Summary: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.

Top Publications

  1. Pendleton J, Shamblott M, Gary D, Belegu V, Hurtado A, Malone M, et al. Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans inhibit oligodendrocyte myelination through PTP?. Exp Neurol. 2013;247:113-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are upregulated in CNS grey and white matter following injury and disease and are a major component of ..
  2. Matsuo I, Kimura Yoshida C. Extracellular modulation of Fibroblast Growth Factor signaling through heparan sulfate proteoglycans in mammalian development. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2013;23:399-407 pubmed publisher
    ..formations with their receptors are positively and negatively controlled extracellularly by heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) such as syndecans, glypicans, and perlecan...
  3. Brandan E, Gutierrez J. Role of skeletal muscle proteoglycans during myogenesis. Matrix Biol. 2013;32:289-97 pubmed publisher
    ..This sequence includes, cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. Proteoglycans (PGs), macromolecules formed by a core protein and glycosaminoglycan chains (GAGs) present a great diversity ..
  4. Waller K, Zhang L, Elsaid K, Fleming B, Warman M, Jay G. Role of lubricin and boundary lubrication in the prevention of chondrocyte apoptosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5852-7 pubmed publisher
  5. Eyre D, Weis M. Bone collagen: new clues to its mineralization mechanism from recessive osteogenesis imperfecta. Calcif Tissue Int. 2013;93:338-47 pubmed publisher
  6. Malla N, Berg E, Theocharis A, Svineng G, Uhlin Hansen L, Winberg J. In vitro reconstitution of complexes between pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 and the proteoglycans serglycin and versican. FEBS J. 2013;280:2870-87 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the presence of TIMP-1 inhibited formation of the SDS-soluble heteromer, but not the SDS-stable reduction-sensitive heteromer. This indicates that different regions in the PEX domain are involved formation of these heteromers. ..
  7. You W, Yotsumoto F, Sakimura K, Adams R, Stallcup W. NG2 proteoglycan promotes tumor vascularization via integrin-dependent effects on pericyte function. Angiogenesis. 2014;17:61-76 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that NG2 knockdown results in loss of ?1 integrin activation in endothelial cells, revealing a mechanism for NG2-dependent cross talk between pericytes and endothelial cells. ..
  8. Balta I, Balta S, Koryurek O, Demirkol S, Mikhailidis D, Celik T, et al. Serum endocan levels as a marker of disease activity in patients with Behçet disease. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2014;70:291-6 pubmed publisher
    ..8% and 80%, respectively (area under curve 0.835, 95% confidence interval 0.738-0.932). The main limitation of our study is the relatively small sample size. Circulating endocan may be a marker of BD activity. ..
  9. Halper J. Proteoglycans and diseases of soft tissues. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2014;802:49-58 pubmed publisher
    b>Proteoglycans consist of a protein core to which at least one glycosaminoglycan chain is attached...

More Information


  1. Lamas Longarela O, Schmidt T, Schöneweis K, Romeo R, Wedemeyer H, Urban S, et al. Proteoglycans act as cellular hepatitis delta virus attachment receptors. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58340 pubmed publisher
    ..HBV/HDV binding partners have been described over the last years; however, so far only heparan sulfate proteoglycans have been functionally confirmed as cell-associated HBV attachment factors...
  2. Huang S, Leung V, Long D, Chan D, Lu W, Cheung K, et al. Coupling of small leucine-rich proteoglycans to hypoxic survival of a progenitor cell-like subpopulation in Rhesus Macaque intervertebral disc. Biomaterials. 2013;34:6548-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRP), biglycan or decorin, can reduce the susceptibility of DPCs to hypoxia-induced apoptosis via promoting ..
  3. Koike T, Izumikawa T, Sato B, Kitagawa H. Identification of phosphatase that dephosphorylates xylose in the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region of proteoglycans. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:6695-708 pubmed publisher a kinase that phosphorylates the xylose (Xyl) residue in the glycosaminoglycan-protein linkage region of proteoglycans. The phosphorylation of Xyl residues by FAM20B enhances the formation of the linkage region...
  4. Amini A, Laurencin C, Nukavarapu S. Differential analysis of peripheral blood- and bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells for enhanced vascularization in bone tissue engineering. J Orthop Res. 2012;30:1507-15 pubmed publisher
    ..BM-EPCs further failed to display vasculogenic activity. Hence, the highly angiogenic PB-derived EPCs may serve as an ideal cell population for enhanced vascularization and success of engineered bone tissue. ..
  5. Tigges U, Welser Alves J, Boroujerdi A, Milner R. A novel and simple method for culturing pericytes from mouse brain. Microvasc Res. 2012;84:74-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This system should provide others working in the pericyte field with a useful additional tool to study the behavior of this fascinating cell type. ..
  6. de Lima C, de Arimatéa dos Santos Junior J, Nazário A, Michelacci Y. Changes in glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans of normal breast and fibroadenoma during the menstrual cycle. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1820:1009-19 pubmed
    ..In the present paper we described the proteoglycan (PG) composition and synthesis rate of normal breast and fibroadenoma during the menstrual cycle...
  7. Frey H, Schroeder N, Manon Jensen T, Iozzo R, Schaefer L. Biological interplay between proteoglycans and their innate immune receptors in inflammation. FEBS J. 2013;280:2165-79 pubmed publisher
    An emerging body of evidence indicates that secreted proteoglycans act as signaling molecules, in addition to their canonical function in maintaining and regulating the architecture of various extracellular matrices...
  8. Wade A, Robinson A, Engler J, Petritsch C, James C, Phillips J. Proteoglycans and their roles in brain cancer. FEBS J. 2013;280:2399-417 pubmed publisher
    ..Extracellular proteoglycans, including heparan sulfate and chondroitin sulfate, play critical roles in the regulation of cell signalling ..
  9. Kumazawa Inoue K, Mimura T, Hosokawa Tamiya S, Nakano Y, Dohmae N, Kinoshita Toyoda A, et al. ZG16p, an animal homolog of ?-prism fold plant lectins, interacts with heparan sulfate proteoglycans in pancreatic zymogen granules. Glycobiology. 2012;22:258-66 pubmed publisher
    ..ZG16p is postulated to be involved in the formation of zymogen granules by interacting with proteoglycans (PGs) localized in pancreatic exocrine granule membranes, but direct evidence was lacking...
  10. Matuszewski P, Chen Y, Szczesny S, Lake S, Elliott D, Soslowsky L, et al. Regional variation in human supraspinatus tendon proteoglycans: decorin, biglycan, and aggrecan. Connect Tissue Res. 2012;53:343-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, the functional roles of the extracellular matrix components, in particular the proteoglycans (PGs), are likely complex and important...
  11. Chen J, Wong Chong J, SundarRaj N. FGF-2- and TGF-?1-induced downregulation of lumican and keratocan in activated corneal keratocytes by JNK signaling pathway. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:8957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..respectively, resulted in marked decreases in cell surface-associated and secreted keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPGs). Both keratocan and lumican proteins and their mRNAs were downregulated in the activated keratocytes...
  12. Yoeruek E, Bayyoud T, Maurus C, Hofmann J, Spitzer M, Bartz Schmidt K, et al. Decellularization of porcine corneas and repopulation with human corneal cells for tissue-engineered xenografts. Acta Ophthalmol. 2012;90:e125-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Decellularized porcine corneas might serve as a potential scaffold for tissue engineering of the cornea, possibly providing xenogenic substrate for corneal transplantation. ..
  13. Brown S, Melrose J, Caterson B, Roughley P, Eisenstein S, Roberts S. A comparative evaluation of the small leucine-rich proteoglycans of pathological human intervertebral discs. Eur Spine J. 2012;21 Suppl 2:S154-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Proteoglycans are important to the functioning of the intervertebral disc. In addition to aggrecan there are the small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs)...
  14. Tamagawa K, Horiuchi T, Wada T, Bannai K, Ando T. Polysaccharide-K (PSK) may suppress surgical stress-induced metastasis in rat colon cancer. Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2012;397:475-80 pubmed publisher
    ..05). PSK may suppress metastasis induced by hepatic I/R. The suppression of angiogenesis by PSK may be one of the mechanisms of the inhibition of hepatic metastasis. ..
  15. Halonen K, Mononen M, Jurvelin J, Toyras J, Korhonen R. Importance of depth-wise distribution of collagen and proteoglycans in articular cartilage--a 3D finite element study of stresses and strains in human knee joint. J Biomech. 2013;46:1184-92 pubmed publisher
    b>Proteoglycans and collagen fibrils are distributed inhomogeneously throughout the depth of articular cartilage, providing the tissue with its unique depth-dependent properties and directly influencing local tissue deformations and ..
  16. Ewald A, Huebner R, Palsdottir H, Lee J, Perez M, Jorgens D, et al. Mammary collective cell migration involves transient loss of epithelial features and individual cell migration within the epithelium. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:2638-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that reductions in polarity and adhesion during breast cancer progression might reflect partial recapitulation of a normal developmental program. ..
  17. Coletta C, Papapetropoulos A, Erdélyi K, Olah G, Módis K, Panopoulos P, et al. Hydrogen sulfide and nitric oxide are mutually dependent in the regulation of angiogenesis and endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:9161-6 pubmed publisher
    ..H(2)S-induced wound healing and microvessel growth in matrigel plugs is suppressed by pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of eNOS. Thus, NO and H(2)S are mutually required for the physiological control of vascular function. ..
  18. Todorović Raković N, Milovanovic J, Nikolic Vukosavljevic D. TGF-? and its coreceptors in cancerogenesis: an overview. Biomark Med. 2011;5:855-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This is especially important in the context of cancerogenesis, because of therapeutic possibilities to manipulate the TGF-? system. ..
  19. Zhang Y, Mao X, Schwend T, Littlechild S, Conrad G. Resistance of corneal RFUVA–cross-linked collagens and small leucine-rich proteoglycans to degradation by matrix metalloproteinases. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2013;54:1014-25 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the extent to which MMPs digest cross-linked collagen and small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) remains unknown...
  20. Takagi M, Ishii T, Barnes A, Weis M, Amano N, Tanaka M, et al. A novel mutation in LEPRE1 that eliminates only the KDEL ER- retrieval sequence causes non-lethal osteogenesis imperfecta. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36809 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows, for the first time, that the KDEL ER- retrieval sequence is essential for P3H1 functionality and that a defect in KDEL is sufficient for disease onset...
  21. Silvestroff L, Franco P, Pasquini J. ApoTransferrin: dual role on adult subventricular zone-derived neurospheres. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33937 pubmed publisher
    ..This evidence supports a key role of Tf on the generation of OL from NSC/NPCs and highlights its potential in demyelinating disorder treatment. ..
  22. Rönnberg E, Pejler G. Serglycin: the master of the mast cell. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;836:201-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, serglycin has a major function in maintaining mast cell secretory granule homeostasis. ..
  23. Nam E, Park P. Shedding of cell membrane-bound proteoglycans. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;836:291-305 pubmed publisher
    Membrane-bound proteoglycans function primarily as coreceptors for many glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-binding ligands at the cell surface...
  24. Garusi E, Rossi S, Perris R. Antithetic roles of proteoglycans in cancer. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69:553-79 pubmed publisher
    b>Proteoglycans (PGs), a family of complex post-translationally sculptured macromolecules, are fundamental regulators of most normal and aberrant cellular functions...
  25. Sashinami H, Asano K, Yoshimura S, Mori F, Wakabayashi K, Nakane A. Salmon proteoglycan suppresses progression of mouse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via regulation of Th17 and Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. Life Sci. 2012;91:1263-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Proteoglycans (PGs) are complex glycohydrates, which are composed of core proteins and glycosaminoglycans and widely distributed in connective tissues...
  26. Ludwig T, McAllister J, Lun V, Wiley J, Schmidt T. Diminished cartilage-lubricating ability of human osteoarthritic synovial fluid deficient in proteoglycan 4: Restoration through proteoglycan 4 supplementation. Arthritis Rheum. 2012;64:3963-71 pubmed publisher
  27. Nikitovic D, Aggelidakis J, Young M, Iozzo R, Karamanos N, Tzanakakis G. The biology of small leucine-rich proteoglycans in bone pathophysiology. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:33926-33 pubmed publisher
    The class of small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) is a family of homologous proteoglycans harboring relatively small (36-42 kDa) protein cores compared with the larger cartilage and mesenchymal proteoglycans...
  28. Kucharova K, Chang Y, Böör A, Yong V, Stallcup W. Reduced inflammation accompanies diminished myelin damage and repair in the NG2 null mouse spinal cord. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:158 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies identify NG2 as an important factor in regulating myelin processing, suggesting that therapeutic targeting of the proteoglycan might offer a means of manipulating cell behavior in demyelinating diseases. ..
  29. De Muro P, Faedda R, Masala A, Lepedda A, Zinellu E, Ciccarese M, et al. Kidney post-transplant monitoring of urinary glycosaminoglycans/proteoglycans and monokine induced by IFN-? (MIG). Clin Exp Med. 2013;13:59-65 pubmed publisher
  30. Pudlas M, Brauchle E, Klein T, Hutmacher D, Schenke Layland K. Non-invasive identification of proteoglycans and chondrocyte differentiation state by Raman microspectroscopy. J Biophotonics. 2013;6:205-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Proteoglycans (PGs) are crucial extracellular matrix (ECM) components that are present in all tissues and organs. Pathological remodeling of these macromolecules can lead to severe diseases such as osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis...
  31. Cabral W, Barnes A, Adeyemo A, Cushing K, Chitayat D, Porter F, et al. A founder mutation in LEPRE1 carried by 1.5% of West Africans and 0.4% of African Americans causes lethal recessive osteogenesis imperfecta. Genet Med. 2012;14:543-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Nearly 1.5% of Ghanians and Nigerians are carriers. The estimated age of this allele is consistent with introduction to North America via the Atlantic slave trade (1501-1867 CE). ..
  32. Chang Y, She Z, Sakimura K, Roberts A, Kucharova K, Rowitch D, et al. Ablation of NG2 proteoglycan leads to deficits in brown fat function and to adult onset obesity. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30637 pubmed publisher
    ..As a consequence, obesity in NG2 null mice may occur due to disruptions in brown fat-dependent energy homeostasis, with resulting effects on lipid storage in white adipocytes. ..
  33. Moreth K, Iozzo R, Schaefer L. Small leucine-rich proteoglycans orchestrate receptor crosstalk during inflammation. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:2084-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) can act as powerful DAMPs following their proteolytical release from the extracellular matrix...
  34. Nikitovic D, Chatzinikolaou G, Tsiaoussis J, Tsatsakis A, Karamanos N, Tzanakakis G. Insights into targeting colon cancer cell fate at the level of proteoglycans / glycosaminoglycans. Curr Med Chem. 2012;19:4247-58 pubmed
    b>Proteoglycans (PGs), glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and hyaluronan as a free GAG, have unique structural characteristics which enable them via specific interactions with matrix proteins and cell surface receptors to regulate key tumor cell ..
  35. Clarke L, Young K, Hamilton N, Li H, Richardson W, Attwell D. Properties and fate of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells in the corpus callosum, motor cortex, and piriform cortex of the mouse. J Neurosci. 2012;32:8173-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These OPCs generated OLs but did not generate neurons in the aPC or elsewhere at any time that we examined. ..
  36. Couchman J, Pataki C. An introduction to proteoglycans and their localization. J Histochem Cytochem. 2012;60:885-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Proteoglycans comprise a core protein to which one or more glycosaminoglycan chains are covalently attached...
  37. Le Goff M, Lu H, Ugarte M, Henry S, Takanosu M, Mayne R, et al. The vitreous glycoprotein opticin inhibits preretinal neovascularization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2012;53:228-34 pubmed publisher
    ..A lack of opticin does not influence vascular development, but opticin is antiangiogenic and inhibits preretinal neovascularization. ..
  38. Edwards I. Proteoglycans in prostate cancer. Nat Rev Urol. 2012;9:196-206 pubmed publisher
    ..their core proteins and glycosaminoglycans with extracellular matrix proteins, growth factors and chemokines, proteoglycans affect cell signaling, motility, adhesion, growth and apoptosis...
  39. Chen S, Birk D. The regulatory roles of small leucine-rich proteoglycans in extracellular matrix assembly. FEBS J. 2013;280:2120-37 pubmed publisher
    Small leucine-rich proteoglycans (SLRPs) are involved in a variety of biological and pathological processes. This review focuses on their regulatory roles in matrix assembly...
  40. Gibby K, You W, Kadoya K, Helgadottir H, Young L, Ellies L, et al. Early vascular deficits are correlated with delayed mammary tumorigenesis in the MMTV-PyMT transgenic mouse following genetic ablation of the NG2 proteoglycan. Breast Cancer Res. 2012;14:R67 pubmed
    ..In the absence of normal pericyte/endothelial cell interaction, poor vascular function results in diminished early progression of mammary tumors. ..
  41. Kolset S, Pejler G. Serglycin: a structural and functional chameleon with wide impact on immune cells. J Immunol. 2011;187:4927-33 pubmed publisher
    Among the different proteoglycans expressed by mammals, serglycin is in most immune cells the dominating species...
  42. Le Jan S, Hayashi M, Kasza Z, Eriksson I, Bishop J, Weibrecht I, et al. Functional overlap between chondroitin and heparan sulfate proteoglycans during VEGF-induced sprouting angiogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2012;32:1255-63 pubmed publisher
    Heparan sulfate proteoglycans regulate key steps of blood vessel formation...
  43. Wang C, Teng B, He Y, Wu J, Pan D, Pan L, et al. Effect of a novel proteoglycan PTP1B inhibitor from Ganoderma lucidum on the amelioration of hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia in db/db mice. Br J Nutr. 2012;108:2014-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, FYGL is promising as an insulin sensitiser for the therapy of type 2 diabetes and accompanied dyslipidaemia...
  44. Roudnicky F, Poyet C, Wild P, Krampitz S, Negrini F, Huggenberger R, et al. Endocan is upregulated on tumor vessels in invasive bladder cancer where it mediates VEGF-A-induced angiogenesis. Cancer Res. 2013;73:1097-106 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, they suggest that endocan might serve as a useful biomarker to monitor disease progression and the efficacy of VEGF-A-targeting therapies in patients with bladder cancer. ..
  45. Cattaruzza S, Ozerdem U, Denzel M, Ranscht B, Bulian P, Cavallaro U, et al. Multivalent proteoglycan modulation of FGF mitogenic responses in perivascular cells. Angiogenesis. 2013;16:309-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Comprehensively, the findings suggest that perivascular NG2 may serve as a dual modulator of the availability/accessibility of FGF at the cell membrane, as well as the resulting FGFR transducing activity. ..
  46. Rönnberg E, Melo F, Pejler G. Mast cell proteoglycans. J Histochem Cytochem. 2012;60:950-62 pubmed publisher
    ..filled with numerous secretory compounds, including highly negatively charged heparin or chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans of serglycin type...
  47. Amand H, Rydberg H, Fornander L, Lincoln P, Norden B, Esbjörner E. Cell surface binding and uptake of arginine- and lysine-rich penetratin peptides in absence and presence of proteoglycans. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1818:2669-78 pubmed publisher
    Cell surface proteoglycans (PGs) appear to promote uptake of arginine-rich cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), but their exact functions are unclear...
  48. Bouhenni R, Hart M, Al Jastaneiah S, Alkatan H, Edward D. Immunohistochemical expression and distribution of proteoglycans and collagens in sclerocornea. Int Ophthalmol. 2013;33:691-700 pubmed publisher
    ..This change could potentially contribute to the abnormal fibril assembly in sclerocornea. ..
  49. Yu X, Machesky L. Cells assemble invadopodia-like structures and invade into matrigel in a matrix metalloprotease dependent manner in the circular invasion assay. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30605 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this is a useful assay for routine and medium throughput analysis of invasion of cancer cells in vitro and the study of cells migrating in a 3D environment. ..
  50. Melrose J, Isaacs M, Smith S, Hughes C, Little C, Caterson B, et al. Chondroitin sulphate and heparan sulphate sulphation motifs and their proteoglycans are involved in articular cartilage formation during human foetal knee joint development. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;138:461-75 pubmed publisher
    Novel sulphation motifs within the glycosaminoglycan chain structure of chondroitin sulphate (CS) containing proteoglycans (PGs) are associated with sites of growth, differentiation and repair in many biological systems and there is ..
  51. Zhu X, Zuo H, Maher B, Serwanski D, LoTurco J, Lu Q, et al. Olig2-dependent developmental fate switch of NG2 cells. Development. 2012;139:2299-307 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations indicate that the developmental fate of NG2 cells can be switched by altering a single transcription factor Olig2. ..
  52. Carrino D, Mesiano S, Barker N, Hurd W, Caplan A. Proteoglycans of uterine fibroids and keloid scars: similarity in their proteoglycan composition. Biochem J. 2012;443:361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and because their growth is due primarily to excessive extracellular matrix deposition, we compared the proteoglycans of uterine fibroids and keloid scars with corresponding normal tissues...
  53. Kiga N, Tojyo I, Matsumoto T, Hiraishi Y, Shinohara Y, Makino S, et al. Expression of lumican and fibromodulin following interleukin-1 beta stimulation of disc cells of the human temporomandibular joint. Eur J Histochem. 2011;55:e11 pubmed publisher
    Small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycans (SLRP) are present in the extracellular matrix of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc...