitogenic to lymphocytes, others agglutinate all or certain types of erythrocytes or lymphocytes. They are used mainly in the study of immune mechanisms and in cell culture.

Top Publications

  1. Nilsson C, Larsson Sigfrinius A, Montgomery S, Sverremark Ekström E, Linde A, Lilja G, et al. Epstein-Barr virus and cytomegalovirus are differentially associated with numbers of cytokine-producing cells and early atopy. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:509-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together our results indicate that infections with EBV and CMV in different ways will interact with the immune system and may protect children from developing early atopy. ..
  2. Asare A, Kolchinsky S, Gao Z, Wang R, Raddassi K, Bourcier K, et al. Differential gene expression profiles are dependent upon method of peripheral blood collection and RNA isolation. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:474 pubmed publisher
  3. Miao H, Jin X, Perelson A, Wu H. Evaluation of multitype mathematical models for CFSE-labeling experiment data. Bull Math Biol. 2012;74:300-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This model was then employed to understand the proliferation pattern of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells under polyclonal stimulation. ..
  4. Sjögren Y, Tomicic S, Lundberg A, Böttcher M, Bjorksten B, Sverremark Ekström E, et al. Influence of early gut microbiota on the maturation of childhood mucosal and systemic immune responses. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:1842-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Bifidobacterial diversity may enhance the maturation of the mucosal SIgA system and early intense colonization with Bacteroides fragilis might down-regulate LPS responsiveness in infancy. ..
  5. Wang F, Cui S, Sun L, Qu X, Xie Y, Zhou L, et al. High expression of alpha 2, 3-linked sialic acid residues is associated with the metastatic potential of human gastric cancer. Cancer Detect Prev. 2009;32:437-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we measured the expression of alpha 2, 3-linked sialic acid residues by using a specific lectin as well as the potential of invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer was analyzed...
  6. Girgin G, Baydar T, Ledochowski M, Schennach H, Bolukbasi D, Sorkun K, et al. Immunomodulatory effects of Turkish propolis: changes in neopterin release and tryptophan degradation. Immunobiology. 2009;214:129-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The suppression of tryptophan degradation by propolis extracts may therefore be related with some of its beneficial health properties in humans. ..
  7. Tella J, Lemus J, Carrete M, Blanco G. The PHA test reflects acquired T-cell mediated immunocompetence in birds. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e3295 pubmed publisher
  8. Chien E, Chen C, Chien C, Yeh T, Lu L. Activation and up-regulation of phospholipase D expression by lipopolysaccharide in human peripheral T cells. Chin J Physiol. 2004;47:203-9 pubmed
    ..This indicated that LPS might enhance T cell adaptive immunity to resist Gram-negative bacterial infection. ..
  9. Skendros P, Boura P, Kamaria F, Raptopoulou Gigi M. CD80/CD28 co-stimulation in human brucellosis. Clin Exp Immunol. 2006;146:400-8 pubmed
    ..We speculate that differential frequency of CD80(+) monocytes after PHA stimulation could serve as a qualitative parameter of disease status, related to the different clinical forms of chronic brucellosis. ..

More Information


  1. Li Y, Wong K, Matsueda S, Efferson C, Chang D, Ioannides C, et al. Mitogen stimulation activates different signaling pathways in early- and late-divided T cells as revealed by cDNA microarray analysis. Int J Mol Med. 2006;18:1127-39 pubmed
    ..Because most tumors are infiltrated by lymphocytes, our studies indicate a novel approach to identify 'systemic biological responses' of T cells, which could determine the design, and optimization of effective tumor vaccines. ..
  2. Winkler C, Frick B, Schroecksnadel K, Schennach H, Fuchs D. Food preservatives sodium sulfite and sorbic acid suppress mitogen-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Food Chem Toxicol. 2006;44:2003-7 pubmed
    ..01 at 1 mM sodium sulfite and 50 mM sorbic acid). Data demonstrate a suppressive influence of sodium sulfite and sorbic acid on the activated Th1-type immune response. ..
  3. Heinrich E, Welty L, Banner L, Oppenheimer S. Direct targeting of cancer cells: a multiparameter approach. Acta Histochem. 2005;107:335-44 pubmed
  4. Lavoie E, Sorrell E, Perez D, Ottinger M. Immunosenescence and age-related susceptibility to influenza virus in Japanese quail. Dev Comp Immunol. 2007;31:407-14 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate an age-related difference in immune function in Japanese quail that has similarities to age-related immunity in humans; younger and older animals had weaker immune responses compared to young adults. ..
  5. Haussmann M, Winkler D, Huntington C, Vleck D, Sanneman C, Hanley D, et al. Cell-mediated immunosenescence in birds. Oecologia. 2005;145:270-5 pubmed
    ..This link between declining immune function and survival may reflect differences in resource partitioning between species, and suggests that selection may act on investment in immune function to influence maximum life span. ..
  6. Wirleitner B, Schroecksnadel K, Winkler C, Schennach H, Fuchs D. Resveratrol suppresses interferon-gamma-induced biochemical pathways in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. Immunol Lett. 2005;100:159-63 pubmed
  7. Bonneaud C, Richard M, Faivre B, Westerdahl H, Sorci G. An Mhc class I allele associated to the expression of T-dependent immune response in the house sparrow. Immunogenetics. 2005;57:782-9 pubmed
    ..Our results point toward a contribution of the Mhc, or of other genes in linkage disequilibrium with the Mhc, in the regulation of immune responses in a wild animal species. ..
  8. Niers L, Timmerman H, Rijkers G, van Bleek G, van Uden N, Knol E, et al. Identification of strong interleukin-10 inducing lactic acid bacteria which down-regulate T helper type 2 cytokines. Clin Exp Allergy. 2005;35:1481-9 pubmed
    ..These specific strains may be favorable to use in prevention or treatment of atopic disease. ..
  9. Pitala N, Gustafsson L, Sendecka J, Brommer J. Nestling immune response to phytohaemagglutinin is not heritable in collared flycatchers. Biol Lett. 2007;3:418-21 pubmed
    ..Our findings illustrate that full-sib comparisons of immunological measures may lead to an inflated estimate of heritability and also reveal a limited role of nestling PHA-response for sexual selection in this population. ..
  10. Kennedy M, Nager R. The perils and prospects of using phytohaemagglutinin in evolutionary ecology. Trends Ecol Evol. 2006;21:653-5 pubmed
  11. Inagaki Y, Tang W, Guo Q, Kokudo N, Sugawara Y, Karako H, et al. Sialoglycoconjugate expression in primary colorectal cancer and metastatic lymph node tissues. Hepatogastroenterology. 2007;54:53-7 pubmed
    ..To investigate the clinicopathological significance of sialylation in colorectal cancer, we performed histochemical analyses using sialic acid-binding lectins...
  12. Skendros P, Boura P, Chrisagis D, Raptopoulou Gigi M. Diminished percentage of CD4+ T-lymphocytes expressing interleukine-2 receptor alpha in chronic brucellosis. J Infect. 2007;54:192-7 pubmed
    ..044, 0.011). Diminished percentage of peripheral CD4+ T-lymphocytes expressing IL-2R alpha is associated with chronic relapsing brucellosis. ..
  13. Hawley D, Sydenstricker K, Kollias G, Dhondt A. Genetic diversity predicts pathogen resistance and cell-mediated immunocompetence in house finches. Biol Lett. 2005;1:326-9 pubmed
    ..Overall, our results underscore the importance of multilocus heterozygosity for individual pathogen resistance and immunity. ..
  14. Owen J, Clayton D. Where are the parasites in the PHA response?. Trends Ecol Evol. 2007;22:228-9 pubmed
  15. Kinikli S, Turkcapar N, Kucukay M, Keskin G, Kinikli G. In vitro nonspecific mitogenic response of T-cell subsets in acute and chronic brucellosis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2005;52:229-33 pubmed
  16. Pawlik A, Baskiewicz Masiuk M, Machalinski B, Gawronska Szklarz B. Involvement of P-gp in the process of apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Int Immunopharmacol. 2005;5:821-8 pubmed
    ..Moreover these agents significantly increased the apoptosis induced by MTX, DEX, MP and COR. The results of this study suggest that P-gp is involved in the process of apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. ..
  17. Goüy de Bellocq J, Krasnov B, Khokhlova I, Pinshow B. Temporal dynamics of a T-cell mediated immune response in desert rodents. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2006;145:554-9 pubmed
  18. Kesherwani V, Sodhi A. Differential activation of macrophages in vitro by lectin Concanavalin A, Phytohemagglutinin and Wheat germ agglutinin: production and regulation of nitric oxide. Nitric Oxide. 2007;16:294-305 pubmed
    ..The data also provides the relative measure and importance of different key signaling molecules in the regulation of NO production by macrophages on activation. ..
  19. Garcia B, Hargrave A, Morgan A, Kilmer G, Hommema E, Nahrahari J, et al. Antibody microarray analysis of inflammatory mediator release by human leukemia T-cells and human non small cell lung cancer cells. J Biomol Tech. 2007;18:245-51 pubmed
    ..Our experiments clearly demonstrate the utility of antibody microarray analysis of cell-culture supernatants for the profiling of cellular inflammatory mediator release. ..
  20. Hõrak P, Saks L, Zilmer M, Karu U, Zilmer K. Do dietary antioxidants alleviate the cost of immune activation? An experiment with greenfinches. Am Nat. 2007;170:625-35 pubmed
  21. Lehmer E, Clay C, Wilson E, St Jeor S, Dearing M. Differential resource allocation in deer mice exposed to sin nombre virus. Physiol Biochem Zool. 2007;80:514-21 pubmed
    ..We propose that differences in resource allocation between males and females could result from inherent sex-based differences in parental investment. ..
  22. Mi R, Liu F, Jin G. [Fusion of melanoma cells using a modified phytohaemagglutinin-ECM830 fusion method]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. 2013;35:515-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We successfully obtained the melanoma fusion cells by the improved PHA-ECM830 fusion method. The proliferation rate of melanoma fusion cells dramatically decreases. ..
  23. Sachdeva M, Varma N, Rana K, Varma S. Philadelphia chromosome detection in chronic myeloid leukemia: utility of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood culture. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2012;55:196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Addition of PHA-stimulated 72-h peripheral blood culture preparation can be of use for increasing the diagnostic yield in cases of CML with suboptimal results on conventional cytogenetics from bone marrow aspirate sample. ..
  24. Loos T, Mortier A, Gouwy M, Ronsse I, Put W, Lenaerts J, et al. Citrullination of CXCL10 and CXCL11 by peptidylarginine deiminase: a naturally occurring posttranslational modification of chemokines and new dimension of immunoregulation. Blood. 2008;112:2648-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally because citrullination has severe consequences for chemokine biology, this invites to reassess the involvement and impact of PAD and citrullinated peptides in inflammation, autoimmunity, and hematologic disorders. ..
  25. Yamanishi T, Hatakeyama T, Yamaguchi K, Oda T. CEL-I, an N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific C-type lectin, induces nitric oxide production in RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cell line. J Biochem. 2009;146:209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that CEL-I induces NO production in RAW264.7 cells through the protein-cell interaction rather than the binding to the specific carbohydrate chains on the cell surface...
  26. Johansson M, Saghafian Hedengren S, Haileselassie Y, Roos S, Troye Blomberg M, Nilsson C, et al. Early-life gut bacteria associate with IL-4-, IL-10- and IFN-? production at two years of age. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49315 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that dysbiosis in the early microbiota may modulate the risk of developing inflammatory conditions like allergy. ..
  27. Zhang P, Chan K, Haryadi R, Bardor M, Song Z. CHO glycosylation mutants as potential host cells to produce therapeutic proteins with enhanced efficacy. Adv Biochem Eng Biotechnol. 2013;131:63-87 pubmed publisher
  28. Konowalchuk J, Agrawal B. MUC1 is a novel costimulatory molecule of human T cells and functions in an AP-1-dependent manner. Hum Immunol. 2012;73:448-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings clearly demonstrate that MUC1 is a novel T-cell costimulatory molecule involved in immune regulation. These studies delineate important mechanisms of T-cell activation and regulation. ..
  29. Padet L, St Amour I, Aubin E, Bazin R. Neutralization of mitogenic lectins by intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) prevents T cell activation: does IVIg really have a direct effect on T cells?. Clin Exp Immunol. 2011;166:352-60 pubmed publisher
  30. Kutok J, Yang X, Folkerth R, Adra C. Characterization of the expression of HTm4 (MS4A3), a cell cycle regulator, in human peripheral blood cells and normal and malignant tissues. J Cell Mol Med. 2011;15:86-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings warrant the further study of the role of HTm4 in the cell cycle of both haematopoietic and tumour cells...
  31. Chan Y, Xia L, Ng T. White kidney bean lectin exerts anti-proliferative and apoptotic effects on cancer cells. Int J Biol Macromol. 2016;85:335-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blotting suggested that WKBL induced apoptosis of HONE1 cells occurred through the extrinsic apoptosis pathway, with detection of increased level of active caspase 3, 8 and 9. ..
  32. Syed Ahamed Kabeer B, Sikhamani R, Swaminathan S, Perumal V, Paramasivam P, Raja A. Role of interferon gamma release assay in active TB diagnosis among HIV infected individuals. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5718 pubmed publisher
    ..The low PHA cut-off point for indeterminate results suggested in this study (< or = 0.25 IU/ml) may improve the proportion of valid QFT-G results. ..
  33. Hunter A, Mahendra P, Wilson K, Fields P, Cook G, Peniket A, et al. Treatment of oral mucositis after peripheral blood SCT with ATL-104 mouthwash: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2009;43:563-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar results were obtained using the WCCNR Scale. Adverse events (AEs) were predominantly mild or moderate in intensity. Gastrointestinal AE were most common. ..
  34. Gómez Corvera A, Cerrillo I, Molinero P, Naranjo M, Lardone P, Sanchez Hidalgo M, et al. Evidence of immune system melatonin production by two pineal melatonin deficient mice, C57BL/6 and Swiss strains. J Pineal Res. 2009;47:15-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the pineal defect seems not to be generalized to all tissues, suggesting that other cells may compensate the low pineal melatonin production contributing to the measurable plasma melatonin level...
  35. Kukreja N, Sridhara S, Singh B, Arora N. Effect of proteolytic activity of Epicoccum purpurascens major allergen, Epi p 1 in allergic inflammation. Clin Exp Immunol. 2008;154:162-71 pubmed publisher
    ..05), indicating a T helper 2 response. Proteolytic activity of Epi p 1 plays an important role in inducing allergic inflammation. The enzymatically inactive form may be investigated for immunotherapy...
  36. Zhou H, Lin J, Chen S, Ma L, Qiu Z, Chen W, et al. Use of the ImmuKnow assay to evaluate the effect of alemtuzumab-depleting induction therapy on cell-mediated immune function after renal transplantation. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2013;17:304-9 pubmed publisher
    ..554). The ImmuKnow assay is a useful tool for evaluating the global immune response in alemtuzumab-treated renal transplant patients. Alemtuzumab-depleting induction therapy remains effective for at least 180 days. ..
  37. Ghoneim H, Demian S, Heshmat M, Ismail N, El Sayed L. Activation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells during hepatosplenic Schistosoma mansoni infections. Egypt J Immunol. 2008;15:63-72 pubmed
  38. Yamaguchi T, Yamanaka M, Ikehara S, Kida K, Kuboki N, Mizuno D, et al. Generation of IFN-gamma-producing cells that recognize the major piroplasm surface protein in Theileria orientalis-infected bovines. Vet Parasitol. 2010;171:207-15 pubmed publisher
    ..orientalis-specific T cells in T. orientalis-infected bovines using an antigen-specific ELISpot assay system and that T. orientalis-specific, IFN-gamma- and IL-10-producing T cells are produced in T. orientalis-infected Holsteins. ..
  39. Prykhod ko O, Pierzynowski S, Westrom B. Immune suppression by cyclosporin A inhibits phytohemagglutinin-induced precocious gut maturation in suckling rats. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2010;50:473-80 pubmed publisher
  40. Badia R, Iborra A, Palacio J, Antich M, Martinez P. The effect of oxidative environment on immunosuppressive properties of human seminal plasma. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2008;60:354-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Human SP proteins have an inhibitory ability on lymphocyte proliferation, but under oxidative stress conditions, these proteins lose their immunosuppressive function. ..
  41. Nagy N, Matskova L, Kis L, Hellman U, Klein G, Klein E. The proapoptotic function of SAP provides a clue to the clinical picture of X-linked lymphoproliferative disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11966-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We have shown that the anti-apoptotic protein VCP (valosin-containing protein) binds to SAP, suggesting that it could be instrumental in the enhanced apoptotic response modulated by SAP. ..
  42. Murigande C, Regenass S, Wirz D, Daniels A, Tyndall A. A comparison between ((3)H)-thymidine incorporation and isothermal microcalorimetry for the assessment of antigen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. Immunol Invest. 2009;38:67-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study suggests that IMC measurements, despite the advantages of simplicity, on-line recording of metabolic activity and no use of radioactivity, may be limited to monitoring mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation. ..
  43. Zhi Chun L, Qiao Ling Z, Zhi Qin L, Xiao Zhao L, Xiao xia Z, Rong T. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) mediates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and signal transduction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with lupus nephritis. Inflammation. 2012;35:935-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggested that TWEAK-p38 MAPK-IL-10, MCP-1 signaling pathway in PBMC played an important pathogenic role in lupus nephritis. ..
  44. Liu H, Lv P, Yang X, Qin X, Pi D, Lu Y, et al. Fibroblasts from the new-born male testicle of Guangxi Bama mini-pig ( Sus scrofa) can support nuclear transferred embryo development in vitro. Zygote. 2009;17:147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The PHA had no significant effect on the parthenogenetic embryos, but cloned embryo development to the blastocyst stage was significantly increased by PHA (10 microg/ml), (13.4% vs. 5.6% and 5.6%, p < 0.05). ..
  45. López Morales D, Reyes Leyva J, Santos López G, Zenteno E, Vallejo Ruiz V. Increased expression of sialic acid in cervical biopsies with squamous intraepithelial lesions. Diagn Pathol. 2010;5:74 pubmed publisher
    ..This study investigates the changes in expression and distribution of ?2,3-linked sialic acid and ?2,6- linked sialic acid in low and high squamous intraepithelial lesions and in normal tissue...
  46. Fu J, Sha B, Thomas L. HIV-1-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells enhance neutrophil survival and HLA-DR expression via increased production of GM-CSF: implications for HIV-1 infection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011;56:16-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The minimal effect of GM-CSF on HLA-DR expression by neutrophils of elite controllers provides indirect support for this conclusion. ..
  47. Whistler T, Chiang C, Lonergan W, Hollier M, Unger E. Implementation of exon arrays: alternative splicing during T-cell proliferation as determined by whole genome analysis. BMC Genomics. 2010;11:496 pubmed publisher
    ..This study illustrates that the Exon array technology has the potential to provide information on both transcript expression and isoform usage, with very little increase in expense. ..
  48. De Rosa M, Dionisio L, Agriello E, Bouzat C, Esandi M. Alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor modulates lymphocyte activation. Life Sci. 2009;85:444-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals that the alpha7 receptor modulates lymphocyte activation and contributes to clarifying the role of the non neuronal cholinergic system in the immune response. ..
  49. Wang C, Wang Y, Huffman N, Cui C, Yao X, Midura S, et al. Confocal laser Raman microspectroscopy of biomineralization foci in UMR 106 osteoblastic cultures reveals temporally synchronized protein changes preceding and accompanying mineral crystal deposition. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:7100-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the low extent of spectral variability detected among different BMF at the same time point indicates that mineralization of individual BMF within a culture is synchronized. ..
  50. Evrard B, Dosgilbert A, Jacquemot N, Demeocq F, Gilles T, Chassagne J, et al. CFSE flow cytometric quantification of lymphocytic proliferation in extracorporeal photopheresis: use for quality control. Transfus Apher Sci. 2010;42:11-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, two cases of residual proliferation after ECP were simultaneously detected by both techniques. Only the CFSE test allows targeted analysis of lymphocytes, thus identifying a surviving lymphocytic sub-population. ..
  51. Sak A, Grehl S, Engelhard M, Wierlemann A, Kaelberlah H, Erichsen P, et al. Long-term in vivo effects of cisplatin on gamma-H2AX foci signaling in peripheral lymphocytes of tumor patients after irradiation. Clin Cancer Res. 2009;15:2927-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of sensing and processing of double-strand break by gamma-H2AX and Rad51 foci formation are important mechanisms by which cisplatin can alter the radiation response. ..
  52. Romano M, Caprioli M, Ambrosini R, Rubolini D, Fasola M, Saino N. Maternal allocation strategies and differential effects of yolk carotenoids on the phenotype and viability of yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) chicks in relation to sex and laying order. J Evol Biol. 2008;21:1626-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Carotenoids transferred to the eggs may rather result from a trade-off between opposing effects on sons or daughters. ..
  53. Degos B, Deniau J, Le Cam J, Mailly P, Maurice N. Evidence for a direct subthalamo-cortical loop circuit in the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2008;27:2599-610 pubmed publisher