fetal proteins


Summary: Proteins that are preferentially expressed or upregulated during FETAL DEVELOPMENT.

Top Publications

  1. Yao R, Natsume Y, Saiki Y, Shioya H, Takeuchi K, Yamori T, et al. Disruption of Tacc3 function leads to in vivo tumor regression. Oncogene. 2012;31:135-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar responses have been observed in Burkitt's lymphoma and T-ALL. These results show that Tacc3 is a vulnerable component of the spindle assembly in lymphoma cells and is a promising cancer chemotherapy target. ..
  2. Pennimpede T, Proske J, Konig A, Vidigal J, Morkel M, Bramsen J, et al. In vivo knockdown of Brachyury results in skeletal defects and urorectal malformations resembling caudal regression syndrome. Dev Biol. 2012;372:55-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Since KD3-T animals survive until birth, they are useful for examining later roles for T in the development of urorectal tissues. ..
  3. Paul A, Pollard T. Review of the mechanism of processive actin filament elongation by formins. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2009;66:606-17 pubmed publisher
    ..These biophysical insights provide the context to understand how formins contribute to actin assembly in cells. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ..
  4. Tachezy M, Zander H, Marx A, Stahl P, Gebauer F, Izbicki J, et al. ALCAM (CD166) expression and serum levels in pancreatic cancer. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e39018 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, its potential as a novel diagnostic marker for PAC remains elusive and further investigations are required. ..
  5. Chesarone M, DuPage A, Goode B. Unleashing formins to remodel the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2010;11:62-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The emerging complexity in the mechanisms governing formins mirrors the wide range of essential functions that they perform in cell motility, cell division and cell and tissue morphogenesis. ..
  6. Ihnen M, Kress K, Kersten J, Kilic E, Choschzick M, Zander H, et al. Relevance of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (ALCAM) in tumor tissue and sera of cervical cancer patients. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:140 pubmed publisher
    ..This should be confirmed in further, prospective studies. ..
  7. Bielen H, Oberleitner S, Marcellini S, Gee L, Lemaire P, Bode H, et al. Divergent functions of two ancient Hydra Brachyury paralogues suggest specific roles for their C-terminal domains in tissue fate induction. Development. 2007;134:4187-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support the concept of sub- and neofunctionalisation upon gene duplication and show that divergence of cis-regulation and coding sequence in paralogues can lead to dramatic changes in structure and function...
  8. José Edwards D, Kerner P, Kugler J, Deng W, Jiang D, Di Gregorio A. The identification of transcription factors expressed in the notochord of Ciona intestinalis adds new potential players to the brachyury gene regulatory network. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1793-805 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that Ciona Brachyury regulates the expression of most, although not all, of these genes. These results shed light on the genetic regulatory program underlying notochord formation in Ciona and possibly other chordates...
  9. Satoh N, Tagawa K, Takahashi H. How was the notochord born?. Evol Dev. 2012;14:56-75 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Rosso O, Piazza T, Bongarzone I, Rossello A, Mezzanzanica D, Canevari S, et al. The ALCAM shedding by the metalloprotease ADAM17/TACE is involved in motility of ovarian carcinoma cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2007;5:1246-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our data suggest that the disruption of ALCAM-mediated adhesion is a relevant step in EOC motility, and ADAM17/TACE takes part in this process, which may be relevant to EOC invasive potential. ..
  2. Shimoda M, Sugiura T, Imajyo I, Ishii K, Chigita S, Seki K, et al. The T-box transcription factor Brachyury regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition in association with cancer stem-like cells in adenoid cystic carcinoma cells. BMC Cancer. 2012;12:377 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of a single cell line is a limitation of this study. However, parallel data from in vitro and clinical samples suggest the possibility that EMT is directly linked to CSCs and that Brachyury is a regulator of EMT and CSCs. ..
  3. Peset I, Vernos I. The TACC proteins: TACC-ling microtubule dynamics and centrosome function. Trends Cell Biol. 2008;18:379-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the current understanding of the role of TACC proteins in the regulation of microtubule dynamics, and we highlight the complexity of centrosome function. ..
  4. Minner S, Kraetzig F, Tachezy M, Kilic E, Graefen M, Wilczak W, et al. Low activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule expression is associated with advanced tumor stage and early prostate-specific antigen relapse in prostate cancer. Hum Pathol. 2011;42:1946-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The abundant presence of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule and its membranous localization in prostate cancer epithelium make activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule a potentially attractive structure for targeted therapy. ..
  5. Aggarwal V, Carpenter C, Freyer L, Liao J, Petti M, Morrow B. Mesodermal Tbx1 is required for patterning the proximal mandible in mice. Dev Biol. 2010;344:669-81 pubmed publisher
    ..5. This occurs without significant changes in cell proliferation or apoptosis at the same stage. Our results elucidate a new function for the non-neural crest core mesoderm and specifically, mesodermal Tbx1, in shaping the lower jaw. ..
  6. Shi Y, Zhang J, Mullin M, Dong B, Alberts A, Siminovitch K. The mDial formin is required for neutrophil polarization, migration, and activation of the LARG/RhoA/ROCK signaling axis during chemotaxis. J Immunol. 2009;182:3837-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, mDia1 roles in neutrophil chemotaxis appear to be subserved in concert with WASp and are realized at least in part by activation of the LARG/RhoA/ROCK signaling pathway. ..
  7. Kulasingam V, Zheng Y, Soosaipillai A, Leon A, Gion M, Diamandis E. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule: a novel biomarker for breast cancer. Int J Cancer. 2009;125:9-14 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Combining CA15-3 and ALCAM yielded a ROC curve with an AUC of 0.81 (95% CI [0.75, 0.87]). Serum ALCAM appears to be a new biomarker for breast cancer and may have value for disease diagnosis. ..
  8. Yamada A, Martindale M, Fukui A, Tochinai S. Highly conserved functions of the Brachyury gene on morphogenetic movements: insight from the early-diverging phylum Ctenophora. Dev Biol. 2010;339:212-22 pubmed publisher
  9. Aramaki S, Hayashi K, Kurimoto K, Ohta H, Yabuta Y, Iwanari H, et al. A mesodermal factor, T, specifies mouse germ cell fate by directly activating germline determinants. Dev Cell. 2013;27:516-29 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings establish the key signaling mechanism for, and a fundamental role of a mesodermal factor in, mammalian PGC specification...
  10. Shen J, Li C, Yang H, Lu J, Zou T, Wang D, et al. Classic chordoma coexisting with benign notochordal cell rest demonstrating different immunohistological expression patterns of brachyury and galectin-3. J Clin Neurosci. 2011;18:96-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Benign notochordal cells, present as notochord rests, could undergo malignant transformation to form chordoma; however, the cause and role of brachyury and galectin-3 expression in chordoma tumorigenesis requires further careful study...
  11. Presneau N, Shalaby A, Ye H, Pillay N, Halai D, Idowu B, et al. Role of the transcription factor T (brachyury) in the pathogenesis of sporadic chordoma: a genetic and functional-based study. J Pathol. 2011;223:327-35 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, chromosomal aberrations resulting in gain of the T locus are common in sporadic chordomas and expression of this gene is critical for proliferation of chordoma cells in vitro...
  12. Jin Z, Selaru F, Cheng Y, Kan T, Agarwal R, Mori Y, et al. MicroRNA-192 and -215 are upregulated in human gastric cancer in vivo and suppress ALCAM expression in vitro. Oncogene. 2011;30:1577-85 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, in gastric cancer, both microRNA-192 and -215 are overexpressed in vivo and exert cell growth and migration-promoting effects in vitro, thus representing potential microRNAs with a role in cancer in the human stomach. ..
  13. Patel B, Yu Y, Du J, Levi E, Phillip P, Majumdar A. Age-related increase in colorectal cancer stem cells in macroscopically normal mucosa of patients with adenomas: a risk factor for colon cancer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;378:344-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our observation of the age-related rise in CSC in macroscopically normal colonic mucosa suggests a predisposition of the organ to developing colorectal cancer. ..
  14. Bernemann C, Greber B, Ko K, Sterneckert J, Han D, Arauzo Bravo M, et al. Distinct developmental ground states of epiblast stem cell lines determine different pluripotency features. Stem Cells. 2011;29:1496-503 pubmed publisher
  15. Heindl J, Saran I, Yi C, Lesser C, Goldberg M. Requirement for formin-induced actin polymerization during spread of Shigella flexneri. Infect Immun. 2010;78:193-203 pubmed publisher
    ..The dependence on the activation of Dia during S. flexneri infection contrasts with the inhibition of this pathway observed during vaccinia virus infection...
  16. Kugler J, Passamaneck Y, Feldman T, Beh J, Regnier T, Di Gregorio A. Evolutionary conservation of vertebrate notochord genes in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis. Genesis. 2008;46:697-710 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide a first description of notochord genes that are not evidently influenced by the ectopic expression of Ci-Bra and we propose alternative regulatory mechanisms that might control their transcription...
  17. Singh D, Chan J, Zoppoli P, Niola F, Sullivan R, Castaño A, et al. Transforming fusions of FGFR and TACC genes in human glioblastoma. Science. 2012;337:1231-5 pubmed publisher
    ..FGFR-TACC fusions could potentially identify a subset of GBM patients who would benefit from targeted FGFR kinase inhibition...
  18. Schönichen A, Mannherz H, Behrmann E, Mazur A, Kuhn S, Silvan U, et al. FHOD1 is a combined actin filament capping and bundling factor that selectively associates with actin arcs and stress fibers. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:1891-901 pubmed publisher
  19. Morley R, Lachani K, Keefe D, Gilchrist M, Flicek P, Smith J, et al. A gene regulatory network directed by zebrafish No tail accounts for its roles in mesoderm formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:3829-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Using our genome-scale data we have assembled a preliminary gene regulatory network that begins to describe mesoderm formation and patterning in the early zebrafish embryo. ..
  20. Schönichen A, Geyer M. Fifteen formins for an actin filament: a molecular view on the regulation of human formins. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803:152-63 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the domain architecture of human formins, the regulation mechanisms of their activation and the diversity in formin cellular functions. ..
  21. Wu J, Centilli M, Vasquez G, Young S, Scolnick J, Durfee L, et al. Tint maps to mouse chromosome 6 and may interact with a notochordal enhancer of Brachyury. Genetics. 2007;177:1151-61 pubmed
    ..Surprisingly, tint interacts with T2 but not with T1. The implications of our data suggest that T2 may be part of the T1 regulatory region through direct or indirect participation of tint. ..
  22. Barresi V, Vitarelli E, Branca G, Antonelli M, Giangaspero F, Barresi G. Expression of brachyury in hemangioblastoma: potential use in differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol. 2012;36:1052-7 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of our findings we propose the use of brachyury as an additional helpful immunohistochemical marker to resolve the differential diagnosis of HBL toward histologic mimics. ..
  23. Bartolini F, Gundersen G. Formins and microtubules. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2010;1803:164-73 pubmed publisher
  24. Leavell B, Van Buren E, Antaki F, Axelrod B, Rambus M, Majumdar A. Associations between markers of colorectal cancer stem cells and adenomas among ethnic groups. Dig Dis Sci. 2012;57:2334-9 pubmed publisher
    ..AAs with adenomas have a higher proportion of CD44(+)166(-) colonocytes than CA. The increased proportion of CSCs in colonic tissue from AA might be associated with the increased incidence of CRC in this population. ..
  25. Goode B, Eck M. Mechanism and function of formins in the control of actin assembly. Annu Rev Biochem. 2007;76:593-627 pubmed
    ..Other classes of formins lack the autoinhibitory and/or Rho-binding domains and thus are likely to be controlled by alternative mechanisms. ..
  26. Martin B, Kimelman D. Brachyury establishes the embryonic mesodermal progenitor niche. Genes Dev. 2010;24:2778-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the embryonic mesodermal progenitors uniquely establish their own niche--with Brachyury being essential for creating a domain of high Wnt and low RA signaling--rather than having a niche created by separate support cells. ..
  27. Jambhekar N, Rekhi B, Thorat K, Dikshit R, Agrawal M, Puri A. Revisiting chordoma with brachyury, a "new age" marker: analysis of a validation study on 51 cases. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2010;134:1181-7 pubmed publisher
    ..At times, it presents a diagnostic challenge, especially in small biopsies. Brachyury, a nuclear transcription factor, is a recently described immunohistochemical marker for diagnosing chordomas...
  28. Mezzanzanica D, Fabbi M, Bagnoli M, Staurengo S, Losa M, Balladore E, et al. Subcellular localization of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule is a molecular predictor of survival in ovarian carcinoma patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:1726-33 pubmed publisher
    ..5). Decreased/lost ALCAM membrane expression is a marker of poorer outcome in epithelial ovarian cancer patients and might help to identify patients who could benefit from more frequent follow-up or alternative therapeutic modalities. ..
  29. Horst D, Kriegl L, Engel J, Kirchner T, Jung A. Prognostic significance of the cancer stem cell markers CD133, CD44, and CD166 in colorectal cancer. Cancer Invest. 2009;27:844-50 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that CD133 is the best sole marker to predict low patient survival, while the combined analysis of all three markers may be superior in identification of low-, intermediate-, and high-risk cases of colorectal cancer. ..
  30. Dettenhofer M, Zhou F, Leder P. Formin 1-isoform IV deficient cells exhibit defects in cell spreading and focal adhesion formation. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2497 pubmed publisher
    ..It was determined that Fmn1-IV, as an actin nucleator, contributes to protrusion of the cell's leading edge and focal adhesion formation, thus contributing to cell motility. ..
  31. Evans A, Faial T, Gilchrist M, Down T, Vallier L, Pedersen R, et al. Genomic targets of Brachyury (T) in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33346 pubmed publisher
  32. Carbotti G, Orengo A, Mezzanzanica D, Bagnoli M, Brizzolara A, Emionite L, et al. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule soluble form: a potential biomarker of epithelial ovarian cancer is increased in type II tumors. Int J Cancer. 2013;132:2597-605 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether these data suggest that sALCAM is a marker of EOC, which correlates with more aggressive type II tumors, and that ADAM17/TACE activity and sALCAM itself mediate enhanced invasiveness. ..
  33. Bosch M, Le K, Bugyi B, Correia J, Renault L, Carlier M. Analysis of the function of Spire in actin assembly and its synergy with formin and profilin. Mol Cell. 2007;28:555-68 pubmed
    ..The synergy between Spire and formin is reconstituted in an in vitro motility assay, which provides a functional basis for the genetic interplay between Spire, formin, and profilin in oogenesis. ..
  34. Hotta K, Takahashi H, Satoh N, Gojobori T. Brachyury-downstream gene sets in a chordate, Ciona intestinalis: integrating notochord specification, morphogenesis and chordate evolution. Evol Dev. 2008;10:37-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Brachyury is linked to these pathways regulating the expression of each component, and such a regulatory mechanism might be conserved among chordates...
  35. Daher W, Plattner F, Carlier M, Soldati Favre D. Concerted action of two formins in gliding motility and host cell invasion by Toxoplasma gondii. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001132 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide new insights into how controlled actin polymerization drives the directional movement required for productive penetration of parasites into host cells. ..
  36. Tachezy M, Zander H, Gebauer F, Marx A, Kaifi J, Izbicki J, et al. Activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule (CD166)--its prognostic power for colorectal cancer patients. J Surg Res. 2012;177:e15-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies must be conducted investigating these hypotheses. ..
  37. Sawhney M, Matta A, Macha M, Kaur J, Dattagupta S, Shukla N, et al. Cytoplasmic accumulation of activated leukocyte cell adhesion molecule is a predictor of disease progression and reduced survival in oral cancer patients. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:2098-105 pubmed publisher
  38. Vaillant D, Copeland S, Davis C, Thurston S, Abdennur N, Copeland J. Interaction of the N- and C-terminal autoregulatory domains of FRL2 does not inhibit FRL2 activity. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:33750-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, unlike other formins, we find that the FH2 and N-terminal dimerization domains of FRL2 and FRL3 are able to form hetero-oligomers. ..
  39. Huang B, Cohen J, Fernando R, Hamilton D, Litzinger M, Hodge J, et al. The embryonic transcription factor Brachyury blocks cell cycle progression and mediates tumor resistance to conventional antitumor therapies. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e682 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these results suggest that Brachyury expression may attenuate cell cycle progression, enabling tumor cells to become less susceptible to chemotherapy and radiation in human carcinomas. ..
  40. Mélin C, Perraud A, Akil H, Jauberteau M, Cardot P, Mathonnet M, et al. Cancer stem cell sorting from colorectal cancer cell lines by sedimentation field flow fractionation. Anal Chem. 2012;84:1549-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest, according to the literature, that two different pools of CSCs exist, quiescent and activated, which can both be sorted by SdFFF. Moreover, according to CSC properties, enriched fractions are able to form colonies. ..
  41. Ghayad S, Vendrell J, Bieche I, Spyratos F, Dumontet C, Treilleux I, et al. Identification of TACC1, NOV, and PTTG1 as new candidate genes associated with endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer. J Mol Endocrinol. 2009;42:87-103 pubmed publisher
    ..7 cells compared with their respective control MVLN cells. In conclusion, our data identify TACC1, NOV, and PTTG1 as promising new markers that could be used in the clinical management of ER-positive breast cancer patients. ..
  42. Roselli M, Fernando R, Guadagni F, Spila A, Alessandroni J, Palmirotta R, et al. Brachyury, a driver of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is overexpressed in human lung tumors: an opportunity for novel interventions against lung cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:3868-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of Brachyury-specific T-cell lines to lyse Brachyury-positive tumor cells, in vitro, supports the development of Brachyury-based immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of lung cancer. ..
  43. O DONNELL P, Tirabosco R, Vujovic S, Bartlett W, Briggs T, Henderson S, et al. Diagnosing an extra-axial chordoma of the proximal tibia with the help of brachyury, a molecule required for notochordal differentiation. Skeletal Radiol. 2007;36:59-65 pubmed
    ..Brachyury can be employed as a marker of notochordal differentiation and help identify confidently, for the first time, extra-axial bone and soft tissue chordomas, and tumours which may show focal notochordal differentiation. ..
  44. Nelson A, Pillay N, Henderson S, Presneau N, Tirabosco R, Halai D, et al. An integrated functional genomics approach identifies the regulatory network directed by brachyury (T) in chordoma. J Pathol. 2012;228:274-85 pubmed publisher
  45. Lyu J, Jho E, Lu W. Smek promotes histone deacetylation to suppress transcription of Wnt target gene brachyury in pluripotent embryonic stem cells. Cell Res. 2011;21:911-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the Smek-containing PP4 complex represses transcription of Wnt-responsive development-related genes through histone deacetylation, and that this complex is essential for ESC pluripotency maintenance. ..
  46. Sarkar D, Shields B, Davies M, Muller J, Wakeman J. BRACHYURY confers cancer stem cell characteristics on colorectal cancer cells. Int J Cancer. 2012;130:328-37 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that BRACHYURY may regulate NANOG in mesenchymal-like CRC cells to impose a 'plastic-state', allowing competence of cells to respond to signals prompting invasion or metastasis. ..
  47. Hannemann S, Madrid R, Stastna J, Kitzing T, Gasteier J, Schönichen A, et al. The Diaphanous-related Formin FHOD1 associates with ROCK1 and promotes Src-dependent plasma membrane blebbing. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:27891-903 pubmed publisher
    ..These results define a role for endogenous FHOD1 in SH4 domain-induced blebbing and suggest that its activity is regulated by ROCK1 in a Src-dependent manner. ..
  48. Nibu Y, José Edwards D, Di Gregorio A. From notochord formation to hereditary chordoma: the many roles of Brachyury. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:826435 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, we report on the current knowledge of the role of Brachyury and of its possible mechanisms of action in both notochord formation and chordoma etiogenesis...
  49. Hiraoka K, Grogan S, Olee T, Lotz M. Mesenchymal progenitor cells in adult human articular cartilage. Biorheology. 2006;43:447-54 pubmed
    ..This observation has implications for understanding the intrinsic repair capacity of articular cartilage and raises the possibility that these progenitor cells might be involved in the pathogenesis of arthritis. ..
  50. Kursula P, Kursula I, Massimi M, Song Y, Downer J, Stanley W, et al. High-resolution structural analysis of mammalian profilin 2a complex formation with two physiological ligands: the formin homology 1 domain of mDia1 and the proline-rich domain of VASP. J Mol Biol. 2008;375:270-90 pubmed
    ..Our data provide structural insights into the mechanisms of mDia1 and VASP regulated actin polymerisation. ..
  51. Tirabosco R, Mangham D, Rosenberg A, Vujovic S, Bousdras K, Pizzolitto S, et al. Brachyury expression in extra-axial skeletal and soft tissue chordomas: a marker that distinguishes chordoma from mixed tumor/myoepithelioma/parachordoma in soft tissue. Am J Surg Pathol. 2008;32:572-80 pubmed publisher
  52. Oakley G, Fuhrer K, Seethala R. Brachyury, SOX-9, and podoplanin, new markers in the skull base chordoma vs chondrosarcoma differential: a tissue microarray-based comparative analysis. Mod Pathol. 2008;21:1461-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Podoplanin still remains the only positive marker for chondrosarcoma, though its accuracy is less than previously reported. ..
  53. Kilic N, Feldhaus S, Kilic E, Tennstedt P, Wicklein D, Wasielewski R, et al. Brachyury expression predicts poor prognosis at early stages of colorectal cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2011;47:1080-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence a subset of colorectal cancers exists in which the ability to metastasise is already present at early stages of tumour growth and this high risk group can now be detected by immunohistochemistry. ..