lactoferrin

Summary

Summary: An iron-binding protein that was originally characterized as a milk protein. It is widely distributed in secretory fluids and is found in the neutrophilic granules of LEUKOCYTES. The N-terminal part of lactoferrin possesses a serine protease which functions to inactivate the TYPE III SECRETION SYSTEM used by bacteria to export virulence proteins for host cell invasion.

Top Publications

  1. García Montoya I, Cendón T, Arévalo Gallegos S, Rascón Cruz Q. Lactoferrin a multiple bioactive protein: an overview. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1820:226-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf) is an 80kDa iron-binding glycoprotein of the transferrin family. It is abundant in milk and in most biological fluids and is a cell-secreted molecule that bridges innate and adaptive immune function in mammals...
  2. Abraham B, Kane S. Fecal markers: calprotectin and lactoferrin. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2012;41:483-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin can still differentiate inflammatory disease from functional bowel disorders...
  3. Lambert L. Molecular evolution of the transferrin family and associated receptors. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1820:244-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Some family members such as lactoferrin and melanotransferrin can also bind iron while others have lost this ability and have gained other functions, e...
  4. Goldman I, Georgieva S, Gurskiy Y, Krasnov A, Deykin A, Popov A, et al. Production of human lactoferrin in animal milk. Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;90:513-9 pubmed publisher
    Genetic constructs containing the human lactoferrin (hLf) gene were created within a joint program of Russian and Belorussian scientists...
  5. Flores Villaseñor H, Canizalez Roman A, Velazquez Roman J, Nazmi K, Bolscher J, Leon Sicairos N. Protective effects of lactoferrin chimera and bovine lactoferrin in a mouse model of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection. Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;90:405-11 pubmed publisher
    ..infected with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 were used to evaluate the activity of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) and the synthetic peptide LFchimera...
  6. Langhorst J, Boone J. Fecal lactoferrin as a noninvasive biomarker in inflammatory bowel diseases. Drugs Today (Barc). 2012;48:149-61 pubmed publisher
    ..e., Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, still present a number of challenges. The fecal biomarker lactoferrin has been shown to be useful in the diagnosis and management of these diseases...
  7. Inubushi T, Kawazoe A, Miyauchi M, Kudo Y, Ao M, Ishikado A, et al. Molecular mechanisms of the inhibitory effects of bovine lactoferrin on lipopolysaccharide-mediated osteoclastogenesis. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:23527-36 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (LF) is an important modulator of the immune response and inflammation. It has also been implicated in the regulation of bone tissue...
  8. van Leeuwen S, Schoemaker R, Timmer C, Kamerling J, Dijkhuizen L. Use of Wisteria floribunda agglutinin affinity chromatography in the structural analysis of the bovine lactoferrin N-linked glycosylation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1820:1444-55 pubmed publisher
    Over the years, the N-glycosylation of both human and bovine lactoferrin (LF) has been studied extensively, however not all aspects have been studied in as much detail...
  9. Kanwar J, Mahidhara G, Kanwar R. Novel alginate-enclosed chitosan-calcium phosphate-loaded iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin nanocarriers for oral delivery in colon cancer therapy. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2012;7:1521-50 pubmed publisher
    ..nanocarriers (NCs) in order to achieve oral delivery of the anticancer neutraceutical iron-saturated bovine lactoferrin (Fe-bLf) protein...

Scientific Experts

More Information

Publications62

  1. Lorentz H, Heynen M, Kay L, Dominici C, Khan W, Ng W, et al. Contact lens physical properties and lipid deposition in a novel characterized artificial tear solution. Mol Vis. 2011;17:3392-405 pubmed
    ..05) and that removing lactoferrin and immunoglobulin G from the ATS can significantly decrease the mass of lipid deposited...
  2. Manfredi M, Bizzarri B, Sacchero R, Maccari S, Calabrese L, Fabbian F, et al. Helicobacter pylori infection in clinical practice: probiotics and a combination of probiotics + lactoferrin improve compliance, but not eradication, in sequential therapy. Helicobacter. 2012;17:254-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Adjuvant treatment (especially with probiotics (PB) and lactoferrin (LF)) has often improved compliance and eradication rates in patients subjected to TT, while ST had never been ..
  3. Balasubramanian S, Pye D, Willcox M. Levels of lactoferrin, secretory IgA and serum albumin in the tear film of people with keratoconus. Exp Eye Res. 2012;96:132-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study was designed to examine the levels of total protein, lactoferrin, secretory IgA and serum albumin in the tear film of people with keratoconus...
  4. Manzoni P, Stolfi I, Messner H, Cattani S, Laforgia N, Romeo M, et al. Bovine lactoferrin prevents invasive fungal infections in very low birth weight infants: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2012;129:116-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin is a mammalian milk glycoprotein involved in innate immunity. Recent data show that bovine lactoferrin (bLF) prevents late-onset sepsis in preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates...
  5. Kanwar R, Kanwar J. Immunomodulatory lactoferrin in the regulation of apoptosis modulatory proteins in cancer. Protein Pept Lett. 2013;20:450-8 pubmed
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf), an iron binding ~80 kDa glycoprotein is a well characterized multifunctional protein found to be present in mammalian milk and in most exocrine secretions...
  6. Liu S, Li X, Lu D, Shang S, Wang M, Zheng M, et al. High-level expression of bioactive recombinant human lysozyme in the milk of transgenic mice using a modified human lactoferrin BAC. Transgenic Res. 2012;21:407-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe a human lactoferrin (hLF) BAC as a candidate vector for high-level expression of hLZ in the milk of transgenic mice...
  7. Ying X, Cheng S, Wang W, Lin Z, Chen Q, Zhang W, et al. Effect of lactoferrin on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose stem cells. Int Orthop. 2012;36:647-53 pubmed publisher
    Many in vitro studies of the analysis of the lactoferrin (LF) effect on cells have been reported. However, no study has yet investigated the effect of LF on osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs)...
  8. Freiburghaus C, Lindmark Månsson H, Paulsson M, Oredsson S. Reduction of ultraviolet light-induced DNA damage in human colon cancer cells treated with a lactoferrin-derived peptide. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:5552-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Lactoferricin(1-25) is formed in the gut by cleavage from lactoferrin and the bioactive amino acids are found within lactoferricin(4-14)...
  9. Caccaro R, D Incà R, Pathak S, Sturniolo G. Clinical utility of calprotectin and lactoferrin in patients with inflammatory bowel disease: is there something new from the literature?. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2012;8:579-85 pubmed
    ..Research attention has focused mainly on fecal proteins, especially calprotectin and lactoferrin, and most of the published data are reassuring about their applicability in the diagnosis and monitoring of ..
  10. Burri E, Manz M, Rothen C, Rossi L, Beglinger C, Lehmann F. Monoclonal antibody testing for fecal calprotectin is superior to polyclonal testing of fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin to identify organic intestinal disease in patients with abdominal discomfort. Clin Chim Acta. 2013;416:41-7 pubmed publisher
    Fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin are sensitive markers of mucosal inflammation. We compared three different assays in their ability to identify patients with organic intestinal disease...
  11. Manzoni P, De Luca D, Stronati M, Jacqz Aigrain E, Ruffinazzi G, Luparia M, et al. Prevention of nosocomial infections in neonatal intensive care units. Am J Perinatol. 2013;30:81-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional measures may include the use of lactoferrin, fluconazole, and nystatin and specific measures to prevent ventilator associated pneumonia.
  12. Morishita S, Ono T, Fujisaki C, Ishihara Y, Murakoshi M, Kato H, et al. Bovine lactoferrin reduces visceral fat and liver triglycerides in ICR mice. J Oleo Sci. 2013;62:97-103 pubmed
    b>Lactoferrin (LF) is a multi-functional glycoprotein found in milk. In a previous clinical trial, we showed that enteric-coated bovine LF (bLF) tablets could reduce visceral fat accumulation...
  13. Fernández Musoles R, Salom J, Martínez Maqueda D, López Díez J, Recio I, Manzanares P. Antihypertensive effects of lactoferrin hydrolyzates: Inhibition of angiotensin- and endothelin-converting enzymes. Food Chem. 2013;139:994-1000 pubmed publisher
    The potential of bovine lactoferrin (LF) as a source of antihypertensive peptides acting on the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the endothelin (ET) system as dual vasopeptidase inhibitors has been examined...
  14. Boone J, DiPersio J, Tan M, Salstrom S, Wickham K, Carman R, et al. Elevated lactoferrin is associated with moderate to severe Clostridium difficile disease, stool toxin, and 027 infection. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2013;32:1517-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Elevated lactoferrin (p = 0.01), increased white blood cell (WBC) count (p = 0.08), and low serum albumin (p = 0...
  15. van der Does A, Hensbergen P, Bogaards S, Cansoy M, Deelder A, van Leeuwen H, et al. The human lactoferrin-derived peptide hLF1-11 exerts immunomodulatory effects by specific inhibition of myeloperoxidase activity. J Immunol. 2012;188:5012-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We recently reported that hLF1-11 (GRRRRSVQWCA), an antimicrobial peptide derived from the N terminus of human lactoferrin, displays diverse modulatory activities on monocytes, thereby enhancing their actions in innate immune ..
  16. Chen P, Jheng T, Shyu C, Mao F. Synergistic antibacterial efficacies of the combination of bovine lactoferrin or its hydrolysate with probiotic secretion in curbing the growth of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. J Med Microbiol. 2013;62:1845-51 pubmed publisher
    ..evaluated a combinatorial treatment approach by using the well-documented antibacterial protein apo-bovine lactoferrin (apo-bLf) or its hydrolysate and specific probiotic supernatants for controlling MRSA infection...
  17. Carvalho C, Sousa I, Silva J, Oliveira A, Gonçalves R, Gomes A. Inhibition of Mayaro virus infection by bovine lactoferrin. Virology. 2014;452-453:297-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aim was to investigate whether bovine lactoferrin (bLf), an iron-binding glycoprotein, could hinder MAYV infection...
  18. Jiang R, Lopez V, Kelleher S, Lonnerdal B. Apo- and holo-lactoferrin are both internalized by lactoferrin receptor via clathrin-mediated endocytosis but differentially affect ERK-signaling and cell proliferation in Caco-2 cells. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:3022-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf) is a major iron-binding and multi-functional protein in exocrine fluids such as breast milk and mucosal secretions...
  19. Rawat P, Kumar S, Sheokand N, Raje C, Raje M. The multifunctional glycolytic protein glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a novel macrophage lactoferrin receptor. Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;90:329-38 pubmed publisher
    Several proteins with limited cell type distribution have been shown to bind lactoferrin. However, except in the case of hepatic and intestinal cells, these have not been definitively identified and characterized...
  20. Chen H, Qin Y, Zhang Q, Jiang W, Tang L, Liu J, et al. Lactoferrin modified doxorubicin-loaded procationic liposomes for the treatment of gliomas. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2011;44:164-73 pubmed publisher
    In this study, a brain-targeted chemotherapeutical delivery system, doxorubicin-loaded lactoferrin-modified procationic liposome (DOX-Lf-PCL) was developed, and its therapeutic effect for glioma was evaluated...
  21. Wiig M, Olmarker K, Hakansson J, Ekstrom L, Nilsson E, Mahlapuu M. A lactoferrin-derived peptide (PXL01) for the reduction of adhesion formation in flexor tendon surgery: an experimental study in rabbits. J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2011;36:656-62 pubmed publisher
    ..No negative effects on tendon healing were observed in connection with the treatment. ..
  22. Murata M, Wakabayashi H, Yamauchi K, Abe F. Identification of milk proteins enhancing the antimicrobial activity of lactoferrin and lactoferricin. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:4891-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (LF) is known as an iron-binding antimicrobial protein present in exocrine secretions such as milk and releases the potent antimicrobial peptide lactoferricin (LFcin) by hydrolysis with pepsin...
  23. Akiyama Y, Oshima K, Shin K, Wakabayashi H, Abe F, Nadano D, et al. Intracellular retention and subsequent release of bovine milk lactoferrin taken up by human enterocyte-like cell lines, Caco-2, C2BBe1 and HT-29. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013;77:1023-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (LF) is an iron-binding glycoprotein contained in milk and other exocrine fluids, and is believed to have multiple biological functions...
  24. Berlutti F, Pantanella F, Natalizi T, Frioni A, Paesano R, Polimeni A, et al. Antiviral properties of lactoferrin--a natural immunity molecule. Molecules. 2011;16:6992-7018 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin, a multifunctional iron binding glycoprotein, plays an important role in immune regulation and defence mechanisms against bacteria, fungi and viruses...
  25. Bastos M, Silva T, Teixeira V, Nazmi K, Bolscher J, Funari S, et al. Lactoferrin-derived antimicrobial peptide induces a micellar cubic phase in a model membrane system. Biophys J. 2011;101:L20-2 pubmed publisher
    The observation of a micellar cubic phase is reported for a mixture of an antimicrobial peptide from the Lactoferrin family, LFampin 265-284, and a model membrane system of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (..
  26. Yu Y, Pang Z, Lu W, Yin Q, Gao H, Jiang X. Self-assembled polymersomes conjugated with lactoferrin as novel drug carrier for brain delivery. Pharm Res. 2012;29:83-96 pubmed publisher
    ..self-assembled poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) polymersomes conjugated with lactoferrin (Lf-POS). The brain delivery properties of Lf-POS were investigated and optimized...
  27. Jiang L, Zhou Q, Mu K, Xie H, Zhu Y, Zhu W, et al. pH/temperature sensitive magnetic nanogels conjugated with Cy5.5-labled lactoferrin for MR and fluorescence imaging of glioma in rats. Biomaterials. 2013;34:7418-28 pubmed publisher
    ..5-labled lactoferrin (Cy5.5-Lf-MPNA nanogels) were developed as a promising contrast agent...
  28. Selimoglu M, Temel I, Yildirim C, Ozyaln F, Aktaş M, Karabiber H. The role of fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin in the diagnosis of necrotizing enterocolitis. Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2012;13:452-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Since fecal lactoferrin and fecal calprotectin are inflammatory markers of gastrointestinal diseases, it was hypothesized that both ..
  29. An L, Yuan Y, Yu B, Yang T, Cheng Y. Generation of human lactoferrin transgenic cloned goats using donor cells with dual markers and a modified selection procedure. Theriogenology. 2012;78:1303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..screened genetically modified donor cells, excluded pseudotransgenic cells, and led to production of human lactoferrin transgenic goats...
  30. Dashper S, Pan Y, Veith P, Chen Y, Toh E, Liu S, et al. Lactoferrin inhibits Porphyromonas gingivalis proteinases and has sustained biofilm inhibitory activity. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:1548-56 pubmed publisher
    ..gingivalis are its cell surface Arg- and Lys-specific cysteine proteinases, RgpA/B and Kgp. Lactoferrin (LF), an 80-kDa iron-binding glycoprotein found in saliva and gingival crevicular fluid, is believed to play an ..
  31. Thom R, Elmore M, Williams A, Andrews S, Drobniewski F, Marsh P, et al. The expression of ferritin, lactoferrin, transferrin receptor and solute carrier family 11A1 in the host response to BCG-vaccination and Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. Vaccine. 2012;30:3159-68 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In addition, lactoferrin (P?0.002), transferrin receptor (P?0.05) and solute carrier family 11A1 (P?0...
  32. Vogel H. Lactoferrin, a bird's eye view. Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;90:233-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin is an abundant iron-binding protein in milk. This 80 kDa bilobal glycoprotein is also present in several other secreted bodily fluids, as well as in the secondary granules of neutrophils...
  33. Stragier E, Van Assche G. The use of fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin in patients with IBD. Review. Acta Gastroenterol Belg. 2013;76:322-8 pubmed
    ..b>Lactoferrin also seems to be a sensitive and specific marker for the detection of chronic inflammation and for predicting ..
  34. Ma J, Guan R, Shen H, Lu F, Xiao C, Liu M, et al. Comparison of anticancer activity between lactoferrin nanoliposome and lactoferrin in Caco-2 cells in vitro. Food Chem Toxicol. 2013;59:72-7 pubmed publisher
    The anticancer activities of Lactoferrin (Lf) and Lf nanoliposomes in Caco-2 cells were observed in this study, and mitochondrial function (MTT assay), count kit-8(CCK-8), detection of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ..
  35. Zheng Y, Zhang W, Ye Q, Zhou Y, Xiong W, He W, et al. Inhibition of Epstein-Barr virus infection by lactoferrin. J Innate Immun. 2012;4:387-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (LF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein that plays an important role in native immune defense against infections, including human herpetic viruses, such as cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2...
  36. Tung Y, Chen H, Yen C, Lee P, Tsai H, Lin M, et al. Bovine lactoferrin inhibits lung cancer growth through suppression of both inflammation and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. J Dairy Sci. 2013;96:2095-2106 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, bovine lactoferrin (bLF) was used in both in vitro and in vivo approaches to investigate its activity against lung cancer...
  37. Kawashima M, Kawakita T, Inaba T, Okada N, Ito M, Shimmura S, et al. Dietary lactoferrin alleviates age-related lacrimal gland dysfunction in mice. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33148 pubmed publisher
    Decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is related to age-induced dry eye disease. Lactoferrin, the main glycoprotein component of tears, has multiple functions, including anti-inflammatory effects and the promotion of cell growth...
  38. Baker H, Baker E. A structural perspective on lactoferrin function. Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;90:320-8 pubmed publisher
    The 3-D structure of human lactoferrin was first solved in atomic detail in 1987. Since that time, a variety of proven and postulated activities have been added to the original annotation of lactoferrin as an iron-binding protein...
  39. Liao Y, El Fakkarany E, Lonnerdal B, Redwan E. Inhibitory effects of native and recombinant full-length camel lactoferrin and its N and C lobes on hepatitis C virus infection of Huh7.5 cells. J Med Microbiol. 2012;61:375-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin has been suggested to have antiviral activity against hepatitis C virus (HCV)...
  40. Lasala P, Ekhmimi T, Hill A, Farooqi I, Perrotta P. Quantitative fecal lactoferrin in toxin-positive and toxin-negative Clostridium difficile specimens. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:311-3 pubmed publisher
    Quantitative fecal lactoferrin was measured in 112 patients tested for toxigenic Clostridium difficile using glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and toxin immunoassays combined with tcdB PCR...
  41. Li X, Liu D, Chen H, Pan X, Kong Q, Pang Q. Lactoferrin protects against lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice. Int Immunopharmacol. 2012;12:460-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (LF) plays various anti-inflammatory roles in inflammation experimentally induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). But the protective effects of LF on LPS-induced acute lung injury (ALI) have not been elucidated...
  42. Wang J, Shi X, Wang H, Xia X, Wang K. Effects of esterified lactoferrin and lactoferrin on control of postharvest blue mold of apple fruit and their possible mechanisms of action. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:6432-8 pubmed publisher
    The effects of esterified lactoferrin (ELF) and lactoferrin (LF) on blue mold caused by Penicillium expansum in apple fruit stored at 25 °C were investigated...
  43. Tu Y, Xue H, Francis W, Davies A, Pallister I, Kanamarlapudi V, et al. Lactoferrin inhibits dexamethasone-induced chondrocyte impairment from osteoarthritic cartilage through up-regulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and suppression of FASL, FAS, and Caspase 3. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;441:249-55 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Lactoferrin (LF) exerts significantly anabolic effect on many cells and little is known about its effect on OA chondrocytes...
  44. Kim C, Lee T, Park K, Choi S, Kim J. Human lactoferrin suppresses TNF-?-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression via competition with NF-?B in endothelial cells. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:229-34 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf) is known to have anti-inflammatory activity, but the mechanisms of action by Lf remain to be elucidated...
  45. Hou J, Xue Y, Lin Q. Bovine lactoferrin improves bone mass and microstructure in ovariectomized rats via OPG/RANKL/RANK pathway. Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2012;33:1277-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (LF), an 80-kDa iron-binding glycoprotein, is a pleiotropic factor found in colostrum, milk, saliva and epithelial cells of the exocrine glands...
  46. Tolone S, Pellino V, Vitaliti G, Lanzafame A, Tolone C. Evaluation of Helicobacter Pylori eradication in pediatric patients by triple therapy plus lactoferrin and probiotics compared to triple therapy alone. Ital J Pediatr. 2012;38:63 pubmed publisher
    ..1), although the success rate for H.P. eradication was higher in group B than in group A. The addition of a probiotic formula to triple therapy significantly decreased the frequency of epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. ..
  47. Habib H, Ibrahim W, Schneider Stock R, Hassan H. Camel milk lactoferrin reduces the proliferation of colorectal cancer cells and exerts antioxidant and DNA damage inhibitory activities. Food Chem. 2013;141:148-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf), the main iron-binding protein of milk, has biological activities...
  48. Wang J, Xia X, Wang H, Li P, Wang K. Inhibitory effect of lactoferrin against gray mould on tomato plants caused by Botrytis cinerea and possible mechanisms of action. Int J Food Microbiol. 2013;161:151-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (LF), an 80 kDa iron binding glycoprotein, was effective in the control of gray mould caused by Botrytis cinerea on tomato. LF strongly inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of B...
  49. Florian P, Macovei A, Sima L, Nichita N, Mattsby Baltzer I, Roseanu A. Endocytosis and trafficking of human lactoferrin in macrophage-like human THP-1 cells (1). Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;90:449-55 pubmed publisher
    Different cell types have been reported to internalize lactoferrin (Lf) by specific or nonspecific receptors. Our studies focused on the endocytic pathway of human Lf in macrophage-like THP-1 cells...
  50. Mishra B, Leishangthem G, Gill K, Singh A, Das S, Singh K, et al. A novel antimicrobial peptide derived from modified N-terminal domain of bovine lactoferrin: design, synthesis, activity against multidrug-resistant bacteria and Candida. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1828:677-86 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (LF) is believed to contribute to the host's defense against microbial infections...
  51. Chen C, Chang C, Lin T, Lai M, Chao H, Kong M. Usefulness of fecal lactoferrin in predicting and monitoring the clinical severity of infectious diarrhea. World J Gastroenterol. 2011;17:4218-24 pubmed publisher
    To explore the value of fecal lactoferrin in predicting and monitoring the clinical severity of infectious diarrhea...
  52. Legrand D. Lactoferrin, a key molecule in immune and inflammatory processes. Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;90:252-68 pubmed publisher
    b>Lactoferrin (Lf) belongs to the family of antimicrobial molecules that constitute the principal defense line of nonvertebrate organisms...
  53. Morgenthau A, Livingstone M, Adamiak P, Schryvers A. The role of lactoferrin binding protein B in mediating protection against human lactoferricin. Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;90:417-23 pubmed publisher
    ..an iron-deficient environment because of iron sequestration by the host iron-binding proteins transferrin and lactoferrin. Lactoferrin is also present in high concentrations at sites of inflammation where the cationic, antimicrobial ..