Summary: A member of the serpin superfamily found in plasma that inhibits the lysis of fibrin clots which are induced by plasminogen activator. It is a glycoprotein, molecular weight approximately 70,000 that migrates in the alpha 2 region in immunoelectrophoresis. It is the principal plasmin inactivator in blood, rapidly forming a very stable complex with plasmin.

Top Publications

  1. Coughlin P. Antiplasmin: the forgotten serpin?. FEBS J. 2005;272:4852-7 pubmed
    Much of the basic biochemistry of antiplasmin was described more than 20 years ago and yet it remains an enigmatic member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family...
  2. Wiman B, Collen D. On the mechanism of the reaction between human alpha 2-antiplasmin and plasmin. J Biol Chem. 1979;254:9291-7 pubmed
  3. Okada K, Ueshima S, Tanaka M, Fukao H, Matsuo O. Analysis of plasminogen activation by the plasmin-staphylokinase complex in plasma of alpha2-antiplasmin-deficient mice. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2000;11:645-55 pubmed
    ..plasminogen activator (PA) activity by forming a complex with plasmin; this PA activity is inhibited by alpha2-antiplasmin (alpha2-AP) in plasma...
  4. Nagai N, De Mol M, Van Hoef B, Verstreken M, Collen D. Depletion of circulating alpha(2)-antiplasmin by intravenous plasmin or immunoneutralization reduces focal cerebral ischemic injury in the absence of arterial recanalization. Blood. 2001;97:3086-92 pubmed
    ..However, FII is smaller in mice lacking alpha(2)-antiplasmin (alpha(2)-AP), the physiologic inhibitor of plasmin, suggesting its depletion might reduce FII in the absence ..
  5. Kukkonen M, Lähteenmäki K, Suomalainen M, Kalkkinen N, Emody L, Lang H, et al. Protein regions important for plasminogen activation and inactivation of alpha2-antiplasmin in the surface protease Pla of Yersinia pestis. Mol Microbiol. 2001;40:1097-111 pubmed
    ..recombinant Escherichia coli formed active plasmin in the presence of the major human plasmin inhibitor, alpha2-antiplasmin, and the bacteria were found to inactivate alpha2-antiplasmin...
  6. Ayala A, Warejecka D, Vaughan K, Twining S, Yue B. The fibrinolysis inhibitor alpha2-antiplasmin in the human cornea. Curr Eye Res. 2005;30:1097-103 pubmed
    To determine whether the cornea contains and expresses, at the gene level, the major plasmin inhibitor alpha2-antiplasmin. Corneal sections were immunostained for alpha2-antiplasmin...
  7. Cleary D, Maurer M. Characterizing the specificity of activated Factor XIII for glutamine-containing substrate peptides. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1764:1207-17 pubmed
    ..source of FXIIIa substrate specificity, Q-containing substrates based on beta-casein, K9-peptide, and alpha(2)-antiplasmin were characterized...
  8. Kanno Y, Hirade K, Ishisaki A, Nakajima K, Suga H, Into T, et al. Lack of alpha2-antiplasmin improves cutaneous wound healing via over-released vascular endothelial growth factor-induced angiogenesis in wound lesions. J Thromb Haemost. 2006;4:1602-10 pubmed
    ..We performed experimental cutaneous wounding in mice with a deficiency of alpha(2)-antiplasmin (alpha(2)AP), which is a potent and specific plasmin inhibitor...
  9. Hayashido Y, Hamana T, Ishida Y, Shintani T, Koizumi K, Okamoto T. Induction of alpha2-antiplasmin inhibits E-cadherin processing mediated by the plasminogen activator/plasmin system, leading to suppression of progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma via upregulation of cell-cell adhesion. Oncol Rep. 2007;17:417-23 pubmed
    ..To examine the effect of downregulation of the plasminogen activator/plasmin system by alpha2-antiplasmin (alpha2-AP) on cell-cell adhesion mediated by E-cadherin in oral SCC cells, the oral SCC cell line SCCKN was ..

More Information


  1. Law R, Sofian T, Kan W, Horvath A, Hitchen C, Langendorf C, et al. X-ray crystal structure of the fibrinolysis inhibitor alpha2-antiplasmin. Blood. 2008;111:2049-52 pubmed
    The serpin alpha(2)-antiplasmin (SERPINF2) is the principal inhibitor of plasmin and inhibits fibrinolysis. Accordingly, alpha(2)-antiplasmin deficiency in humans results in uncontrolled fibrinolysis and a bleeding disorder...
  2. Kanno Y, Kuroki A, Okada K, Tomogane K, Ueshima S, Matsuo O, et al. Alpha2-antiplasmin is involved in the production of transforming growth factor beta1 and fibrosis. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:2266-73 pubmed
    ..We examined experimental fibrosis in mice with a deficiency of alpha(2)-antiplasmin (alpha2AP), which is a potent and specific plasmin inhibitor...
  3. Lee K, Jackson K, Christiansen V, Lee C, Chun J, McKee P. Why alpha-antiplasmin must be converted to a derivative form for optimal function. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:2095-104 pubmed
    Human alpha(2)-antiplasmin (alpha(2)AP), the primary inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is secreted from the liver into plasma as a 464-residue protein with Met as the N-terminus...
  4. Lee K, Tae W, Jackson K, Kwon S, McKee P. Characterization of wild-type and mutant alpha2-antiplasmins: fibrinolysis enhancement by reactive site mutant. Blood. 1999;94:164-71 pubmed
    During human blood clotting, alpha2-antiplasmin (alpha2AP) becomes covalently linked to fibrin when activated blood clotting factor XIII (FXIIIa) catalyzes the formation of an isopeptide bond between glutamine at position two in alpha2AP ..
  5. Wang H, Yu A, Wiman B, Pap S. Identification of amino acids in antiplasmin involved in its noncovalent 'lysine-binding-site'-dependent interaction with plasmin. Eur J Biochem. 2003;270:2023-9 pubmed
    The lysine-binding-site-mediated interaction between plasmin and antiplasmin is of great importance for the fast rate of this reaction. It also plays an important part in regulating the fibrinolytic enzyme system...
  6. MacLean J, Cohen E, Weinstein M. Primary intestinal and thoracic lymphangiectasia: a response to antiplasmin therapy. Pediatrics. 2002;109:1177-80 pubmed
    ..However, she had a clinical response to antiplasmin therapy, trans-4-aminothylcyclohexamine carboxylic acid (tranexamic acid) in terms of serum albumin and ..
  7. Dewerchin M, Collen D, Lijnen H. Enhanced fibrinolytic potential in mice with combined homozygous deficiency of alpha2-antiplasmin and PAI-1. Thromb Haemost. 2001;86:640-6 pubmed
    Alpha2-antiplasmin (alpha2-AP) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are the main physiological inhibitors of the plasminogen/plasmin system in mammalian plasma...
  8. Sokolovskaya L, Slominskii A, Volkov G. Induction of catalytic activity of plasminogen by monoclonal antibody IV-Ic in the presence of divalent metal cations and alpha2-antiplasmin. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2006;71:627-33 pubmed
    ..The effect of alpha(2)-antiplasmin on the induction of plasminogen catalytic activity by monoclonal antibody IV-Ic in range of concentrations from ..
  9. Mutch N, Thomas L, Moore N, Lisiak K, Booth N. TAFIa, PAI-1 and alpha-antiplasmin: complementary roles in regulating lysis of thrombi and plasma clots. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:812-7 pubmed
    PAI-1 and alpha(2)-antiplasmin (alpha(2)AP) are the principal direct inhibitors of fibrinolytic proteases...
  10. Sazonova I, Thomas B, Gladysheva I, Houng A, Reed G. Fibrinolysis is amplified by converting alpha-antiplasmin from a plasmin inhibitor to a substrate. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:2087-94 pubmed
    alpha(2)-Antiplasmin (alpha(2)-AP) is the fast serpin inhibitor of plasmin and appears to limit the success of treatment for thrombosis...
  11. Ozyilkan O, Baltali E, Ozdemir O, Tekuzman G, Kirazli S, Firat D. Haemostatic changes; plasma levels of alpha2-antiplasmin-plasmin complex and thrombin-antithrombin III complex in female breast cancer. Tumori. 1998;84:364-7 pubmed
    ..We investigated the fibrinolytic system marker alpha2-antiplasmin-plasmin complex (APP) and clotting system marker thrombin-antithrombin III complex (TAT) in patients with ..
  12. Menoud P, Sappino N, Boudal Khoshbeen M, Vassalli J, Sappino A. The kidney is a major site of alpha(2)-antiplasmin production. J Clin Invest. 1996;97:2478-84 pubmed
    The serpin alpha2-antiplasmin (alpha2-AP) is the major circulating inhibitor of plasmin; it plays a determining role in the regulation of intravascular fibrinolysis, In addition to blood plasma, plasmin formation occurs in various organs ..
  13. Sheffield W, Eltringham Smith L, Gataiance S, Bhakta V. Addition of a sequence from alpha2-antiplasmin transforms human serum albumin into a blood clot component that speeds clot lysis. BMC Biotechnol. 2009;9:15 pubmed publisher
    The plasma protein alpha2-antiplasmin (alpha2AP) is cross-linked to fibrin in blood clots by the transglutaminase factor XIIIa, and in that location retards clot lysis...
  14. Holmes W, Lijnen H, Nelles L, Kluft C, Nieuwenhuis H, Rijken D, et al. Alpha 2-antiplasmin Enschede: alanine insertion and abolition of plasmin inhibitory activity. Science. 1987;238:209-11 pubmed
    An abnormal alpha 2-antiplasmin that is associated with a serious bleeding tendency has been found in a Dutch family and is referred to as alpha 2-antiplasmin Enschede...
  15. Miserus R, Herias M, Prinzen L, Lobbes M, van Suylen R, Dirksen A, et al. Molecular MRI of early thrombus formation using a bimodal alpha2-antiplasmin-based contrast agent. JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2009;2:987-96 pubmed publisher
    We aimed to investigate whether early thrombus formation can be visualized with in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) by the use of a novel bimodal alpha(2)-antiplasmin-based contrast agent (CA).
  16. Holmes W, Nelles L, Lijnen H, Collen D. Primary structure of human alpha 2-antiplasmin, a serine protease inhibitor (serpin). J Biol Chem. 1987;262:1659-64 pubmed
    The plasma protein alpha 2-antiplasmin is the main physiological inhibitor of the serine protease plasmin, which is responsible for the dissolution of fibrin clots...
  17. Yamagishi K, Aleksic N, Hannan P, Folsom A. Coagulation factors II, V, IX, X, XI, and XII, plasminogen, and alpha-2 antiplasmin and risk of coronary heart disease. J Atheroscler Thromb. 2010;17:402-9 pubmed
    To examine whether plasma levels of coagulation factors II, V, IX, X, XI, and XII, plasminogen, and alpha-2 antiplasmin are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in a prospective case-cohort study...
  18. Schneider M, Nesheim M. A study of the protection of plasmin from antiplasmin inhibition within an intact fibrin clot during the course of clot lysis. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:13333-9 pubmed
    Previous work using soluble fibrin surrogates or very dilute fibrin indicate that inhibition of plasmin by antiplasmin is attenuated by fibrin surrogates; however, this phenomenon has not been quantified within intact fibrin clots...
  19. Bouma B, Maas C, Hazenberg B, Lokhorst H, Gebbink M. Increased plasmin-alpha2-antiplasmin levels indicate activation of the fibrinolytic system in systemic amyloidoses. J Thromb Haemost. 2007;5:1139-42 pubmed
  20. Mosesson M, Siebenlist K, Hernandez I, Lee K, Christiansen V, McKee P. Evidence that alpha2-antiplasmin becomes covalently ligated to plasma fibrinogen in the circulation: a new role for plasma factor XIII in fibrinolysis regulation. J Thromb Haemost. 2008;6:1565-70 pubmed publisher
    Plasma alpha2-antiplasmin (alpha2AP) is a rapid and effective inhibitor of the fibrinolytic enzyme plasmin. Congenital alpha2AP deficiency results in a severe hemorrhagic disorder due to accelerated fibrinolysis...
  21. Folsom A, Delaney J, Lutsey P, Zakai N, Jenny N, Polak J, et al. Associations of factor VIIIc, D-dimer, and plasmin-antiplasmin with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Am J Hematol. 2009;84:349-53 pubmed publisher
    To examine the associations of three understudied hemostatic factors--D-dimer, factor VIII(c), and plasmin-antiplasmin (PAP) complex--with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and all cause mortality in the Multiethnic Study of ..
  22. Kanno Y, Kawashita E, Minamida M, Kaneiwa A, Okada K, Ueshima S, et al. alpha2-antiplasmin is associated with the progression of fibrosis. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:238-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously reported that the absence of alpha2-antiplasmin (alpha2AP) attenuated the process of dermal fibrosis; however, the detailed mechanism of how alpha2AP affects ..
  23. Schneider M, Brufatto N, Neill E, Nesheim M. Activated thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor reduces the ability of high molecular weight fibrin degradation products to protect plasmin from antiplasmin. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:13340-5 pubmed
    ..In this study, the effect of TAFIa modification of a fibrin surface on the rate of plasmin inhibition by antiplasmin was studied using high molecular weight fibrin degradation products (HMw-FDPs) as a soluble model for intact ..
  24. Okada K, Lijnen H, Dewerchin M, Belayew A, Matsuo O, Collen D, et al. Characterization and targeting of the murine alpha2-antiplasmin gene. Thromb Haemost. 1997;78:1104-10 pubmed
    Alpha2-Antiplasmin (alpha2-AP) is the main physiological plasmin inhibitor in mammalian plasma...
  25. Lee K, Lee C, Tae W, Jackson K, Christiansen V, McKee P. Cross-linking of wild-type and mutant alpha 2-antiplasmins to fibrin by activated factor XIII and by a tissue transglutaminase. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:37382-9 pubmed
    Human alpha(2)-antiplasmin (alpha(2)AP), the main inhibitor of plasmin-mediated fibrinolysis, is a substrate for plasma transglutaminase, also termed activated factor XIII (FXIIIa)...
  26. Matsuno H, Kozawa O, Yoshimi N, Akamatsu S, Hara A, Mori H, et al. Lack of alpha2-antiplasmin promotes pulmonary heart failure via overrelease of VEGF after acute myocardial infarction. Blood. 2002;100:2487-93 pubmed
    ..due to an experimental acute myocardial infarction (AMI) was markedly increased in mice deficient in alpha2-antiplasmin (alpha2-AP(-/-) mice) but not in mice deficient in other components acting in fibrinolysis (tissue-type PA, ..
  27. Lijnen H, Van Hoef B, Collen D. Inactivation of the serpin alpha(2)-antiplasmin by stromelysin-1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1547:206-13 pubmed
    ..the Met(374)-Ser(375) (P3-P2), Glu(416)-Leu(417) and Ser(432)-Leu(433) peptide bonds in human alpha(2)-antiplasmin (alpha(2)-AP), the main physiological plasmin inhibitor...
  28. Lindholt J, Jørgensen B, Fasting H, Henneberg E. Plasma levels of plasmin-antiplasmin-complexes are predictive for small abdominal aortic aneurysms expanding to operation-recommendable sizes. J Vasc Surg. 2001;34:611-5 pubmed
    ..A random sample of 70 of the 112 cases had P-plasmin-antiplasmin-complexes (PAPs), P-plasminogen, and S-elastin-peptides (SEPs)...
  29. Plow E, Collen D. The presence and release of alpha 2-antiplasmin from human platelets. Blood. 1981;58:1069-74 pubmed
    An antigen immunochemically indistinguishable from plasma alpha 2-antiplasmin, the primary plasmin inhibitor, was detected in human platelets...
  30. Burnouf T, Goubran H, Radosevich M, Sayed M, Gorgy G, El Ekiaby M. Impact of Triton X-100 on alpha 2-antiplasmin (SERPINF2) activity in solvent/detergent-treated plasma. Biologicals. 2007;35:349-53 pubmed
    Large-pool solvent/detergent (SD) plasma for transfusion exhibits reduced alpha 2-antiplasmin (alpha2-AP; SERPINF2) functional activity...
  31. Mozzicafreddo M, Cuccioloni M, Bonfili L, Eleuteri A, Fioretti E, Angeletti M. Antiplasmin activity of natural occurring polyphenols. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1784:995-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, a feasible mechanism of interaction was analyzed and discussed using a molecular modeling approach. ..
  32. Jobse B, Sutherland J, Vaz D, Bhakta V, Sheffield W. Molecular cloning and functional expression of rabbit alpha2-antiplasmin. Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis. 2006;17:283-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Our aims were: to determine the nucleotide sequence of a full-length rabbit liver alpha(2)-antiplasmin (alpha(2)AP) cDNA; compare it with its human, murine, and bovine counterparts; and express it in functional ..
  33. Lee K, Jackson K, Christiansen V, Chung K, McKee P. A novel plasma proteinase potentiates alpha2-antiplasmin inhibition of fibrin digestion. Blood. 2004;103:3783-8 pubmed
    Human alpha2-antiplasmin (alpha2AP), also known as alpha2-plasmin inhibitor, is the major inhibitor of the proteolytic enzyme plasmin that digests fibrin...
  34. Potempa J, Shieh B, Travis J. Alpha-2-antiplasmin: a serpin with two separate but overlapping reactive sites. Science. 1988;241:699-700 pubmed
    Although the proteinase inhibitor alpha-2-antiplasmin (alpha 2AP) is known to control the activity of plasmin through rapid formation of stable complexes, it also efficiently inactivates chymotrypsin...
  35. Farrehi P, Zhu Y, Fay W. An analysis of mechanisms underlying the antifibrinolytic properties of radiographic contrast agents. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2001;12:273-81 pubmed
    ..Contrast agents did not affect plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 or alpha(2)-antiplasmin function...
  36. Nishiyama T, Yokoyama T, Yamashita K. Effects of a protease inhibitor, ulinastatin, on coagulation and fibrinolysis in abdominal surgery. J Anesth. 2006;20:179-82 pubmed
    ..AT was decreased in the control group but not in the ulinastatin group, with significant differences between the two groups. Ulinastatin could inhibit coagulation and fibrinolysis in abdominal surgery. ..
  37. Christensen S, Berglund L, Sottrup Jensen L. Primary structure of bovine alpha 2-antiplasmin. FEBS Lett. 1994;343:223-8 pubmed
    The primary structure of bovine alpha 2-antiplasmin (alpha 2AP) has been determined from cDNA and partial peptide sequencing. Mature bovine alpha 2AP contains 470 residues and is 6 residues longer than human alpha 2AP...
  38. Kato A, Nakamura Y, Miura O, Hirosawa S, Sumi Y, Aoki N. Assignment of the human alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor gene (PLI) to chromosome region 18p11.1----q11.2 by in situ hybridization. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1988;47:209-11 pubmed
    ..The results allowed the chromosome localization of the gene to 18p11.1----q11.2. ..
  39. Aisina R, Mukhametova L, Gulin D, Levashov M, Prisyazhnaya N, Gershkovich K, et al. Inhibitory effect of angiostatins on activity of the plasminogen/plasminogen activator system. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2009;74:1104-13 pubmed
  40. Grinenko T, Makogonenko E, Iusova E, Skomorovskaia Prokvolit E, Cederholm Williams S, Kolesnikova I. [Modifying effect of antiplasminogen monoclonal antibody IV-1c on human plasmin catalytic properties]. Ukr Biokhim Zh (1999). 2002;74:61-70 pubmed
    ..Fibrinolytic and fibrinogenolytic activity of Pm in Pm-IV-1c complex decreased to 20% of initial value alpha 2-Antiplasmin inhibited Pm activity in complex Pm-IV-1c by 80%...
  41. Nielsen V. Hemodilution modulates the time of onset and rate of fibrinolysis in human and rabbit plasma. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25:1344-52 pubmed
    ..Further studies are warranted to determine whether the fluid administered to patients with VADs can impact hemorrhagic and thrombotic morbidity. ..
  42. Brower M, Harpel P. Proteolytic cleavage and inactivation of alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor and C1 inactivator by human polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase. J Biol Chem. 1982;257:9849-54 pubmed
    ..The limited digestion of these inhibitory proteins by leukocyte elastase may prove useful in studies of their primary structure. ..
  43. Christensen S, Sottrup Jensen L. Bovine alpha 2-antiplasmin. N-terminal and reactive site sequence. FEBS Lett. 1992;312:100-4 pubmed
    Bovine alpha 2-antiplasmin (alpha 2AP) has been purified and partially characterized...
  44. Tsirka S, Rogove A, Bugge T, Degen J, Strickland S. An extracellular proteolytic cascade promotes neuronal degeneration in the mouse hippocampus. J Neurosci. 1997;17:543-52 pubmed
    ..Infusion of inhibitors of the extracellular tPA/plasmin proteolytic cascade into the hippocampus protects neurons against excitotoxic injury, suggesting a novel strategy for intervening in neuronal degeneration. ..
  45. Frank P, Douglas J, Locher M, Llinas M, Schaller J. Structural/functional characterization of the alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor C-terminal peptide. Biochemistry. 2003;42:1078-85 pubmed
    ..This suggests that multiple Lys residues within A2PI could contribute, perhaps in a zipper-like fashion, to its binding to the in-tandem, multikringle array that configures the plasmin heavy chain. ..
  46. Tokutomi T, Miyagi T, Morimoto K, Karukaya T, Shigemori M. Effect of hypothermia on serum electrolyte, inflammation, coagulation, and nutritional parameters in patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Neurocrit Care. 2004;1:171-82 pubmed
  47. L hteenm ki K, Kyll nen P, Partanen L, Korhonen T. Antiprotease inactivation by Salmonella enterica released from infected macrophages. Cell Microbiol. 2005;7:529-38 pubmed publisher extracellular matrix degradation during cell migration, is regulated by the plasma antiprotease alpha(2)-antiplasmin (alpha(2)AP)...
  48. Jilma B, Marsik C, Mayr F, Graninger M, Taylor F, Ribel M, et al. Pharmacodynamics of active site-inhibited factor VIIa in endotoxin-induced coagulation in humans. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2002;72:403-10 pubmed
    ..Because ASIS was well tolerated, this study provides seminal data to further characterize its anticoagulant and putative anti-inflammatory effects in critically ill patients. ..
  49. Shlipak M, Fried L, Crump C, Bleyer A, Manolio T, Tracy R, et al. Elevations of inflammatory and procoagulant biomarkers in elderly persons with renal insufficiency. Circulation. 2003;107:87-92 pubmed
    ..levels were measured in nearly all participants; interleukin-6, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, plasmin-antiplasmin complex, and D-dimer levels were measured in nearly half of participants...
  50. Hryszko T, Malyszko J, Malyszko J, Brzosko S, Pawlak K, Mysliwiec M. A possible role of thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor in disturbances of fibrinolytic system in renal transplant recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2001;16:1692-6 pubmed
    ..thrombomodulin (sTM), prothrombin fragments F1+2 (F1+2), thrombin--antithrombin complexes (TAT), plasmin--antiplasmin complexes (PAP), and TAFI were measured with commercially available kits...
  51. Obiezu C, Michael I, Levesque M, Diamandis E. Human kallikrein 4: enzymatic activity, inhibition, and degradation of extracellular matrix proteins. Biol Chem. 2006;387:749-59 pubmed
    ..hK4 forms complexes with alpha1-antitrypsin, alpha2-antiplasmin and alpha2-macroglobulin...
  52. Kimura S, Aoki N. Cross-linking site in fibrinogen for alpha 2-plasmin inhibitor. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:15591-5 pubmed
    ..The peptide contains a single lysine at position 303, indicating that Lys-303 of fibrinogen A alpha chain is the lysine residue that forms a cross-link with Gln-2 of alpha 2PI. ..
  53. Heiden M, Salge U, Henschler R, Pfeiffer H, Volkers P, Hesse J, et al. Plasma quality after whole-blood filtration depends on storage temperature and filter type. Transfus Med. 2004;14:297-304 pubmed