serum amyloid p component


Summary: Amyloid P component is a small, non-fibrillar glycoprotein found in normal serum and in all amyloid deposits. It has a pentagonal (pentaxin) structure. It is an acute phase protein, modulates immunologic responses, inhibits ELASTASE, and has been suggested as an indicator of LIVER DISEASE.

Top Publications

  1. Garcia de Frutos P, Härdig Y, Dahlback B. Serum amyloid P component binding to C4b-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:26950-5 pubmed
    ..pathway C3 convertase, forms high affinity complexes with anticoagulant protein S and with the pentraxin serum amyloid P component (SAP). SAP is a plasma protein present in all amyloid deposits...
  2. Baruah P, Propato A, Dumitriu I, Rovere Querini P, Russo V, Fontana R, et al. The pattern recognition receptor PTX3 is recruited at the synapse between dying and dendritic cells, and edits the cross-presentation of self, viral, and tumor antigens. Blood. 2006;107:151-8 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that PTX3 acts as a third-party agent between microbial stimuli and dying cells, contributing to limit tissue damage under inflammatory conditions and the activation of autoreactive T cells. ..
  3. Varani S, Elvin J, Yan C, DeMayo J, DeMayo F, Horton H, et al. Knockout of pentraxin 3, a downstream target of growth differentiation factor-9, causes female subfertility. Mol Endocrinol. 2002;16:1154-67 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that PTX3 plays important roles in cumulus cell-oocyte interaction in the periovulatory period as a downstream protein in the GDF-9 signal transduction cascade. ..
  4. Hirschfield G, Pepys M. C-reactive protein and cardiovascular disease: new insights from an old molecule. QJM. 2003;96:793-807 pubmed
    ..We review the biological properties of CRP, the association between CRP and cardiovascular disease, and the possibility that CRP may be a novel therapeutic target. ..
  5. Hazenberg B, van Rijswijk M, Piers D, Lub de Hooge M, Vellenga E, Haagsma E, et al. Diagnostic performance of 123I-labeled serum amyloid P component scintigraphy in patients with amyloidosis. Am J Med. 2006;119:355.e15-24 pubmed
    To assess the diagnostic accuracy and additional information provided by 123I-labeled serum amyloid P component (SAP) scintigraphy in patients with systemic and localized amyloidosis...
  6. Abderrahim Ferkoune A, Bezy O, Chiellini C, Maffei M, Grimaldi P, Bonino F, et al. Characterization of the long pentraxin PTX3 as a TNFalpha-induced secreted protein of adipose cells. J Lipid Res. 2003;44:994-1000 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, PTX3 appears as a TNFalpha-induced protein that provides a new link between chronic low-level inflammatory state and obesity. ..
  7. Rolph M, Zimmer S, Bottazzi B, Garlanda C, Mantovani A, Hansson G. Production of the long pentraxin PTX3 in advanced atherosclerotic plaques. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2002;22:e10-4 pubmed
    ..Infrequent expression by smooth muscle cells was also observed. Our results suggest that PTX3 may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. ..
  8. Tennent G, Dziadzio M, Triantafillidou E, Davies P, Gallimore J, Denton C, et al. Normal circulating serum amyloid P component concentration in systemic sclerosis. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:2013-7 pubmed
    The observation of reduced circulating concentrations of the constitutive plasma pentraxin protein, serum amyloid P component (SAP), in serum samples obtained from a small number of patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) has been ..
  9. Scarchilli L, Camaioni A, Bottazzi B, Negri V, Doni A, Deban L, et al. PTX3 interacts with inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor: implications for hyaluronan organization and cumulus oophorus expansion. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:30161-70 pubmed

More Information


  1. Hutchinson W, Hohenester E, Pepys M. Human serum amyloid P component is a single uncomplexed pentamer in whole serum. Mol Med. 2000;6:482-93 pubmed
    b>Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a universal constituent of amyloid deposits and contributes to their pathogenesis. SAP also has important normal functions in the handling of chromatin in vivo and resistance to bacterial infection...
  2. de Haas C, Poppelier M, van Kessel K, van Strijp J. Serum amyloid P component prevents high-density lipoprotein-mediated neutralization of lipopolysaccharide. Infect Immun. 2000;68:4954-60 pubmed
    ..Recently, serum amyloid P component (SAP) was shown to neutralize LPS in vitro, although only in the presence of low concentrations of LBP...
  3. Mantovani A, Garlanda C, Bottazzi B. Pentraxin 3, a non-redundant soluble pattern recognition receptor involved in innate immunity. Vaccine. 2003;21 Suppl 2:S43-7 pubmed
    ..Evidence suggests that PTX3 plays a role in the regulation of innate resistance to pathogens, inflammatory reactions, possibly clearance of self-components and female fertility. ..
  4. Armstrong G, Mulvey G, Marcato P, Griener T, Kahan M, Tennent G, et al. Human serum amyloid P component protects against Escherichia coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin 2 in vivo: therapeutic implications for hemolytic-uremic syndrome. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1120-4 pubmed
    ..Here, we show that serum amyloid P component (SAP), a normal human plasma protein, specifically protects mice against the lethal toxicity of Stx2, ..
  5. Bottazzi B, Bastone A, Doni A, Garlanda C, Valentino S, Deban L, et al. The long pentraxin PTX3 as a link among innate immunity, inflammation, and female fertility. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;79:909-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, the prototypic long pentraxin PTX3 is a multifunctional, soluble pattern recognition receptor acting as a nonredundant component of the humoral arm of innate immunity and involved in matrix deposition and female fertility. ..
  6. Salustri A, Garlanda C, Hirsch E, De Acetis M, Maccagno A, Bottazzi B, et al. PTX3 plays a key role in the organization of the cumulus oophorus extracellular matrix and in in vivo fertilization. Development. 2004;131:1577-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, PTX3 is a structural constituent of the cumulus oophorus extracellular matrix essential for female fertility. ..
  7. Mairuhu A, Peri G, Setiati T, Hack C, Koraka P, Soemantri A, et al. Elevated plasma levels of the long pentraxin, pentraxin 3, in severe dengue virus infections. J Med Virol. 2005;76:547-52 pubmed
    ..The role of pentraxin 3 in the pathogenesis of dengue and its potential as an early prognostic indicator of disease severity needs further assessment. ..
  8. Rovere Querini P, Antonacci S, Dell Antonio G, Angeli A, Almirante G, Cin E, et al. Plasma and tissue expression of the long pentraxin 3 during normal pregnancy and preeclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2006;108:148-55 pubmed
    ..Defects in the homeostatic response to cell death/remodeling events, revealed by enhanced levels of PTX3, could be implicated in preeclampsia. II-2. ..
  9. Familian A, Zwart B, Huisman H, Rensink I, Roem D, Hordijk P, et al. Chromatin-independent binding of serum amyloid P component to apoptotic cells. J Immunol. 2001;167:647-54 pubmed
    Human serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a glycoprotein structurally belonging to the pentraxin family of proteins, which has a characteristic pentameric organization...
  10. Souza D, Soares A, Pinho V, Torloni H, Reis L, Teixeira M, et al. Increased mortality and inflammation in tumor necrosis factor-stimulated gene-14 transgenic mice after ischemia and reperfusion injury. Am J Pathol. 2002;160:1755-65 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data point to a critical role of TSG-14 in controlling acute inflammatory response in part via the modulation of TNF-alpha expression. ..
  11. Mold C, Gresham H, Du Clos T. Serum amyloid P component and C-reactive protein mediate phagocytosis through murine Fc gamma Rs. J Immunol. 2001;166:1200-5 pubmed
    The pentraxins, serum amyloid P component (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are acute-phase serum proteins in mice and humans, respectively...
  12. de Haas C, van der Tol M, van Kessel K, Verhoef J, van Strijp J. A synthetic lipopolysaccharide-binding peptide based on amino acids 27-39 of serum amyloid P component inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced responses in human blood. J Immunol. 1998;161:3607-15 pubmed
    ..N-terminal microsequencing identified this protein as serum amyloid P component (SAP). Purified SAP bound to smooth and rough types of LPS via the lipid A part...
  13. Popovici R, Krause M, Jauckus J, Germeyer A, Brum I, Garlanda C, et al. The long pentraxin PTX3 in human endometrium: regulation by steroids and trophoblast products. Endocrinology. 2008;149:1136-43 pubmed
    ..Also, of the factors secreted by trophoblast, IL-1beta induces PTX3 in human endometrial stromal cells. ..
  14. Savchenko A, Imamura M, Ohashi R, Jiang S, Kawasaki T, Hasegawa G, et al. Expression of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in human atherosclerotic lesions. J Pathol. 2008;215:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, we also clearly observed PTX3-positive neutrophils infiltrating into atherosclerotic plaques, suggesting that PTX3 derived from neutrophils as well as macrophages plays an important role in atherogenesis. ..
  15. Introna M, Alles V, Castellano M, Picardi G, De Gioia L, Bottazzai B, et al. Cloning of mouse ptx3, a new member of the pentraxin gene family expressed at extrahepatic sites. Blood. 1996;87:1862-72 pubmed
    Pentraxins, which include C reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P component (SAP), are prototypic acute phase reactants that serve as indicators of inflammatory reactions...
  16. Kolstoe S, Ridha B, Bellotti V, Wang N, Robinson C, Crutch S, et al. Molecular dissection of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology by depletion of serum amyloid P component. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:7619-23 pubmed publisher
    New therapeutic approaches in Alzheimer's disease are urgently needed. The normal plasma protein, serum amyloid P component (SAP), is always present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and in the pathognomonic lesions of Alzheimer's disease, ..
  17. Song Z, Cai L, Guo L, Tsukamoto Y, Yutani C, Li X. Accumulation and expression of serum amyloid P component in human atherosclerotic lesions. Atherosclerosis. 2010;211:90-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a member of pentraxins. Previous studies indicate that SAP exists in human atherosclerotic aortic intima and the plasma SAP levels are associated with cardiovascular disease...
  18. Murakami T, Yi S, Maeda S, Tashiro F, Yamamura K, Takahashi K, et al. Effect of serum amyloid P component level on transthyretin-derived amyloid deposition in a transgenic mouse model of familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy. Am J Pathol. 1992;141:451-6 pubmed
    ..We found that human TTR and mouse serum amyloid P component (SAP) are deposited as amyloid in tissues of these mouse lines...
  19. Inoue K, Sugiyama A, Reid P, Ito Y, Miyauchi K, Mukai S, et al. Establishment of a high sensitivity plasma assay for human pentraxin3 as a marker for unstable angina pectoris. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:161-7 pubmed
    ..The levels of plasma PTX3 were increased in patients with arterial inflammation, especially UAP. This PTX3 detection system will be useful for the prediction of UAP. ..
  20. Heegaard N, He X, Blomberg L. Binding of Ca2+, Mg2+, and heparin by human serum amyloid P component in affinity capillary electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 2006;27:2609-15 pubmed
    Human serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a glycoprotein circulating in the blood and found in association with all types of amyloid (malfolded potein aggregates) examined so far...
  21. Mantovani A, Garlanda C, Doni A, Bottazzi B. Pentraxins in innate immunity: from C-reactive protein to the long pentraxin PTX3. J Clin Immunol. 2008;28:1-13 pubmed
    ..Evidence suggests that PTX3 is a useful new serological marker, rapidly reflecting tissue inflammation and damage under diverse clinical conditions. ..
  22. Camozzi M, Rusnati M, Bugatti A, Bottazzi B, Mantovani A, Bastone A, et al. Identification of an antiangiogenic FGF2-binding site in the N terminus of the soluble pattern recognition receptor PTX3. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:22605-13 pubmed
  23. Mauri T, Coppadoro A, Bellani G, Bombino M, Patroniti N, Peri G, et al. Pentraxin 3 in acute respiratory distress syndrome: an early marker of severity. Crit Care Med. 2008;36:2302-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical and pathophysiological significance of pentraxin 3 in acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome deserves further scrutiny. ..
  24. Sprong T, Peri G, Neeleman C, Mantovani A, Signorini S, Van der Meer J, et al. Pentraxin 3 and C-reactive protein in severe meningococcal disease. Shock. 2009;31:28-32 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, PTX3 was an early indicator of shock in patients with severe meningococcal disease that followed a pattern of induction distinct from CRP. ..
  25. Deban L, Jarva H, Lehtinen M, Bottazzi B, Bastone A, Doni A, et al. Binding of the long pentraxin PTX3 to factor H: interacting domains and function in the regulation of complement activation. J Immunol. 2008;181:8433-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings identify PTX3 as a unique FH ligand in that it can bind both of the two hot-spots of FH, namely SCR7 and SCR19-20 and indicate that PTX3 participates in the localization of functionally active FH. ..
  26. Pepys M, Rademacher T, Amatayakul Chantler S, Williams P, Noble G, Hutchinson W, et al. Human serum amyloid P component is an invariant constituent of amyloid deposits and has a uniquely homogeneous glycostructure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:5602-6 pubmed
    Human serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a normal plasma protein and the precursor of amyloid P component (AP), a universal constituent of the abnormal tissue deposits in amyloidosis, including Alzheimer disease...
  27. Vouret Craviari V, Matteucci C, Peri G, Poli G, Introna M, Mantovani A. Expression of a long pentraxin, PTX3, by monocytes exposed to the mycobacterial cell wall component lipoarabinomannan. Infect Immun. 1997;65:1345-50 pubmed
    ..The significance of PTX3 in the immunobiology of mycobacterial infection and its relevance in relation to clinical involvement remain to be determined. ..
  28. Noursadeghi M, Bickerstaff M, Gallimore J, Herbert J, Cohen J, Pepys M. Role of serum amyloid P component in bacterial infection: protection of the host or protection of the pathogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:14584-9 pubmed
    b>Serum amyloid P component (SAP) binds to Streptococcus pyogenes, and we show here that it also binds to Neisseria meningitidis, including a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-negative mutant, and to rough variants of Escherichia coli...
  29. Cho K, Pham T, Crivello S, Jeong J, Green T, Greenhalgh D. Involvement of CD14 and toll-like receptor 4 in the acute phase response of serum amyloid A proteins and serum amyloid P component in the liver after burn injury. Shock. 2004;21:144-50 pubmed
    Acute phase proteins such as serum amyloid A proteins (SAAs) and serum amyloid P component (SAP) are induced in the liver after various insults (e.g., infection, injury)...
  30. Diniz S, Nomizo R, Cisalpino P, Teixeira M, Brown G, Mantovani A, et al. PTX3 function as an opsonin for the dectin-1-dependent internalization of zymosan by macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2004;75:649-56 pubmed
    ..Our results provide evidence for a role of PTX3 as an important component of the innate-immune response and as part of the host mechanisms that control fungal recognition and phagocytosis. ..
  31. Cetin I, Cozzi V, Pasqualini F, Nebuloni M, Garlanda C, Vago L, et al. Elevated maternal levels of the long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) in preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2006;194:1347-53 pubmed
    ..Elevated maternal plasma levels of pentraxin 3 in preeclamptic versus normal pregnancies could represent a marker of altered endothelial function, typical of preeclampsia. ..
  32. Malm J, Sonesson A, Hellman J, Bjartell A, Frohm B, Hillarp A. The pentraxin serum amyloid P component is found in the male genital tract and attached to spermatozoa. Int J Androl. 2008;31:508-17 pubmed
    b>Serum amyloid P component (SAP) belongs to the pentraxin family of proteins, members of which are characterized by radial pentameric structure and calcium-dependent ligand binding...
  33. MacDonald S, Kilpatrick D. Human serum amyloid P component binds to peripheral blood monocytes. Scand J Immunol. 2006;64:48-52 pubmed
    The binding of human serum amyloid P component (SAP) to blood cells and monocyte-derived dendritic cells was investigated by flow cytometry. Monocytes bound biotinylated SAP with avidity in a dose-dependent and saturable manner...
  34. Jaillon S, Peri G, Delneste Y, Fremaux I, Doni A, Moalli F, et al. The humoral pattern recognition receptor PTX3 is stored in neutrophil granules and localizes in extracellular traps. J Exp Med. 2007;204:793-804 pubmed
    ..Thus, neutrophils serve as a reservoir, ready for rapid release, of the long PTX3, a key component of humoral innate immunity with opsonic activity. ..
  35. Kaur S, Singh P. Serum amyloid P-component-mediated inhibition of the uptake of Mycobacterium tuberculosis by macrophages, in vitro. Scand J Immunol. 2004;59:425-31 pubmed
    ..tuberculosis Erdman by mouse AMs, which was also associated with their reduced intracellular growth. ..
  36. Gillmore J, Tennent G, Hutchinson W, Gallimore J, Lachmann H, Goodman H, et al. Sustained pharmacological depletion of serum amyloid P component in patients with systemic amyloidosis. Br J Haematol. 2010;148:760-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a universal constituent of amyloid deposits and contributes to their formation and/or persistence...
  37. Peri G, Introna M, Corradi D, Iacuitti G, Signorini S, Avanzini F, et al. PTX3, A prototypical long pentraxin, is an early indicator of acute myocardial infarction in humans. Circulation. 2000;102:636-41 pubmed
    ..PTX3 is present in the intact myocardium, increases in the blood of patients with AMI, and disappears from damaged myocytes. We suggest that PTX3 is an early indicator of myocyte irreversible injury in ischemic cardiomyopathy. ..
  38. Hawkins P. Serum amyloid P component scintigraphy for diagnosis and monitoring amyloidosis. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens. 2002;11:649-55 pubmed
    b>Serum amyloid P component is a normal plasma protein and a universal non-fibrillar constituent of amyloid deposits...
  39. Garlanda C, Hirsch E, Bozza S, Salustri A, De Acetis M, Nota R, et al. Non-redundant role of the long pentraxin PTX3 in anti-fungal innate immune response. Nature. 2002;420:182-6 pubmed
    ..The classical short pentraxins, C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P component (SAP), are acute-phase proteins produced in the liver in response to inflammatory mediators...
  40. Bijl M, Horst G, Bijzet J, Bootsma H, Limburg P, Kallenberg C. Serum amyloid P component binds to late apoptotic cells and mediates their uptake by monocyte-derived macrophages. Arthritis Rheum. 2003;48:248-54 pubmed
    ..We undertook this study to determine whether serum amyloid P component (SAP; a pentraxin that, when deficient in mice, results in lupus-like disease) binds to apoptotic cells ..
  41. Chan H, Gaffney P, Waterfield M, Anderle H, Peter Matthiessen H, Schwarz H, et al. Proteomic analysis of UVC irradiation-induced damage of plasma proteins: Serum amyloid P component as a major target of photolysis. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:3229-36 pubmed
    ..We identify a number of the damaged proteins by mass spectrometry, including serum amyloid P component, and further demonstrate UVC-induced photolysis of its disulphide bond.
  42. Polentarutti N, Picardi G, Basile A, Cenzuales S, Rivolta A, Matteucci C, et al. Interferon-gamma inhibits expression of the long pentraxin PTX3 in human monocytes. Eur J Immunol. 1998;28:496-501 pubmed
    ..PTX3 protein secretion by activated monocytes is also suppressed by exposure to IFN-gamma. Altogether, these data identify a negative pathway of regulation mediated by IFN-gamma, which may occur under inflammatory conditions. ..
  43. Kimura T, Tani S, Motoki M, Matsumoto Y. Role of Shiga toxin 2 (Stx2)-binding protein, human serum amyloid P component (HuSAP), in Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections: assumption from in vitro and in vivo study using HuSAP and anti-Stx2 humanized monoclonal antibody TMA-15. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;305:1057-60 pubmed vitro had been shown to be specifically present in human serum and we recently identified it as human serum amyloid P component (HuSAP). Here, we report the role of HuSAP in STEC infections...
  44. Alles V, Bottazzi B, Peri G, Golay J, Introna M, Mantovani A. Inducible expression of PTX3, a new member of the pentraxin family, in human mononuclear phagocytes. Blood. 1994;84:3483-93 pubmed
    The pentraxins C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P component (SAP) are acute-phase proteins produced by liver epithelial cells...
  45. Woo P, Korenberg J, Whitehead A. Characterization of genomic and complementary DNA sequence of human C-reactive protein, and comparison with the complementary DNA sequence of serum amyloid P component. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:13384-8 pubmed
    ..A comparison of CRP coding and amino acid sequences with those of serum amyloid P component revealed striking overall homology which was not uniform: a region of limited conservation is bounded by ..
  46. Kiernan U, Nedelkov D, Tubbs K, Niederkofler E, Nelson R. Proteomic characterization of novel serum amyloid P component variants from human plasma and urine. Proteomics. 2004;4:1825-9 pubmed
    b>Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a human plasma protein that has been widely studied for its influence on amyloid plaque formation and stabilization...
  47. Inforzato A, Peri G, Doni A, Garlanda C, Mantovani A, Bastone A, et al. Structure and function of the long pentraxin PTX3 glycosidic moiety: fine-tuning of the interaction with C1q and complement activation. Biochemistry. 2006;45:11540-51 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our results provided evidence of an involvement of the PTX3 sugar moiety in C1q recognition and complement activation. ..
  48. Thompson D, Pepys M, Tickle I, Wood S. The structures of crystalline complexes of human serum amyloid P component with its carbohydrate ligand, the cyclic pyruvate acetal of galactose. J Mol Biol. 2002;320:1081-6 pubmed
    Two monoclinic (P2(1)) crystal forms of human serum amyloid P component (SAP) in complex with the 4,6-pyruvate acetal of beta-D-galactose (MObetaDG) were prepared. Structure analysis by molecular replacement and refinement at 2...
  49. Dias A, Goodman A, Dos Santos J, Gomes R, Altmeyer A, Bozza P, et al. TSG-14 transgenic mice have improved survival to endotoxemia and to CLP-induced sepsis. J Leukoc Biol. 2001;69:928-36 pubmed
    ..a carboxy-terminal half that shares homology with the entire sequence of C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid P component (SAP), acute-phase proteins of the pentraxin family...
  50. Kotooka N, Inoue T, Fujimatsu D, Morooka T, Hashimoto S, Hikichi Y, et al. Pentraxin3 is a novel marker for stent-induced inflammation and neointimal thickening. Atherosclerosis. 2008;197:368-74 pubmed
    ..547, P=0.007). Coronary stenting enhanced circulating PTX3 levels in association with an inflammatory response. PTX3 may be a useful marker for evaluation of inflammatory reaction and neointimal thickening after vascular injury. ..
  51. Mold C, Baca R, Du Clos T. Serum amyloid P component and C-reactive protein opsonize apoptotic cells for phagocytosis through Fcgamma receptors. J Autoimmun. 2002;19:147-54 pubmed
    b>Serum amyloid P component (SAP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are opsonins that react with nuclear autoantigens targeted in systemic autoimmunity...
  52. Botto M, Hawkins P, Bickerstaff M, Herbert J, Bygrave A, McBride A, et al. Amyloid deposition is delayed in mice with targeted deletion of the serum amyloid P component gene. Nat Med. 1997;3:855-9 pubmed
    ..amyloidosis, Alzheimer's disease and the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies always contain serum amyloid P component (SAP) bound to the amyloid fibrils...
  53. Breviario F, d Aniello E, Golay J, Peri G, Bottazzi B, Bairoch A, et al. Interleukin-1-inducible genes in endothelial cells. Cloning of a new gene related to C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:22190-7 pubmed
    ..beta) has led to the identification of a novel gene (PTX3) related to pentaxins (C-reactive protein and serum amyloid P component in man), a subclass of acute phase proteins...