Summary: A ZINC FINGER MOTIF containing transcription factor that was originally identified as one of the IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS. It shuttles between the CYTOPLASM and the CELL NUCLEUS and is involved in destabilization of mRNAs for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-ALPHA.

Top Publications

  1. Schichl Y, Resch U, Lemberger C, Stichlberger D, de Martin R. Novel phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination of tristetraprolin by mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 1 (MEKK1) and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2). J Biol Chem. 2011;286:38466-77 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tristetraprolin (TTP), initially described as an mRNA destabilizing protein, acts as negative feedback regulator of the ..
  2. Cao H, Lin R. Phosphorylation of recombinant tristetraprolin in vitro. Protein J. 2008;27:163-9 pubmed
    b>Tristetraprolin/zinc finger protein 36 (TTP/ ZFP36) binds and destabilizes some proinflammatory cytokine mRNAs. TTP-deficient mice develop a profound inflammatory syndrome due to excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines...
  3. Clement S, Scheckel C, Stoecklin G, Lykke Andersen J. Phosphorylation of tristetraprolin by MK2 impairs AU-rich element mRNA decay by preventing deadenylase recruitment. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:256-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that a key destabilizing AUBP, tristetraprolin (TTP), is repressed by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated kinase MK2 due to the ..
  4. Marderosian M, Sharma A, Funk A, Vartanian R, Masri J, Jo O, et al. Tristetraprolin regulates Cyclin D1 and c-Myc mRNA stability in response to rapamycin in an Akt-dependent manner via p38 MAPK signaling. Oncogene. 2006;25:6277-90 pubmed
    ..these transcripts, which confer the observed differential stabilities and show that the RNA-binding protein, tristetraprolin (TTP), interacts with these elements...
  5. Emmons J, Townley Tilson W, Deleault K, Skinner S, Gross R, Whitfield M, et al. Identification of TTP mRNA targets in human dendritic cells reveals TTP as a critical regulator of dendritic cell maturation. RNA. 2008;14:888-902 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tristetraprolin is an AU-rich element mRNA-binding protein that has been shown to regulate the stability of a number of ..
  6. Yin K, Deng X, Mo Z, Zhao G, Jiang J, Cui L, et al. Tristetraprolin-dependent post-transcriptional regulation of inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression by apolipoprotein A-I: role of ATP-binding membrane cassette transporter A1 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:13834-45 pubmed publisher
    ..cytokine mRNA destabilization was associated with increased expression of mRNA-destabilizing protein tristetraprolin through a JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway-dependent manner...
  7. Joe Y, Kim H, Kim S, Chung J, Ko M, Lee W, et al. Tristetraprolin mediates anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:24735-42 pubmed publisher
    Nicotine inhibits the release of TNF-? from macrophage through activation of STAT3. Tristetraprolin (TTP) is known to destabilize pro-inflammatory transcripts containing AU-rich elements (ARE) in 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR)...
  8. Lin F, Tsai Y, Lee C, Lin C, Lin Y, Li C, et al. TNF-?-decreased thrombomodulin expression in monocytes is inhibited by propofol through regulation of tristetraprolin and human antigen R activities. Shock. 2011;36:279-88 pubmed publisher
    ..phosphate (NADPH) oxidase, Cdc42, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, as well as tristetraprolin (TTP) expression, all contributed to the downregulation of TM in TNF-?-treated cells...
  9. Semaan N, Frenzel L, Alsaleh G, Suffert G, Gottenberg J, Sibilia J, et al. miR-346 controls release of TNF-? protein and stability of its mRNA in rheumatoid arthritis via tristetraprolin stabilization. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19827 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, transfection of miR-346 in LPS-activated THP-1 cells increased TTP mRNA expression and inhibited TNF-? release. These results indicate that miR-346 controls TNF-? synthesis by regulating TTP expression. ..

More Information


  1. Prouteau M, Daugeron M, Seraphin B. Regulation of ARE transcript 3' end processing by the yeast Cth2 mRNA decay factor. EMBO J. 2008;27:2966-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Cth2, and its mammalian homologue tristetraprolin, contains a characteristic tandem CCCH zinc-finger essential for ARE binding and mRNA decay...
  2. Amann B, Worthington M, Berg J. A Cys3His zinc-binding domain from Nup475/tristetraprolin: a novel fold with a disklike structure. Biochemistry. 2003;42:217-21 pubmed
    Nup475 (also known as tristetraprolin and TIS11) includes two zinc-binding domains of the form Cys-X8-Cys-X5-Cys-X3-His...
  3. Al Saif M, Khabar K. UU/UA dinucleotide frequency reduction in coding regions results in increased mRNA stability and protein expression. Mol Ther. 2012;20:954-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A mutant form of the mRNA decay-promoting protein, tristetraprolin (TTP/ZFP36), which has a point mutation in the zinc-finger domain (C124R), was used...
  4. Stumpo D, Broxmeyer H, Ward T, Cooper S, Hangoc G, Chung Y, et al. Targeted disruption of Zfp36l2, encoding a CCCH tandem zinc finger RNA-binding protein, results in defective hematopoiesis. Blood. 2009;114:2401-10 pubmed publisher
    Members of the tristetraprolin family of tandem CCCH finger proteins can bind to AU-rich elements in the 3'-untranslated region of mRNAs, leading to their deadenylation and subsequent degradation...
  5. Leppänen T, Jalonen U, Korhonen R, Tuominen R, Moilanen E. Inhibition of protein kinase Cdelta reduces tristetraprolin expression by destabilizing its mRNA in activated macrophages. Eur J Pharmacol. 2010;628:220-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Tristetraprolin (TTP) binds to AU-rich elements within the mRNAs of several inflammatory genes and causes destabilization of the target mRNAs...
  6. Ma Q, Wadleigh D, Chi T, Herschman H. The Drosophila TIS11 homologue encodes a developmentally controlled gene. Oncogene. 1994;9:3329-34 pubmed
    ..The larger (6 kb) message is modestly induced in KC cells by both forskolin and tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate, and is stabilized by cycloheximide. ..
  7. Cairrao F, Halees A, Khabar K, Morello D, Vanzo N. AU-rich elements regulate Drosophila gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:2636-43 pubmed publisher
    ..melanogaster. Our work reveals that AREs are conserved and functional cis regulators of mRNA decay in Drosophila and highlights this organism as a novel model system to unravel in vivo the contribution of AMD to various processes. ..
  8. Tiedje C, Ronkina N, Tehrani M, Dhamija S, Laass K, Holtmann H, et al. The p38/MK2-driven exchange between tristetraprolin and HuR regulates AU-rich element-dependent translation. PLoS Genet. 2012;8:e1002977 pubmed publisher
    ..with either activity of the p38 MAPK/MK2 pathway or the absence of the ARE-binding and -destabilizing factor tristetraprolin (TTP)...
  9. Patil C, Liu M, Zhao W, Coatney D, Li F, VanTubergen E, et al. Targeting mRNA stability arrests inflammatory bone loss. Mol Ther. 2008;16:1657-64 pubmed publisher
    ..In the absence of inflammation, a key cytokine-regulating RNA-binding protein, tristetraprolin (TTP), shuttles mRNA transcripts to degradation machinery in order to maintain low levels of inflammatory ..
  10. King E, Kaur M, Gong W, Rider C, Holden N, Newton R. Regulation of tristetraprolin expression by interleukin-1 beta and dexamethasone in human pulmonary epithelial cells: roles for nuclear factor-kappa B and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009;330:575-85 pubmed publisher
    The mRNA-destabilizing protein tristetraprolin (TTP) negatively regulates adenine- and uridine-rich element (ARE)-containing mRNAs...
  11. Jalonen U, Paukkeri E, Moilanen E. Compounds that increase or mimic cyclic adenosine monophosphate enhance tristetraprolin degradation in lipopolysaccharide-treated murine j774 macrophages. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;326:514-22 pubmed publisher
    b>Tristetraprolin (TTP) is a trans-acting factor that can regulate mRNA stability by binding to the cis-acting AU-rich element (ARE) in the 3'-untranslated region in mRNAs of certain transiently expressed genes...
  12. Bros M, Wiechmann N, Besche V, Art J, Pautz A, Grabbe S, et al. The RNA binding protein tristetraprolin influences the activation state of murine dendritic cells. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:1161-70 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tristetraprolin (TTP), an important RNA binding protein, is involved in the regulation of mRNA stability of such cytokines...
  13. Datta S, Novotny M, Pavicic P, Zhao C, Herjan T, Hartupee J, et al. IL-17 regulates CXCL1 mRNA stability via an AUUUA/tristetraprolin-independent sequence. J Immunol. 2010;184:1484-91 pubmed publisher
    ..stabilization is dependent on AUUUA-containing sequence motifs that are recognized by the RNA binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP)...
  14. Lee H, Vo M, Kim H, Lee U, Kim C, Kim H, et al. Stability of the LATS2 tumor suppressor gene is regulated by tristetraprolin. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:17329-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the post-transcriptional regulation of LATS2 expression by tristetraprolin (TTP)...
  15. Hacker C, Valchanova R, Adams S, Munz B. ZFP36L1 is regulated by growth factors and cytokines in keratinocytes and influences their VEGF production. Growth Factors. 2010;28:178-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we analyzed a potential role of the ZFP36/tristetraprolin family of zinc finger proteins, which are targets of these factors, but also regulate their production, in ..
  16. Lin N, Lin C, Chen Y, Chang C. Regulation of tristetraprolin during differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. FEBS J. 2007;274:867-78 pubmed
    b>Tristetraprolin is a zinc-finger-containing RNA-binding protein. Tristetraprolin binds to AU-rich elements of target mRNAs such as proto-oncogenes, cytokines and growth factors, and then induces mRNA rapid degradation...
  17. Sanduja S, Blanco F, Dixon D. The roles of TTP and BRF proteins in regulated mRNA decay. Wiley Interdiscip Rev RNA. 2011;2:42-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The TIS11 family of RNA-binding proteins, composed of tristetraprolin (TTP) and butyrate response factors 1 and 2 (BRF-1 and -2), plays a critical role in regulating the ..
  18. Chen F, Shyu A, Shneider B. Hu antigen R and tristetraprolin: counter-regulators of rat apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter by way of effects on messenger RNA stability. Hepatology. 2011;54:1371-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the role that Hu antigen R (HuR) and tristetraprolin (TTP) play in regulating the expression of mRNA that contains the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of rat ASBT...
  19. Blackshear P, Lai W, Kennington E, Brewer G, Wilson G, Guan X, et al. Characteristics of the interaction of a synthetic human tristetraprolin tandem zinc finger peptide with AU-rich element-containing RNA substrates. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:19947-55 pubmed
    b>Tristetraprolin (TTP) and its two known mammalian family members are tandem CCCH zinc finger proteins that can bind to AU-rich elements (AREs) in cellular mRNAs and destabilize those transcripts, apparently by initiating their ..
  20. Zhang T, Kruys V, Huez G, Gueydan C. AU-rich element-mediated translational control: complexity and multiple activities of trans-activating factors. Biochem Soc Trans. 2002;30:952-8 pubmed
    ..ARE allowed the identification of TIA-1-related protein (TIAR), T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA-1) and tristetraprolin (TTP) as TNF-alpha ARE-binding proteins...
  21. Brooks S, Connolly J, Diegel R, Fava R, Rigby W. Analysis of the function, expression, and subcellular distribution of human tristetraprolin. Arthritis Rheum. 2002;46:1362-70 pubmed
    The zinc-finger protein tristetraprolin (TTP) has been demonstrated to regulate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) messenger RNA (mRNA) instability in murine macrophages...
  22. Lin N, Lin T, Yang W, Wang S, Wang K, Su Y, et al. Differential expression and functional analysis of the tristetraprolin family during early differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Int J Biol Sci. 2012;8:761-77 pubmed publisher
    The tristetraprolin (TTP) family comprises zinc finger-containing AU-rich element (ARE)-binding proteins consisting of three major members: TTP, ZFP36L1, and ZFP36L2...
  23. Nie X, Maclean K, Kumar V, McKay I, Bustin S. ERF-2, the human homologue of the murine Tis11d early response gene. Gene. 1995;152:285-6 pubmed
    ..The sequence has transactivation-like motifs, an unusual Cys-Ser-Ala-rich motif and displays sequence similarity at the extreme C-terminal end with another Tis11 family member, ERF-1. ..
  24. Al Souhibani N, Al Ahmadi W, Hesketh J, Blackshear P, Khabar K. The RNA-binding zinc-finger protein tristetraprolin regulates AU-rich mRNAs involved in breast cancer-related processes. Oncogene. 2010;29:4205-15 pubmed publisher
    b>Tristetraprolin (TTP or ZFP36) is a tandem CCCH zinc-finger RNA-binding protein that regulates the stability of certain AU-rich element (ARE) mRNAs...
  25. Cao H, Anderson R. Cinnamon polyphenol extract regulates tristetraprolin and related gene expression in mouse adipocytes. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;59:2739-44 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tristetraprolin (TTP) family proteins have anti-inflammatory effects through the destabilization of pro-inflammatory mRNAs...
  26. Kratochvill F, Machacek C, Vogl C, Ebner F, Sedlyarov V, Gruber A, et al. Tristetraprolin-driven regulatory circuit controls quality and timing of mRNA decay in inflammation. Mol Syst Biol. 2011;7:560 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the mRNA-destabilizing function of the AU-rich element-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) is inversely regulated by the p38 MAPK activity profile such that after inflammatory stimulus the TTP-..
  27. Kim H, Kim C, Vo M, Lee H, Lee J, Yoon N, et al. Expression of proviral integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus 1 (Pim-1) is post-transcriptionally regulated by tristetraprolin in cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:28770-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we demonstrate that tristetraprolin (TTP) plays a critical role in the regulation of Pim-1 mRNA stability...
  28. Bhattacharyya S, Kumar P, Tsuchiya M, Bhattacharyya A, Biswas R. Regulation of miR-155 biogenesis in cystic fibrosis lung epithelial cells: antagonistic role of two mRNA-destabilizing proteins, KSRP and TTP. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2013;433:484-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These data provide novel insights into the mechanisms that induce hyper-inflammatory phenotype of CF, and are potential candidates for anti-inflammatory therapeutics for CF. ..
  29. Ghosh S, Hoenerhoff M, Clayton N, Myers P, Stumpo D, Maronpot R, et al. Left-sided cardiac valvulitis in tristetraprolin-deficient mice: the role of tumor necrosis factor alpha. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:1484-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here that mice deficient in tristetraprolin (TTP), a protein with known anti-inflammatory functions, develop severe left-sided cardiac valvulitis...
  30. Johnson B, Stehn J, Yaffe M, Blackwell T. Cytoplasmic localization of tristetraprolin involves 14-3-3-dependent and -independent mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18029-36 pubmed
    The immediate early gene tristetraprolin (TTP) is induced transiently in many cell types by numerous extracellular stimuli...
  31. Phillips R, Ramos S, Blackshear P. Members of the tristetraprolin family of tandem CCCH zinc finger proteins exhibit CRM1-dependent nucleocytoplasmic shuttling. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:11606-13 pubmed
    Members of the tristetraprolin (TTP) family of CCCH tandem zinc finger proteins can bind directly to certain types of AU-rich elements (AREs) in mRNA...
  32. Ogawa K, Chen F, Kim Y, Chen Y. Transcriptional regulation of tristetraprolin by transforming growth factor-beta in human T cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:30373-81 pubmed
    ..b>Tristetraprolin (TTP), a protein involved in the degradation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA, was found to be ..
  33. Phillips K, Kedersha N, Shen L, Blackshear P, Anderson P. Arthritis suppressor genes TIA-1 and TTP dampen the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha, cyclooxygenase 2, and inflammatory arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:2011-6 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that TIA-1 and TTP are genetic modifiers of inflammatory arthritis that can alter the spectrum of cells that produce arthritogenic cytokines. ..
  34. Brooks S, Connolly J, Rigby W. The role of mRNA turnover in the regulation of tristetraprolin expression: evidence for an extracellular signal-regulated kinase-specific, AU-rich element-dependent, autoregulatory pathway. J Immunol. 2004;172:7263-71 pubmed
    b>Tristetraprolin (TTP) is a regulator of TNF-alpha mRNA stability and is the only trans-acting factor shown to be capable of regulating AU-rich element-dependent mRNA turnover at the level of the intact animal...
  35. Ramos S, Stumpo D, Kennington E, Phillips R, Bock C, Ribeiro Neto F, et al. The CCCH tandem zinc-finger protein Zfp36l2 is crucial for female fertility and early embryonic development. Development. 2004;131:4883-93 pubmed
    The CCCH tandem zinc finger protein, Zfp36l2, like its better-known relative tristetraprolin (TTP), can decrease the stability of AU-rich element-containing transcripts in cell transfection studies; however, its physiological importance ..
  36. Murata T, Morita N, Hikita K, Kiuchi K, Kiuchi K, Kaneda N. Recruitment of mRNA-destabilizing protein TIS11 to stress granules is mediated by its zinc finger domain. Exp Cell Res. 2005;303:287-99 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that recruitment of TIS11 to heat shock-induced SG is governed by the tandem zinc finger domains of this protein. ..
  37. Fenger Grøn M, Fillman C, Norrild B, Lykke Andersen J. Multiple processing body factors and the ARE binding protein TTP activate mRNA decapping. Mol Cell. 2005;20:905-15 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that multiple proteins involved in human decapping are important subunits of PBs and are activated on ARE-mRNAs by the protein TTP. ..
  38. Brook M, Tchen C, Santalucia T, McIlrath J, Arthur J, Saklatvala J, et al. Posttranslational regulation of tristetraprolin subcellular localization and protein stability by p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathways. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:2408-18 pubmed
    ..MK2 phosphorylates the ARE-binding and mRNA-destabilizing protein tristetraprolin (TTP) at serines 52 and 178...
  39. Carrick D, Chulada P, Donn R, Fabris M, McNicholl J, Whitworth W, et al. Genetic variations in ZFP36 and their possible relationship to autoimmune diseases. J Autoimmun. 2006;26:182-96 pubmed
    ..The data presented here suggest a tentative association between ZFP36 and RA. This finding, as well as the ZFP36 polymorphisms and haplotypes identified here, should form the basis for future association studies in autoimmune diseases. ..
  40. Suzuki E, Tsutsumi A, Sugihara M, Mamura M, Goto D, Matsumoto I, et al. Expression of TNF-alpha, tristetraprolin, T-cell intracellular antigen-1 and Hu antigen R genes in synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Int J Mol Med. 2006;18:273-8 pubmed
    ..We measured the gene expression of ARBPs, including tristetraprolin, T-cell intracellular antigen (TIA)-1 and Hu antigen R (HuR), in synovial tissues from RA and osteoarthritis ..
  41. Suswam E, Li Y, Zhang X, Gillespie G, Li X, Shacka J, et al. Tristetraprolin down-regulates interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor in malignant glioma cells. Cancer Res. 2008;68:674-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we report that the destabilizing factor tristetraprolin (TTP) is also ubiquitously expressed in primary malignant glioma tissues and cell lines...
  42. Taylor G, Lai W, Oakey R, Seldin M, Shows T, Eddy R, et al. The human TTP protein: sequence, alignment with related proteins, and chromosomal localization of the mouse and human genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1991;19:3454 pubmed
  43. Bayeva M, Khechaduri A, Puig S, Chang H, Patial S, Blackshear P, et al. mTOR regulates cellular iron homeostasis through tristetraprolin. Cell Metab. 2012;16:645-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Mechanistic studies identify tristetraprolin (TTP), a protein involved in anti-inflammatory response, as the downstream target of mTOR that binds to and ..
  44. Ciais D, Cherradi N, Feige J. Multiple functions of tristetraprolin/TIS11 RNA-binding proteins in the regulation of mRNA biogenesis and degradation. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70:2031-44 pubmed publisher
    Members of the tristetraprolin (TTP/TIS11) family are important RNA-binding proteins initially characterized as mediators of mRNA degradation...
  45. Varnum B, Ma Q, Chi T, Fletcher B, Herschman H. The TIS11 primary response gene is a member of a gene family that encodes proteins with a highly conserved sequence containing an unusual Cys-His repeat. Mol Cell Biol. 1991;11:1754-8 pubmed
  46. Blackshear P. Tristetraprolin and other CCCH tandem zinc-finger proteins in the regulation of mRNA turnover. Biochem Soc Trans. 2002;30:945-52 pubmed
    The tristetraprolin (TTP) family of CCCH tandem zinc-finger proteins is composed of three known members in mammals, with a fourth member recently identified in frogs and fish...
  47. Shi J, Su X, Xu J, Zhang W, Shi Y. MK2 posttranscriptionally regulates TNF-?-induced expression of ICAM-1 and IL-8 via tristetraprolin in human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2012;302:L793-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Tristetraprolin (TTP), a substrate of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), is an RNA-binding protein that binds to AU-rich elements (AREs) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of its target ..
  48. Pfeiffer J, Brooks S. Cullin 4B is recruited to tristetraprolin-containing messenger ribonucleoproteins and regulates TNF-? mRNA polysome loading. J Immunol. 2012;188:1828-39 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Tristetraprolin (TTP) is an AU-rich element binding protein that regulates the stability of the TNF-? mRNA...
  49. Lai W, Kennington E, Blackshear P. Tristetraprolin and its family members can promote the cell-free deadenylation of AU-rich element-containing mRNAs by poly(A) ribonuclease. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:3798-812 pubmed
    Eukaryotic mRNA stability can be influenced by AU-rich elements (AREs) within mRNA primary sequences. Tristetraprolin (TTP) is a CCCH tandem zinc finger protein that binds to ARE-containing transcripts and destabilizes them, apparently ..
  50. Holmes B, Artinian N, Anderson L, Martin J, Masri J, Cloninger C, et al. Protor-2 interacts with tristetraprolin to regulate mRNA stability during stress. Cell Signal. 2012;24:309-15 pubmed publisher
    The A/U-rich RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) is an mRNA destabilizing factor which plays a role in the regulated turnover of many transcripts encoding proteins involved in immune function and cell growth control...
  51. Werno C, Schmid T, Schnitzer S, Peters K, Milke L, Brüne B. A combination of hypoxia and lipopolysaccharide activates tristetraprolin to destabilize proinflammatory mRNAs such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Am J Pathol. 2010;177:1104-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Specifically, the RNA-binding protein tristetraprolin (TTP) increased at mRNA and protein levels after 16-hour incubations with LPS under hypoxia...
  52. Sun L, Stoecklin G, Van Way S, Hinkovska Galcheva V, Guo R, Anderson P, et al. Tristetraprolin (TTP)-14-3-3 complex formation protects TTP from dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2a and stabilizes tumor necrosis factor-alpha mRNA. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:3766-77 pubmed
    ..Post-transcriptional regulation occurs by modulation of TNF-alpha mRNA stability via the binding of tristetraprolin (TTP) to the adenosine/uridine-rich elements found in the 3'-untranslated region of the TNF-alpha transcript...
  53. Kedar V, Darby M, Williams J, Blackshear P. Phosphorylation of human tristetraprolin in response to its interaction with the Cbl interacting protein CIN85. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9588 pubmed publisher
    b>Tristetraprolin (TTP) is the prototype member of a family of CCCH tandem zinc finger proteins and is considered to be an anti-inflammatory protein in mammals...