avidin

Summary

Summary: A specific protein in egg albumin that interacts with BIOTIN to render it unavailable to mammals, thereby producing biotin deficiency.

Top Publications

  1. Hinchliffe G, Bown D, Gatehouse J, Fitches E. Insecticidal activity of recombinant avidin produced in yeast. J Insect Physiol. 2010;56:629-39 pubmed publisher
    An expression construct encoding chicken (Gallus gallus) avidin was assembled from amplified fragments of genomic DNA. Recombinant, functional avidin was produced in Pichia pastoris, with yields of up to 80 mg/l of culture supernatant...
  2. Xia C, Boado R, Pardridge W. Antibody-mediated targeting of siRNA via the human insulin receptor using avidin-biotin technology. Mol Pharm. 2009;6:747-51 pubmed publisher
    ..cells in culture, and in vivo, is possible with combined use of a receptor-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) and avidin-biotin technology...
  3. Costa L, Vilani C, Peripolli S, Stavale F, Legnani C, Achete C. Direct immobilization of avidin protein on AFM tip functionalized by acrylic acid vapor at RF plasma. J Mol Recognit. 2012;25:256-61 pubmed publisher
    ..The Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy spectrum shows a high absorbance of avidin protein over the silicon surface functionalized by AA plasma treatment...
  4. Wayment J, Harris J. Biotin-avidin binding kinetics measured by single-molecule imaging. Anal Chem. 2009;81:336-42 pubmed publisher
    The high affinity of avidin for biotin has made it useful for many bioanalytical applications involving the immobilization of proteins, vesicles, and other biomolecules to surfaces...
  5. Lesch H, Kaikkonen M, Pikkarainen J, Yla Herttuala S. Avidin-biotin technology in targeted therapy. Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2010;7:551-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting can reduce side effects and increase efficacy of drugs in the patient. Avidin, originally isolated from chicken eggs, and its bacterial analogue, streptavidin, from Streptomyces avidinii, have ..
  6. Zhou Q, Lu J, Hui E, Boado R, Pardridge W. Delivery of a peptide radiopharmaceutical to brain with an IgG-avidin fusion protein. Bioconjug Chem. 2011;22:1611-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Avidin (AV) is fused to the carboxyl terminus of the heavy chain of the genetically engineered chimeric monoclonal ..
  7. Bratthauer G. The avidin-biotin complex (ABC) method and other avidin-biotin binding methods. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;588:257-70 pubmed publisher
    Immunoenzyme methods can be enhanced by the use of the high affinity molecules, avidin and biotin. The binding of avidin to biotin is almost irreversible...
  8. Xiong X, Gong Y, Li Z, Li Y, Guo L. Active targeting behaviors of biotinylated pluronic/poly(lactic acid) nanoparticles in vitro through three-step biotin-avidin interaction. J Biomater Sci Polym Ed. 2011;22:1607-19 pubmed publisher
    ..properties of B-F87-PLA and B-P85-PLA nanoparticles in vitro were investigated through a three-step biotin-avidin interaction by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) tests and fluorescence ..
  9. Teulon J, Delcuze Y, Odorico M, Chen S, Parot P, Pellequer J. Single and multiple bonds in (strept)avidin-biotin interactions. J Mol Recognit. 2011;24:490-502 pubmed publisher
    ..We have chosen the well-known system, (strept)avidin-biotin complex, as an experimental model due to the lack of consensus on interpretations of the rupture force ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Magro M, Faralli A, Baratella D, Bertipaglia I, Giannetti S, Salviulo G, et al. Avidin functionalized maghemite nanoparticles and their application for recombinant human biotinyl-SERCA purification. Langmuir. 2012;28:15392-401 pubmed publisher
    ..one-step, green procedure and functionalized with ligands of high biotechnological interest, such as biotin and avidin, by simple incubation in aqueous solution...
  2. Zeng X, Sun Y, Zhang X, Zhuo R. Biotinylated disulfide containing PEI/avidin bioconjugate shows specific enhanced transfection efficiency in HepG2 cells. Org Biomol Chem. 2009;7:4201-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The obtained biotinylated PEI-SS was bioconjugated with avidin via the biotin-avidin interaction to form a novel gene vector, biotinylated PEI-SS/avidin bioconjugate (ABP-SS)...
  3. Nguyen T, Sly K, Conboy J. Comparison of the energetics of avidin, streptavidin, neutrAvidin, and anti-biotin antibody binding to biotinylated lipid bilayer examined by second-harmonic generation. Anal Chem. 2012;84:201-8 pubmed publisher
    A comparison of the binding properties of avidin, streptavidin, neutrAvidin, and antibiotin antibody to a biotinylated lipid bilayer was studied using second-harmonic generation...
  4. Pignatto M, Realdon N, Morpurgo M. Optimized avidin nucleic acid nanoassemblies by a tailored PEGylation strategy and their application as molecular amplifiers in detection. Bioconjug Chem. 2010;21:1254-63 pubmed publisher
    b>Avidin was recently found to display the ability to interact with high affinity with nucleic acids. In this work, we investigated how this property is affected by the protein modification with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)...
  5. Hernandez F, Dondapati S, Ozalp V, Pinto A, O Sullivan C, Klar T, et al. Label free optical sensor for Avidin based on single gold nanoparticles functionalized with aptamers. J Biophotonics. 2009;2:227-31 pubmed publisher
    ..of a single gold nanoparticle, functionalized with an aptamer, is used to sense the specific binding of avidin. Herewith, the field of single noble metal nanoparticle biosensors is extended to the important field of aptamer ..
  6. Zhang J, Fu Y, Liang D, Zhao R, Lakowicz J. Fluorescent avidin-bound silver particle: a strategy for single target molecule detection on a cell membrane. Anal Chem. 2009;81:883-9 pubmed publisher
    Cy5-avidin conjugate-bound silver nanoparticles were prepared as a fluorescence molecular reagent for the cell imaging...
  7. Spross J, Sinz A. Monolithic columns with immobilized monomeric avidin: preparation and application for affinity chromatography. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;402:2395-405 pubmed publisher
    ..dimethacrylate) monolith were prepared in fused silica capillaries (100 ?m ID) and modified with monomeric avidin using the glutaraldehyde technique...
  8. Pillai V, Yesudas R, Shaik I, Thekkumkara T, Bickel U, Srivenugopal K, et al. Delivery of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase antisense oligos using avidin-biotin approach. Bioconjug Chem. 2010;21:203-7 pubmed publisher
    Although avidin-mediated intracellular delivery of oligonucleotides or proteins has been shown before, the efficacy studies are lacking...
  9. Petronzelli F, Pelliccia A, Anastasi A, Lindstedt R, Manganello S, Ferrari L, et al. Therapeutic use of avidin is not hampered by antiavidin antibodies in humans. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2010;25:563-70 pubmed publisher
    Hen egg white avidin is increasingly used in the clinic as part of multifactor treatments such as pretargeted radionuclide therapy of cancer or as an antidote of biotinylated drugs...
  10. Määttä J, Eisenberg Domovich Y, Nordlund H, Hayouka R, Kulomaa M, Livnah O, et al. Chimeric avidin shows stability against harsh chemical conditions--biochemical analysis and 3D structure. Biotechnol Bioeng. 2011;108:481-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Avidin and its bacterial analog streptavidin have been widely used in applications in life sciences...
  11. Suzuki Kouyama E, Katayama K, Sakurai F, Yamaguchi T, Kurachi S, Kawabata K, et al. Hexon-specific PEGylated adenovirus vectors utilizing avidin-biotin interaction. Biomaterials. 2011;32:1724-30 pubmed publisher
    ..hexon, which is not involved in the binding to CAR, and PEG was then specifically conjugated to the hexon HVR5 via avidin-biotin interaction...
  12. Morpurgo M, Facchin S, Pignatto M, Silvestri D, Casarin E, Realdon N. Characterization of multifunctional nanosystems based on the avidin-nucleic acid interaction as signal enhancers in immuno-detection. Anal Chem. 2012;84:3433-9 pubmed publisher
    The Avidin-Nucleic-Acids-Nano-Assembly (ANANAS) is a kind of soft poly avidin nanoparticle originating from the high affinity interaction between avidin and the nucleic acids...
  13. De Santis R, Anastasi A, Pelliccia A, Rosi A, Albertoni C, Verdoliva A, et al. Chemical linkage to injected tissues is a distinctive property of oxidized avidin. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21075 pubmed publisher
    We recently reported that the oxidized avidin, named AvidinOX®, resides for weeks within injected tissues as a consequence of the formation of Schiff's bases between its aldehyde groups and tissue protein amino groups...
  14. Mori Y, Minamihata K, Abe H, Goto M, Kamiya N. Protein assemblies by site-specific avidin-biotin interactions. Org Biomol Chem. 2011;9:5641-4 pubmed publisher
  15. van Tilborg G, Strijkers G, Pouget E, Reutelingsperger C, Sommerdijk N, Nicolay K, et al. Kinetics of avidin-induced clearance of biotinylated bimodal liposomes for improved MR molecular imaging. Magn Reson Med. 2008;60:1444-56 pubmed publisher
    ..To that aim, we designed an avidin chase that allowed controlled and rapid clearance of paramagnetic biotinylated liposomes from the blood ..
  16. Zeng X, Sun Y, Qu W, Zhang X, Zhuo R. Biotinylated transferrin/avidin/biotinylated disulfide containing PEI bioconjugates mediated p53 gene delivery system for tumor targeted transfection. Biomaterials. 2010;31:4771-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, biotinylated transferrin/avidin/biotinylated disulfide containing PEI bioconjugates (TABP-SS) mediated p53 gene delivery system was formed ..
  17. Maartens L, Erasmus B, Clift S. Tissue tropism of African horsesickness virus in the chicken embryo demonstrated with the avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase method. Vet Pathol. 2011;48:1085-93 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded, that this isolate of AHSV displayed similar tissue tropism in the chicken embryo as in the horse. ..
  18. Riihimäki T, Hiltunen S, Rangl M, Nordlund H, Määttä J, Ebner A, et al. Modification of the loops in the ligand-binding site turns avidin into a steroid-binding protein. BMC Biotechnol. 2011;11:64 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Avidin is a widely used protein in biomedicine and biotechnology...
  19. Taninaka A, Takeuchi O, Shigekawa H. Hidden variety of biotin-streptavidin/avidin local interactions revealed by site-selective dynamic force spectroscopy. Phys Chem Chem Phys. 2010;12:12578-83 pubmed publisher
    ..between the local structures of amino acid residues at the middle sites, SER45 and THR35 for streptavidin and avidin, respectively, strongly affects the microscopic reaction processes, i.e...
  20. Heikkinen J, Kivimäki L, Määttä J, Mäkelä I, Hakalahti L, Takkinen K, et al. Versatile bio-ink for covalent immobilization of chimeric avidin on sol-gel substrates. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2011;87:409-14 pubmed publisher
    A bio-ink for covalent deposition of thermostable, high affinity biotin-binding chimeric avidin onto sol-gel substrates was developed...
  21. Takahashi S, Sato K, Anzai J. Layer-by-layer construction of protein architectures through avidin-biotin and lectin-sugar interactions for biosensor applications. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012;402:1749-58 pubmed publisher
    ..the preparation and properties of protein architectures constructed by layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition through avidin-biotin and concanavalin A (Con A)-sugar interactions are discussed in relation to their use for optical and ..
  22. De Santis R, Leoni B, Rosi A, Albertoni C, Forni G, Cojoca R, et al. AvidinOX for highly efficient tissue-pretargeted radionuclide therapy. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2010;25:143-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Avidin is widely used in vitro for its capacity to bind biotin. However, avidin's in vivo use is limited by its short residence in blood and tissues. An avidin variant, named AvidinOX, has been recently described...
  23. Li Z, He L, He N, Deng Y, Shi Z, Wang H, et al. Polymerase chain reaction coupling with magnetic nanoparticles-based biotin-avidin system for amplification of chemiluminescent detection signals of nucleic acid. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2011;11:1074-8 pubmed
  24. Sun S, Huang X, Ma M, Qiu N, Cai Z, Luo Z, et al. Systematic evaluation of avidin-biotin interaction by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2012;89:99-104 pubmed publisher
    The avidin-biotin interaction was evaluated systematically by fluorescence spectroscopy under different conditions of temperature, pressure, pH, metal ions, incubation time and initial avidin concentration...
  25. De Santis R, Albertoni C, Rosi A, Leoni B, Petronzelli F, D Alessio V, et al. OXavidin for tissue targeting biotinylated therapeutics. J Biomed Biotechnol. 2009;2009:921434 pubmed publisher
    b>Avidin is a glycoprotein from hen egg white that binds biotin with very high affinity. Here we describe OXavidin, a product containing aldehyde groups, obtained by ligand-assisted sugar oxidation of avidin by sodium periodate...
  26. M tt J, Helppolainen S, Hyt Nen V, Johnson M, Kulomaa M, Airenne T, et al. Structural and functional characteristics of xenavidin, the first frog avidin from Xenopus tropicalis. BMC Struct Biol. 2009;9:63 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we structurally and functionally characterise a novel avidin named xenavidin, which is to our knowledge the first reported avidin from a frog. ..
  27. Takakura Y, Tsunashima M, Suzuki J, Usami S, Kakuta Y, Okino N, et al. Tamavidins--novel avidin-like biotin-binding proteins from the Tamogitake mushroom. FEBS J. 2009;276:1383-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These are the first avidin-like proteins to be discovered in organisms other than birds and bacteria...
  28. van Tilborg G, Mulder W, van der Schaft D, Reutelingsperger C, Griffioen A, Strijkers G, et al. Improved magnetic resonance molecular imaging of tumor angiogenesis by avidin-induced clearance of nonbound bimodal liposomes. Neoplasia. 2008;10:1459-69 pubmed
    ..This was accomplished by the use of a so-called avidin chase, which allowed rapid clearance of non-bound paramagnetic RGD-biotin-liposomes from the blood circulation...
  29. Marysael T, Bauwens M, Ni Y, Bormans G, Rozenski J, de Witte P. Pretargeting of necrotic tumors with biotinylated hypericin using 123I-labeled avidin: evaluation of a two-step strategy. Invest New Drugs. 2012;30:2132-40 pubmed publisher
    ..With this conjugate, we explored the possibility of a two-step pretargeting strategy using (123)I-labeled avidin as effector molecule directed against necrotic RIF-1 tumors...
  30. Chen L, Seo J, Eller M, Verkhoturov S, Shah S, Revzin A, et al. Quantitative label-free characterization of avidin-biotin assemblies on silanized glass. Anal Chem. 2011;83:7173-8 pubmed publisher
    ..mass spectrometer TOF-SIMS, operating in the event-by-event bombardment/detection mode was used to characterize avidin-biotin assemblies on silane-modified glass substrates...
  31. Tong Y, Mei Y, Li Y, Ji C, Zhang J. Electrostatic polarization makes a substantial contribution to the free energy of avidin-biotin binding. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:5137-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Avidin-biotin is one of the strongest protein-ligand binding systems, with broad applications in biomedical science...
  32. Niederhauser B, Siivonen J, Määttä J, Jänis J, Kulomaa M, Hytönen V. DNA family shuffling within the chicken avidin protein family - A shortcut to more powerful protein tools. J Biotechnol. 2012;157:38-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that it is possible to create functional chimeric proteins from the avidin protein family when applying DNA family shuffling to the genes of the avidin protein family: avidin, avidin ..
  33. Kaikkonen M, Lesch H, Pikkarainen J, Räty J, Vuorio T, Huhtala T, et al. (Strept)avidin-displaying lentiviruses as versatile tools for targeting and dual imaging of gene delivery. Gene Ther. 2009;16:894-904 pubmed publisher
    ..We have developed a dual-imaging strategy based on avidin-biotin system allowing easy exchange of the surface ligand on HIV-derived lentivirus envelope...
  34. Ballav N, Terfort A, Zharnikov M. Fabrication of mixed self-assembled monolayers designed for avidin immobilization by irradiation promoted exchange reaction. Langmuir. 2009;25:9189-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Such SAMs are suitable for the specific immobilization of avidin protein and its variants...
  35. Xia H, MURRAY K, Soper S, Feng J. Ultra sensitive affinity chromatography on avidin-functionalized PMMA microchip for low abundant post-translational modified protein enrichment. Biomed Microdevices. 2012;14:67-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we report a novel and sensitive affinity chromatography on the avidin-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microchip for enrichment of nanogram (ng) amount of PTMs...
  36. Leppiniemi J, Määttä J, Hammaren H, Soikkeli M, Laitaoja M, Jänis J, et al. Bifunctional avidin with covalently modifiable ligand binding site. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16576 pubmed publisher
    The extensive use of avidin and streptavidin in life sciences originates from the extraordinary tight biotin-binding affinity of these tetrameric proteins...
  37. Schlossbauer A, Kecht J, Bein T. Biotin-avidin as a protease-responsive cap system for controlled guest release from colloidal mesoporous silica. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2009;48:3092-5 pubmed publisher
    Tell your guests when it's time to go: When avidin caps are attached to biotinylated colloidal mesoporous silica, the four subunits of the protein avidin can each bind to a biotin moiety attached to the surface (see picture)...
  38. Ortiz Sanchez E, Daniels T, Helguera G, Martinez Maza O, Bonavida B, Penichet M. Enhanced cytotoxicity of an anti-transferrin receptor IgG3-avidin fusion protein in combination with gambogic acid against human malignant hematopoietic cells: functional relevance of iron, the receptor, and reactive oxygen species. Leukemia. 2009;23:59-70 pubmed publisher
    ..We previously developed an antibody-avidin fusion protein that targets hTfR (anti-hTfR IgG3-Av) and exhibits intrinsic cytotoxicity against certain malignant ..
  39. Tossavainen H, Helppolainen S, Määttä J, Pihlajamaa T, Hytönen V, Kulomaa M, et al. Resonance assignments of the 56 kDa chimeric avidin in the biotin-bound and free forms. Biomol NMR Assign. 2013;7:35-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Avidin is a homotetrameric ~56 kDa protein found in chicken egg white. Avidin's ability to bind biotin with a very high affinity has widely been exploited in biotechnological applications...
  40. General I, Dragomirova R, Meirovitch H. Absolute free energy of binding of avidin/biotin, revisited. J Phys Chem B. 2012;116:6628-36 pubmed publisher
    The binding of biotin to avidin is one of the strongest in nature with absolute free energy of binding, ?A(0) = -20.4 kcal/mol...
  41. Taskinen B, Zmurko J, Ojanen M, Kukkurainen S, Parthiban M, M tt J, et al. Zebavidin--an avidin-like protein from zebrafish. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77207 pubmed publisher
    The avidin protein family members are well known for their high affinity towards D-biotin and high structural stability. These properties make avidins valuable tools for a wide range of biotechnology applications...
  42. Riihimäki T, Kukkurainen S, Varjonen S, Hörhä J, Nyholm T, Kulomaa M, et al. Construction of chimeric dual-chain avidin by tandem fusion of the related avidins. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20535 pubmed publisher
    b>Avidin is a chicken egg-white protein with high affinity to vitamin H, also known as D-biotin. Many applications in life science research are based on this strong interaction...
  43. Petronzelli F, Anastasi A, Pelliccia A, Santapaola D, Albertoni C, Rosi A, et al. Preclinical pharmacology and safety of a novel avidin derivative for tissue-targeted delivery of radiolabelled biotin. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2011;109:145-55 pubmed publisher
    We recently described an oxidized avidin variant, named AvidinOX(®) , which is a product that chemically links to tissue proteins while maintaining the capacity to uptake intravenously administered biotin...
  44. Lehmann S, Garayoa E, Blanc A, Keist R, Schibli R, Rudin M. Recording intracellular molecular events from the outside: glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored avidin as a reporter protein for in vivo imaging. J Nucl Med. 2011;52:445-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe the use of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored avidin, an avidin moiety targeted to the extracellular side of cell membranes via a GPI anchor, as a reporter for in vivo ..
  45. Ward T. Artificial metalloenzymes based on the biotin-avidin technology: enantioselective catalysis and beyond. Acc Chem Res. 2011;44:47-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Inspired by a visionary report by Wilson and Whitesides in 1978, we have exploited the potential of biotin-avidin technology in creating artificial metalloenzymes...
  46. Suzuki E, Daniels T, Helguera G, Penichet M, Umezawa K, Bonavida B. Inhibition of NF-kappaB and Akt pathways by an antibody-avidin fusion protein sensitizes malignant B-cells to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Int J Oncol. 2010;36:1299-307 pubmed
    ..protein consisting of an IgG3 specific for the human transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1, CD71) genetically fused to avidin at its carboxy-terminus (ch128.1Av). We have previously shown that ch128...
  47. Paty I, Trellu M, Destors J, Cortez P, Boëlle E, Sanderink G. Reversibility of the anti-FXa activity of idrabiotaparinux (biotinylated idraparinux) by intravenous avidin infusion. J Thromb Haemost. 2010;8:722-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Idrabiotaparinux is a biotinylated version of idraparinux; its activity can be reversed with avidin. To investigate the tolerability, safety and pharmacodynamics of avidin in healthy subjects and patients with deep ..
  48. Heikkinen J, Riihimäki T, Määttä J, Suomela S, Kantomaa J, Kulomaa M, et al. Covalent biofunctionalization of cellulose acetate with thermostable chimeric avidin. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2011;3:2240-5 pubmed publisher
    ..bioactive cellulose acetate (CA) surface was developed by functionalizing the surface with highly thermostable avidin form...
  49. Xu X, Zhang Y, Wang X, Guo X, Zhang X, Qi Y, et al. Radiosynthesis, biodistribution and micro-SPECT imaging study of dendrimer-avidin conjugate. Bioorg Med Chem. 2011;19:1643-8 pubmed publisher
    ..minepentaacetic acid (1B4M-DTPA), respectively to form the complex Bt-G5-Ac-1B4M which was further conjugated with avidin to give the conjugate Av-G5-Ac-1B4M...
  50. Verdoliva A, Bellofiore P, Rivieccio V, Catello S, Colombo M, Albertoni C, et al. Biochemical and biological characterization of a new oxidized avidin with enhanced tissue binding properties. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:9090-9 pubmed publisher
    Chicken avidin and bacterial streptavidin are widely employed in vitro for their capacity to bind biotin, but their pharmacokinetics and immunological properties are not always optimal, thereby limiting their use in medical treatments...
  51. Angyal A, Szekeres Z, Balogh P, Neer Z, Szarka E, Virag V, et al. CD16/32-specific biotinylated 2.4G2 single-chain Fv complexed with avidin-FITC enhances FITC-specific humoral immune response in vivo in a CD16-dependent manner. Int Immunol. 2010;22:71-80 pubmed publisher
    ..4G2, linked to avidin-FITC, and tested its effect on the FITC-hapten-specific T-independent type 2 (TI-2) and T-dependent (TD) immune ..
  52. Mori Y, Wakabayashi R, Goto M, Kamiya N. Protein supramolecular complex formation by site-specific avidin-biotin interactions. Org Biomol Chem. 2013;11:914-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The avidin-biotin interaction is widely employed in the design of functional protein self-assemblies...
  53. Young A, McQuillan A, Green D. In situ IR spectroscopic studies of the avidin-biotin bioconjugation reaction on CdS particle films. Langmuir. 2009;25:7416-23 pubmed publisher
    b>Avidin-biotin bioconjugation reactions have been carried out on CdS nanoparticle films in H2O and D2O and investigated using in situ ATR-IR spectroscopic techniques...