Summary: Conjugated proteins in which mucopolysaccharides are combined with proteins. The mucopolysaccharide moiety is the predominant group with the protein making up only a small percentage of the total weight.

Top Publications

  1. Shibaya T, Sugawara Y. Induction of multinucleation by beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent in regenerated cells from Marchantia polymorpha protoplasts and involvement of arabinogalactan proteins in cell plate formation. Planta. 2009;230:581-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicated that AGPs might have an important role in cell plate formation, and perturbation of AGPs with betaglcY might result in remarkable multinucleation in protoplast-regenerated cells of M. polymorpha...
  2. Qin Y, Chen D, Zhao J. Localization of arabinogalactan proteins in anther, pollen, and pollen tube of Nicotiana tabacum L. Protoplasma. 2007;231:43-53 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that AGPs participate in male gametogenesis and pollen tube growth and may be important surface molecules in generative and sperm cells. ..
  3. Liu C, Mehdy M. A nonclassical arabinogalactan protein gene highly expressed in vascular tissues, AGP31, is transcriptionally repressed by methyl jasmonic acid in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2007;145:863-74 pubmed
    ..The strong preferential expression in vascular tissues suggests that AGP31 may be involved in vascular tissue function during both the defense response and development. ..
  4. Qu Y, Egelund J, Gilson P, Houghton F, Gleeson P, Schultz C, et al. Identification of a novel group of putative Arabidopsis thaliana beta-(1,3)-galactosyltransferases. Plant Mol Biol. 2008;68:43-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Plant Cell 19:2278-2292, 2007) that another member of this family (At1g26810; GALT1) encodes a beta-(1,3)-GalT involved in the biosynthesis of the Lewis a epitope of N-glycans in Arabidopsis thaliana. ..
  5. Vaughn K, Talbot M, Offler C, McCurdy D. Wall ingrowths in epidermal transfer cells of Vicia faba cotyledons are modified primary walls marked by localized accumulations of arabinogalactan proteins. Plant Cell Physiol. 2007;48:159-68 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that wall ingrowths of transfer cells are primary wall-like in composition and probably require AGPs for localized deposition. ..
  6. Albert M, Belastegui Macadam X, Kaldenhoff R. An attack of the plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa induces the expression of attAGP, an attachment protein of the host tomato. Plant J. 2006;48:548-56 pubmed publisher
    ..reflexa attachment capability was significantly reduced, too. We conclude that C. reflexa infection induced a signal in the host leading to expression of tomato attAGP, which promotes the parasite's adherence...
  7. O Flaherty S, Ross R, Coffey A. Bacteriophage and their lysins for elimination of infectious bacteria. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2009;33:801-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Such developments have prompted this review into the status of phage research as it pertains to the control of infectious bacteria. ..
  8. Tang X, He Y, Wang Y, Sun M. The role of arabinogalactan proteins binding to Yariv reagents in the initiation, cell developmental fate, and maintenance of microspore embryogenesis in Brassica napus L. cv. Topas. J Exp Bot. 2006;57:2639-50 pubmed
    ..In addition, these proteins may also be involved in the regulation of root generation. ..
  9. Thai P, Chen Y, Dolganov G, Wu R. Differential regulation of MUC5AC/Muc5ac and hCLCA-1/mGob-5 expression in airway epithelium. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2005;33:523-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, these results suggest that the two biomakers of the metaplastic airway mucous cell type are differentially regulated by JAK/STAT6-dependent and -independent pathways. ..

More Information


  1. Dardelle F, Lehner A, Ramdani Y, Bardor M, Lerouge P, Driouich A, et al. Biochemical and immunocytological characterizations of Arabidopsis pollen tube cell wall. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:1563-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These structural features are discussed in terms of pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and growth dynamics. ..
  2. Lee K, Sakata Y, Mau S, Pettolino F, Bacic A, Quatrano R, et al. Arabinogalactan proteins are required for apical cell extension in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Plant Cell. 2005;17:3051-65 pubmed
    ..patens AGP1, encoding a classical AGP core protein, resulted in reduced cell lengths in protonemal filaments, indicating a role for AGP1 in apical cell expansion in P. patens. ..
  3. Pereira L, Coimbra S, Oliveira H, Monteiro L, Sottomayor M. Expression of arabinogalactan protein genes in pollen tubes of Arabidopsis thaliana. Planta. 2006;223:374-80 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the first report establishing the presence of AGPs on Arabidopsis pollen tubes. ..
  4. Acosta García G, Vielle Calzada J. A classical arabinogalactan protein is essential for the initiation of female gametogenesis in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2004;16:2614-28 pubmed
    ..Our results assign a specific function in plant development to a gene encoding a classical AGP. ..
  5. Hu Y, Qin Y, Zhao J. Localization of an arabinogalactan protein epitope and the effects of Yariv phenylglycoside during zygotic embryo development of Arabidopsis thaliana. Protoplasma. 2006;229:21-31 pubmed
    ..The possible roles of AGPs in A. thaliana zygotic embryo development are also discussed. ..
  6. Pastagia M, Euler C, Chahales P, Fuentes Duculan J, Krueger J, Fischetti V. A novel chimeric lysin shows superiority to mupirocin for skin decolonization of methicillin-resistant and -sensitive Staphylococcus aureus strains. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2011;55:738-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed no inhibition of ClyS activity at various antibody titers. These data demonstrate the potential of developing ClyS as a novel class of topical antimicrobial agents specific to staphylococcus. ..
  7. Sun W, Xu J, Yang J, Kieliszewski M, Showalter A. The lysine-rich arabinogalactan-protein subfamily in Arabidopsis: gene expression, glycoprotein purification and biochemical characterization. Plant Cell Physiol. 2005;46:975-84 pubmed
  8. Seifert G, Roberts K. The biology of arabinogalactan proteins. Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2007;58:137-61 pubmed
  9. Yang J, Sardar H, McGovern K, Zhang Y, Showalter A. A lysine-rich arabinogalactan protein in Arabidopsis is essential for plant growth and development, including cell division and expansion. Plant J. 2007;49:629-40 pubmed
  10. Fu H, Yadav M, Nothnagel E. Physcomitrella patens arabinogalactan proteins contain abundant terminal 3-O-methyl-L: -rhamnosyl residues not found in angiosperms. Planta. 2007;226:1511-24 pubmed
  11. Levitin B, Richter D, Markovich I, Zik M. Arabinogalactan proteins 6 and 11 are required for stamen and pollen function in Arabidopsis. Plant J. 2008;56:351-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also suggest that AGP6 and AGP11 play an additional role in the release of pollen grains from the mature anther. Thus, our study demonstrates the involvement of specific AGPs in pollen tube growth and stamen function. ..
  12. Lee C, Swatek K, McClure B. Pollen proteins bind to the C-terminal domain of Nicotiana alata pistil arabinogalactan proteins. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26965-73 pubmed publisher
    ..NaPCCP binds through its C-terminal region. Binding between NaPCCP and NaSBP1 and the pistil AGPs may contribute to signaling and trafficking inside pollen tubes growing in planta...
  13. Clark N, Findlay G, Yi X, MacCoss M, Swanson W. Duplication and selection on abalone sperm lysin in an allopatric population. Mol Biol Evol. 2007;24:2081-90 pubmed
    ..The presence of multiple, rapidly evolving lysin genes in H. tuberculata presents an opportunity to study the early stages of diversification of a protein whose function is well understood. ..
  14. Zhong J, Ren Y, Yu M, Ma T, Zhang X, Zhao J. Roles of arabinogalactan proteins in cotyledon formation and cell wall deposition during embryo development of Arabidopsis. Protoplasma. 2011;248:551-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that AGPs may play roles in embryo germination, cotyledon formation, cell wall cellulose and pectin deposition, and cell division potentiality during embryo development of Arabidopsis...
  15. Ellis M, Egelund J, Schultz C, Bacic A. Arabinogalactan-proteins: key regulators at the cell surface?. Plant Physiol. 2010;153:403-19 pubmed publisher
  16. Lamport D, Kieliszewski M, Showalter A. Salt stress upregulates periplasmic arabinogalactan proteins: using salt stress to analyse AGP function. New Phytol. 2006;169:479-92 pubmed
    ..We hypothesize that classical AGPs act as pectin plasticizers. This explains how beta-D-glycosyl Yariv reagents might inhibit expansion growth by crosslinking monomeric AGPs, and thus mimic an AGP loss-of-function mutation. ..
  17. Ma H, Zhao J. Genome-wide identification, classification, and expression analysis of the arabinogalactan protein gene family in rice (Oryza sativa L.). J Exp Bot. 2010;61:2647-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the genome-wide identification and expression analysis of the rice AGP gene family might facilitate further functional studies of rice AGPs. ..
  18. Mashiguchi K, Yamaguchi I, Suzuki Y. Isolation and identification of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored arabinogalactan proteins and novel beta-glucosyl Yariv-reactive proteins from seeds of rice (Oryza sativa). Plant Cell Physiol. 2004;45:1817-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the possibility that proteins with the AG glycomodule might react with beta-GlcY may broaden the definition of AGPs...
  19. Yang H, Wu C, Zhao S, Guo J. Identification and characterization of D8C, a novel domain present in liver-specific LZP, uromodulin and glycoprotein 2, mutated in familial juvenile hyperuricaemic nephropathy. FEBS Lett. 2004;578:236-8 pubmed
    ..Identification of D8C would further the understandings of related proteins. ..
  20. Sun W, Kieliszewski M, Showalter A. Overexpression of tomato LeAGP-1 arabinogalactan-protein promotes lateral branching and hampers reproductive development. Plant J. 2004;40:870-81 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, GPI-anchored LeAGP-1 most likely functions in plant growth and development in concert with auxin/cytokinin signaling. ..
  21. Macmillan C, Mansfield S, Stachurski Z, Evans R, Southerton S. Fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins: specialization for stem biomechanics and cell wall architecture in Arabidopsis and Eucalyptus. Plant J. 2010;62:689-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that a subset of single FAS domain FLAs contributes to plant stem strength by affecting cellulose deposition, and to the stem modulus of elasticity by affecting the integrity of the cell-wall matrix. ..
  22. Aagaard J, Vacquier V, MacCoss M, Swanson W. ZP domain proteins in the abalone egg coat include a paralog of VERL under positive selection that binds lysin and 18-kDa sperm proteins. Mol Biol Evol. 2010;27:193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..This work identifies an egg coat paralog of VERL under positive selection and the candidate sperm proteins with which it may interact during abalone fertilization...
  23. Faik A, Abouzouhair J, Sarhan F. Putative fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-proteins (FLA) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa): identification and bioinformatic analyses. Mol Genet Genomics. 2006;276:478-94 pubmed
    ..The identification of wheat FLAs will facilitate studying their function in plant growth and development and their role in stress response. ..
  24. Clark N, Gasper J, Sekino M, Springer S, Aquadro C, Swanson W. Coevolution of interacting fertilization proteins. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000570 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, abalone fertilization proteins illustrate how coevolution can lead to reproductive barriers and potentially drive speciation. ..
  25. Pan X, Yang X, Lin G, Zou R, Chen H, Samaj J, et al. Ultrastructural changes and the distribution of arabinogalactan proteins during somatic embryogenesis of banana (Musa spp. AAA cv. 'Yueyoukang 1'). Physiol Plant. 2011;142:372-89 pubmed publisher
    ..These results about developmental regulation of AGP epitopes along with developmental changes in the ultrastructure of cells are providing new insights into the somatic embryogenesis of banana...
  26. Sardar H, Yang J, Showalter A. Molecular interactions of arabinogalactan proteins with cortical microtubules and F-actin in Bright Yellow-2 tobacco cultured cells. Plant Physiol. 2006;142:1469-79 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these studies indicate that glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored AGPs function to link the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton. ..
  27. Bachmann S, Mutig K, Bates J, Welker P, Geist B, Gross V, et al. Renal effects of Tamm-Horsfall protein (uromodulin) deficiency in mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2005;288:F559-67 pubmed
    ..Our data raise the hypothesis that THP plays an important regulatory role in the kidney. ..
  28. Qin Y, Zhao J. Localization of arabinogalactan proteins in egg cells, zygotes, and two-celled proembryos and effects of beta-D-glucosyl Yariv reagent on egg cell fertilization and zygote division in Nicotiana tabacum L. J Exp Bot. 2006;57:2061-74 pubmed
    ..The possible roles of AGPs in fertilization, zygotic division, and proembryo development are discussed. ..
  29. Bichler K, Mittermüller B, Strohmaier W, Feil G, Eipper E. Excretion of tamm-horsfall protein in patients with uric acid stones. Urol Int. 1999;62:87-92 pubmed
    ..Moreover, it has to be supposed that there are defects both in the distal and the proximal tubule in patients prone to develop uric acid calculi. ..
  30. Galindo B, Vacquier V, Swanson W. Positive selection in the egg receptor for abalone sperm lysin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:4639-43 pubmed
    ..The result of this continuous coevolution of the gamete recognition system could be the splitting of one population into two that are reproductively isolated (speciation). ..
  31. Gaspar Y, Nam J, Schultz C, Lee L, Gilson P, Gelvin S, et al. Characterization of the Arabidopsis lysine-rich arabinogalactan-protein AtAGP17 mutant (rat1) that results in a decreased efficiency of agrobacterium transformation. Plant Physiol. 2004;135:2162-71 pubmed
  32. Yang Z, Swanson W, Vacquier V. Maximum-likelihood analysis of molecular adaptation in abalone sperm lysin reveals variable selective pressures among lineages and sites. Mol Biol Evol. 2000;17:1446-55 pubmed
    ..Sites under potential diversifying selection were identified. Ancestral lysins were inferred to trace the route of evolution at individual sites and to provide lysin sequences for future laboratory studies. ..
  33. Serafini Cessi F, Malagolini N, Cavallone D. Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein: biology and clinical relevance. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42:658-76 pubmed
    ..This property supports the notion that abundant THP excretion in urine is promoted in the host by selective pressure to obtain an efficient defense against urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic bacteria. ..
  34. Bleyer A, Trachtman H, Sandhu J, Gorry M, Hart T. Renal manifestations of a mutation in the uromodulin (Tamm Horsfall protein) gene. Am J Kidney Dis. 2003;42:E20-6 pubmed
    ..Potential mechanisms for these pathologic changes are discussed. The authors would appreciate referral of other families for screening for mutations. ..
  35. Turner J, Stacey J, Harding B, Kotanko P, Lhotta K, Puig J, et al. UROMODULIN mutations cause familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88:1398-401 pubmed
    ..The results of our studies, which have identified the gene causing FJHN, now indicate a further, novel role for UROMODULIN in urate metabolism. ..
  36. Kanwar J, Kanwar R, Wang D, Krissansen G. Prevention of a chronic progressive form of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by an antibody against mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1, given early in the course of disease progression. Immunol Cell Biol. 2000;78:641-5 pubmed
    ..Critically, antivascular addressin therapy must be given early in the course of disease prior to the establishment of irreversible damage if it is to be effective, as a single treatment modality. ..
  37. Jovine L, Qi H, Williams Z, Litscher E, Wassarman P. The ZP domain is a conserved module for polymerization of extracellular proteins. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:457-61 pubmed
    ..Finally, we suggest a molecular basis for dominant human hearing disorders caused by point mutations within the ZP domain of alpha-tectorin. ..
  38. Zhu X, Cheng J, Gao J, Lepor H, Zhang Z, Pak J, et al. Isolation of mouse THP gene promoter and demonstration of its kidney-specific activity in transgenic mice. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2002;282:F608-17 pubmed
  39. Gaspar Y, Johnson K, McKenna J, Bacic A, Schultz C. The complex structures of arabinogalactan-proteins and the journey towards understanding function. Plant Mol Biol. 2001;47:161-76 pubmed
    ..Here we examine models for proteoglycan function in animals and yeast to highlight possible strategies for determining the function(s) of individual AGPs in plants. ..
  40. Gokhale J, Glenton P, Khan S. Characterization of Tamm-Horsfall protein in a rat nephrolithiasis model. J Urol. 2001;166:1492-7 pubmed
    ..Although staining for Tamm-Horsfall protein was evident in the papillae of rats with nephrolithiasis, the site of Tamm-Horsfall protein synthesis remained cells of the thick ascending limbs of the loop of Henle. ..
  41. Schultz C, Ferguson K, Lahnstein J, Bacic A. Post-translational modifications of arabinogalactan-peptides of Arabidopsis thaliana. Endoplasmic reticulum and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor signal cleavage sites and hydroxylation of proline. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:45503-11 pubmed
  42. Motose H, Sugiyama M, Fukuda H. A proteoglycan mediates inductive interaction during plant vascular development. Nature. 2004;429:873-8 pubmed
  43. Pabst O, Forster R, Lipp M, Engel H, Arnold H. NKX2.3 is required for MAdCAM-1 expression and homing of lymphocytes in spleen and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue. EMBO J. 2000;19:2015-23 pubmed
    ..Therefore, expression of MAdCAM-1 seems to be required for building functional structures in spleen and MALT, a prerequisite for unimpaired migration and segregation of B and T cells to and within these organs. ..
  44. Kresge N, Vacquier V, Stout C. Abalone lysin: the dissolving and evolving sperm protein. Bioessays. 2001;23:95-103 pubmed
    ..This experimental system yields data relevant to the general problem of molecular recognition between cell surfaces, and is also important to our thinking about how new species arise in the sea. BioEssays 23:95-103, 2001. ..
  45. Motose H, Sugiyama M, Fukuda H. An arabinogalactan protein(s) is a key component of a fraction that mediates local intercellular communication involved in tracheary element differentiation of zinnia mesophyll cells. Plant Cell Physiol. 2001;42:129-37 pubmed
    ..Xylogen was bound to galactose-specific lectins such as Ricinus communis agglutinin and peanut agglutinin, and precipitated by beta-glucosyl Yariv reagent. These results indicate that xylogen is a kind of arabinogalactan protein. ..
  46. Oshima T, Jordan P, Grisham M, Alexander J, Jennings M, Sasaki M, et al. TNF-alpha induced endothelial MAdCAM-1 expression is regulated by exogenous, not endogenous nitric oxide. BMC Gastroenterol. 2001;1:5 pubmed
    ..Exogenous NO donors may be beneficial in the treatment of IBD, while endogenous nitric oxide synthases may be less effective in controlling adhesion molecule expression in response to cytokines. ..
  47. Oshima T, Pavlick K, Laroux F, Verma S, Jordan P, Grisham M, et al. Regulation and distribution of MAdCAM-1 in endothelial cells in vitro. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001;281:C1096-105 pubmed
    ..MAdCAM-1 expression requires NF-kappa B translocation through both direct p42/44 and indirect p38 MAPK pathways in high endothelial cells. ..
  48. Shigematsu T, Specian R, Wolf R, Grisham M, Granger D. MAdCAM mediates lymphocyte-endothelial cell adhesion in a murine model of chronic colitis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2001;281:G1309-15 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that MAdCAM-1 is largely responsible for recruiting T lymphocytes into inflamed colonic tissue...
  49. de Graaf B, Knuiman B, Derksen J, Mariani C. Characterization and localization of the transmitting tissue-specific PELPIII proteins of Nicotiana tabacum. J Exp Bot. 2003;54:55-63 pubmed
  50. Hart T, Gorry M, Hart P, Woodard A, Shihabi Z, Sandhu J, et al. Mutations of the UMOD gene are responsible for medullary cystic kidney disease 2 and familial juvenile hyperuricaemic nephropathy. J Med Genet. 2002;39:882-92 pubmed
    ..We postulate that mutation of UMOD disrupts the tertiary structure of UMOD and is responsible for the clinical changes of interstitial renal disease, polyuria, and hyperuricaemia found in MCKD2 and FJHN. ..
  51. Wolf M, Mucha B, Attanasio M, Zalewski I, Karle S, Neumann H, et al. Mutations of the Uromodulin gene in MCKD type 2 patients cluster in exon 4, which encodes three EGF-like domains. Kidney Int. 2003;64:1580-7 pubmed
    ..These data point to a specific role of exon 4 encoded sequence of UMOD in the generation of the MCKD2 renal phenotype. ..
  52. Rampoldi L, Caridi G, Santon D, Boaretto F, Bernascone I, Lamorte G, et al. Allelism of MCKD, FJHN and GCKD caused by impairment of uromodulin export dynamics. Hum Mol Genet. 2003;12:3369-84 pubmed
    ..Consistently, patient urines show a severe reduction of excreted uromodulin. The maturation impairment is consistent with the clinical findings and suggests a pathogenetic mechanism leading to these kidney diseases. ..
  53. Bates J, Raffi H, Prasadan K, Mascarenhas R, Laszik Z, Maeda N, et al. Tamm-Horsfall protein knockout mice are more prone to urinary tract infection: rapid communication. Kidney Int. 2004;65:791-7 pubmed
    ..These findings support the idea that THP serves as a soluble receptor for type 1 fimbriated E. coli and helps eliminate bacteria from the urinary tract. ..