smad2 protein


Summary: A receptor-regulated smad protein that undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION by ACTIVIN RECEPTORS, TYPE I. It regulates TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA and ACTIVIN signaling.

Top Publications

  1. Beyer T, Weiss A, Khomchuk Y, Huang K, Ogunjimi A, Varelas X, et al. Switch enhancers interpret TGF-? and Hippo signaling to control cell fate in human embryonic stem cells. Cell Rep. 2013;5:1611-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies define switch-enhancer elements and provide a framework to understand how cellular context dictates interpretation of the same morphogen signal in development. ..
  2. Wang M, Hada M, Huff J, Pluth J, Anderson J, O Neill P, et al. Heavy ions can enhance TGF? mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition. J Radiat Res. 2012;53:51-7 pubmed
  3. Zhang L, Zhou F, García de Vinuesa A, de Kruijf E, Mesker W, Hui L, et al. TRAF4 promotes TGF-? receptor signaling and drives breast cancer metastasis. Mol Cell. 2013;51:559-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that TRAF4 can regulate the TGF-? pathway and is a key determinant in breast cancer pathogenesis. ..
  4. Lv Z, Kong B, Li J, Qu H, Wang X, Cao W, et al. Transforming growth factor-? 1 enhances the invasiveness of breast cancer cells by inducing a Smad2-dependent epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Oncol Rep. 2013;29:219-25 pubmed publisher
    ..05). These data suggested that EMT of breast cancer induced by TGF-?1 is dependent on Smad2 signaling and promotes breast cancer cell metastasis. ..
  5. Michael D, Salter R, Ramji D. TGF-? inhibits the uptake of modified low density lipoprotein by human macrophages through a Smad-dependent pathway: a dominant role for Smad-2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1822:1608-16 pubmed publisher
  6. Samarakoon R, Overstreet J, Higgins P. TGF-? signaling in tissue fibrosis: redox controls, target genes and therapeutic opportunities. Cell Signal. 2013;25:264-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting ROS and ROS-activated cellular events is likely to have therapeutic implications in the management of fibrotic disorders, particularly in the context of prolonged TGF-?1 signaling. ..
  7. Wang M, Hada M, Saha J, Sridharan D, Pluth J, Cucinotta F. Protons sensitize epithelial cells to mesenchymal transition. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e41249 pubmed publisher
  8. Shin J, Lee J, Cho K, Kwak S, Kwon H, Lee M, et al. MiR-200b is involved in Tgf-? signaling to regulate mammalian palate development. Histochem Cell Biol. 2012;137:67-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Elucidating the mechanism of palatogenesis may aid the design of effective gene-based therapies for the treatment of congenital cleft palate...
  9. Kartikasari A, Zhou J, Kanji M, Chan D, Sinha A, Grapin Botton A, et al. The histone demethylase Jmjd3 sequentially associates with the transcription factors Tbx3 and Eomes to drive endoderm differentiation. EMBO J. 2013;32:1393-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that Jmjd3 sequentially associates with two T-box factors, Tbx3 and Eomes to drive stem cell differentiation towards the definitive endoderm lineage. ..

More Information


  1. Tang M, Wang Y, Guo S, Han S, Wang D. CSMD1 exhibits antitumor activity in A375 melanoma cells through activation of the Smad pathway. Apoptosis. 2012;17:927-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we found that CSMD1 can interact with Smad3, activate Smad1, Smad2, and Smad3, and increase the expression of Smad4. These results might prove helpful for the development of novel therapies for melanoma treatment. ..
  2. Bruce D, MacArtney T, Yong W, Shou W, Sapkota G. Protein phosphatase 5 modulates SMAD3 function in the transforming growth factor-? pathway. Cell Signal. 2012;24:1999-2006 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that PP5 regulates the TGF? pathway in MEFs by regulating the expression of SMAD3 protein levels. ..
  3. Lasfar A, Cohen Solal K. Resistance to transforming growth factor ?-mediated tumor suppression in melanoma: are multiple mechanisms in place?. Carcinogenesis. 2010;31:1710-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, we propose additional models of resistance taking into consideration the information available on the dysregulation of fundamental cellular effectors and signaling pathways in melanoma. ..
  4. Moltzer E, te Riet L, Swagemakers S, van Heijningen P, Vermeij M, van Veghel R, et al. Impaired vascular contractility and aortic wall degeneration in fibulin-4 deficient mice: effect of angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23411 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings may extend the potential therapeutic application of inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system to the preventive treatment of aneurysm disease. ..
  5. Holm T, Habashi J, Doyle J, Bedja D, Chen Y, Van Erp C, et al. Noncanonical TGF? signaling contributes to aortic aneurysm progression in Marfan syndrome mice. Science. 2011;332:358-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, noncanonical (Smad-independent) TGF? signaling is a prominent driver of aortic disease in MFS mice, and inhibition of the ERK1/2 or JNK1 pathways is a potential therapeutic strategy for the disease...
  6. Burch M, Yang S, Ballinger M, Getachew R, Osman N, Little P. TGF-beta stimulates biglycan synthesis via p38 and ERK phosphorylation of the linker region of Smad2. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:2077-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, MAP kinase signaling through ERK and p38 and via phosphorylation of the linker region of Smad2 mediates the effects of TGF-beta on biglycan synthesis in vascular smooth-muscle cells. ..
  7. Mayoral R, Valverde A, Llorente Izquierdo C, Gonzalez Rodriguez A, Bosca L, Martín Sanz P. Impairment of transforming growth factor beta signaling in caveolin-1-deficient hepatocytes: role in liver regeneration. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:3633-42 pubmed publisher
  8. Gao S, Alarcon C, Sapkota G, Rahman S, Chen P, Goerner N, et al. Ubiquitin ligase Nedd4L targets activated Smad2/3 to limit TGF-beta signaling. Mol Cell. 2009;36:457-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Previously identified as a regulator of renal sodium channels, Nedd4L is shown here to play a broader role as a general modulator of Smad turnover during TGF-beta signal transduction. ..
  9. Solomon E, Li H, Duhachek Muggy S, Syta E, Zolkiewska A. The role of SnoN in transforming growth factor beta1-induced expression of metalloprotease-disintegrin ADAM12. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21969-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Identification of SnoN as a repressor of the ADAM12 gene should contribute to advances in the studies on the role of ADAM12 in tumor progression and in the development of other pathologies. ..
  10. Gregory L, Mathie S, Walker S, Pegorier S, Jones C, Lloyd C. Overexpression of Smad2 drives house dust mite-mediated airway remodeling and airway hyperresponsiveness via activin and IL-25. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182:143-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we have identified novel roles for IL-25 and activin A in driving airway hyperreactivity and remodeling. ..
  11. Shinto O, Yashiro M, Toyokawa T, Nishii T, Kaizaki R, Matsuzaki T, et al. Phosphorylated smad2 in advanced stage gastric carcinoma. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:652 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression of p-Smad2 is associated with malignant phenotype and poor prognosis in patients with advanced gastric carcinoma. ..
  12. Lv Z, Na D, Ma X, Zhao C, Zhao W, Xu H. Human peritoneal mesothelial cell transformation into myofibroblasts in response to TGF-ß1 in vitro. Int J Mol Med. 2011;27:187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, mesothelial cells may be the possible source of myofibroblasts in peritoneal fibrosis and provide a favorable environment for the dissemination of gastric cancer. ..
  13. Cohen Solal K, Merrigan K, Chan J, Goydos J, Chen W, Foran D, et al. Constitutive Smad linker phosphorylation in melanoma: a mechanism of resistance to transforming growth factor-?-mediated growth inhibition. Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 2011;24:512-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the linker phosphorylation of Smad3 contributes to the resistance of melanoma cells to TGF?-mediated growth inhibition. ..
  14. Brown S, Teo A, Pauklin S, Hannan N, Cho C, Lim B, et al. Activin/Nodal signaling controls divergent transcriptional networks in human embryonic stem cells and in endoderm progenitors. Stem Cells. 2011;29:1176-85 pubmed publisher
  15. Hannigan A, Smith P, Kalna G, Lo Nigro C, Orange C, O Brien D, et al. Epigenetic downregulation of human disabled homolog 2 switches TGF-beta from a tumor suppressor to a tumor promoter. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:2842-57 pubmed publisher
  16. Cho J, Park H, Lim E, Kim K, Choi J, Lee J, et al. Exosomes from ovarian cancer cells induce adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells to acquire the physical and functional characteristics of tumor-supporting myofibroblasts. Gynecol Oncol. 2011;123:379-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study suggested that ovarian cancer-derived exosomes contribute to the generation of tumor-associated myofibroblasts from MSCs in tumor stroma. ..
  17. Ungefroren H, Sebens S, Groth S, Gieseler F, Fandrich F. The Src family kinase inhibitors PP2 and PP1 block TGF-beta1-mediated cellular responses by direct and differential inhibition of type I and type II TGF-beta receptors. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2011;11:524-35 pubmed
    ..Both agents may be useful as dual TGF-?/Src inhibitors in experimental therapeutics of late stage metastatic disease. ..
  18. Heikkinen P, Nummela M, Leivonen S, Westermarck J, Hill C, Kahari V, et al. Hypoxia-activated Smad3-specific dephosphorylation by PP2A. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:3740-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate the existence of a Smad3-specific phosphatase and identify a novel role for PP2A. Moreover, our data implicate a novel mechanism by which hypoxia regulates growth factor responses. ..
  19. Liu Z, Lin X, Cai Z, Zhang Z, Han C, Jia S, et al. Global identification of SMAD2 target genes reveals a role for multiple co-regulatory factors in zebrafish early gastrulas. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:28520-32 pubmed publisher
  20. Dahle Ø, Kumar A, Kuehn M. Nodal signaling recruits the histone demethylase Jmjd3 to counteract polycomb-mediated repression at target genes. Sci Signal. 2010;3:ra48 pubmed publisher
    ..These data establish a role for Polycomb in imposing a dependency on Nodal signaling for the expression of target genes and reveal how developmental signaling integrates with epigenetic processes to control gene expression. ..
  21. Wang Y, Wang D. Protective effect of TRPV1 against renal fibrosis via inhibition of TGF-?/Smad signaling in DOCA-salt hypertension. Mol Med. 2011;17:1204-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that activation of TRPV1 attenuates the progression of renal fibrosis possibly via suppression of the TGF-? and its downstream regulatory signaling pathway. ..
  22. Zi Z, Feng Z, Chapnick D, Dahl M, Deng D, Klipp E, et al. Quantitative analysis of transient and sustained transforming growth factor-? signaling dynamics. Mol Syst Biol. 2011;7:492 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that long-term switch-like signaling responses in the TGF-? pathway might be critical for cell fate determination. ..
  23. Louafi F, Martinez Nunez R, Sanchez Elsner T. MicroRNA-155 targets SMAD2 and modulates the response of macrophages to transforming growth factor-{beta}. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:41328-36 pubmed publisher evidence of binding of miR-155 to a predicted binding site and the ability of miR-155 to repress SMAD2 protein expression...
  24. Hoot K, Oka M, Han G, Bottinger E, Zhang Q, Wang X. HGF upregulation contributes to angiogenesis in mice with keratinocyte-specific Smad2 deletion. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:3606-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Since Smad2 is often downregulated in human SCCs, our data suggest a therapeutic strategy of blocking HGF/c-Met activation for Smad2-deficient SCCs...
  25. Cho J, Park H, Lim E, Lee K. Exosomes from breast cancer cells can convert adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells into myofibroblast-like cells. Int J Oncol. 2012;40:130-8 pubmed publisher
  26. Huang W, Rubinstein J, Prieto A, Wang D. Enhanced postmyocardial infarction fibrosis via stimulation of the transforming growth factor-beta-Smad2 signaling pathway: role of transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channels. J Hypertens. 2010;28:367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate that TRPV1 plays a protective role in MI healing and regeneration. ..
  27. Khan I, Agarwal P, Thangjam G, Radhesh R, Rao S, Kondaiah P. Role of TGF-? and BMP7 in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. Growth Factors. 2011;29:119-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest activation of TGF-? signaling and suppression of BMP7 expression in the manifestation of OSF. ..
  28. Stewart A, Guan H, Yang K. BMP-3 promotes mesenchymal stem cell proliferation through the TGF-beta/activin signaling pathway. J Cell Physiol. 2010;223:658-66 pubmed publisher
  29. Braun J, Hoang Vu C, Dralle H, Huttelmaier S. Downregulation of microRNAs directs the EMT and invasive potential of anaplastic thyroid carcinomas. Oncogene. 2010;29:4237-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, TGFBR1 inhibition could have a significant potential for the treatment of ATCs and possibly other invasive tumors. ..
  30. Kolosova I, Nethery D, Kern J. Role of Smad2/3 and p38 MAP kinase in TGF-?1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition of pulmonary epithelial cells. J Cell Physiol. 2011;226:1248-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Both Smad2/3 and p38 MAPK had a role in regulation of TGF-?1-induced collagen expression. Furthermore, these data demonstrate that Smads and p38 MAPK differentially regulate EMT-related changes in pulmonary epithelial cells. ..
  31. Fei T, Zhu S, Xia K, Zhang J, Li Z, Han J, et al. Smad2 mediates Activin/Nodal signaling in mesendoderm differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells. Cell Res. 2010;20:1306-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings suggest that Smad2-mediated Activin/Nodal signaling orchestrates mesendoderm lineage commitment of mouse ES cells through direct modulation of corresponding developmental regulator expression. ..
  32. Wang L, Nomura M, Goto Y, Tanaka K, Sakamoto R, Abe I, et al. Smad2 protein disruption in the central nervous system leads to aberrant cerebellar development and early postnatal ataxia in mice. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:18766-74 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that Smad2 plays a key role in cerebellar development and motor function control. ..
  33. Li Y, Kang X, Wang Q. HSP70 decreases receptor-dependent phosphorylation of Smad2 and blocks TGF-?-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition. J Genet Genomics. 2011;38:111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal an essential role of HSP70 in TGF-?-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by impeding Smad2 phosphorylation. ..
  34. Lee K, Lim S, Orlov Y, Yit L, Yang H, Ang L, et al. Graded Nodal/Activin signaling titrates conversion of quantitative phospho-Smad2 levels into qualitative embryonic stem cell fate decisions. PLoS Genet. 2011;7:e1002130 pubmed publisher
  35. Riesco Eizaguirre G, Rodríguez I, De La Vieja A, Costamagna E, Carrasco N, Nistal M, et al. The BRAFV600E oncogene induces transforming growth factor beta secretion leading to sodium iodide symporter repression and increased malignancy in thyroid cancer. Cancer Res. 2009;69:8317-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study describes a novel mechanism of NIS repression in thyroid cancer and provides evidence that TGFbeta may play a key role in promoting radioiodide resistance and tumor invasion during PTC progression. ..
  36. Petersen M, Pardali E, van der Horst G, Cheung H, van den Hoogen C, van der Pluijm G, et al. Smad2 and Smad3 have opposing roles in breast cancer bone metastasis by differentially affecting tumor angiogenesis. Oncogene. 2010;29:1351-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Smad2 and Smad3 differentially affect breast cancer bone metastasis formation in vivo...
  37. Amara N, Goven D, Prost F, Muloway R, Crestani B, Boczkowski J. NOX4/NADPH oxidase expression is increased in pulmonary fibroblasts from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and mediates TGFbeta1-induced fibroblast differentiation into myofibroblasts. Thorax. 2010;65:733-8 pubmed publisher
    ..NOX4 is critical for modulation of the pulmonary myofibroblast phenotype in IPF, probably by modulating the response to TGFbeta1 and PDGF. ..
  38. Liu G, Friggeri A, Yang Y, Milosevic J, Ding Q, Thannickal V, et al. miR-21 mediates fibrogenic activation of pulmonary fibroblasts and lung fibrosis. J Exp Med. 2010;207:1589-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These experiments demonstrate an important role for miR-21 in fibrotic lung diseases and also suggest a novel approach using miRNA therapeutics in treating clinically refractory fibrotic diseases, such as IPF. ..
  39. Shinto O, Yashiro M, Kawajiri H, Shimizu K, Shimizu T, Miwa A, et al. Inhibitory effect of a TGFbeta receptor type-I inhibitor, Ki26894, on invasiveness of scirrhous gastric cancer cells. Br J Cancer. 2010;102:844-51 pubmed publisher
    ..A TbetaR-I kinase inhibitor decreases the invasiveness and EMT of scirrhous gastric cancer cells. Ki26894 is therefore considered to be a promising therapeutic compound for the metastasis of scirrhous gastric carcinoma. ..
  40. Dixon K, Lui G, Kovacevic Z, Zhang D, Yao M, Chen Z, et al. Dp44mT targets the AKT, TGF-? and ERK pathways via the metastasis suppressor NDRG1 in normal prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer cells. Br J Cancer. 2013;108:409-19 pubmed publisher
    ..NDRG1 has an important role in mediating the tumour-suppressive effects of Dp44mT in prostate cancer via selective targeting of the PI3K/AKT, TGF-? and ERK pathways. ..
  41. Hwang O, Park J, Lee E, Lee E, Kim A, Jeong K. Therapeutic Effect of Losartan, an Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Antagonist, on CClâ‚„-Induced Skeletal Muscle Injury. Int J Mol Sci. 2016;17:227 pubmed publisher
    ..01). We hypothesize that systemically elevated TGF-β1 as a result of CCl₄-induced liver injury causes skeletal muscle injury, while losartan promotes muscle repair from injury via blockade of TGF-β1 signaling. ..
  42. Sun R, Luo Y, Li J, Wang Q, Li J, Chen X, et al. Ammonium chloride inhibits autophagy of hepatocellular carcinoma cells through SMAD2 signaling. Tumour Biol. 2015;36:1173-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that induction of SMAD2 in HCC cells completely abolished the inhibitory effect of NH4Cl on rapamycin-induced autophagy in HCC cells, suggesting that NH4Cl inhibits autophagy of HCC cells through inhibiting SMAD2 signaling. ..
  43. Ryu S, Yoon J, Yim N, Choi K, Choi C. Downregulation of OPA3 is responsible for transforming growth factor-?-induced mitochondrial elongation and F-actin rearrangement in retinal pigment epithelial ARPE-19 cells. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e63495 pubmed publisher
    ..Depletion of Mfn1 blocked the increase in cell length during TGF-?-mediated EMT. These results collectively substantiate the involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in TGF-?-induced EMT. ..
  44. Itoh F, Itoh S, Adachi T, Ichikawa K, Matsumura Y, Takagi T, et al. Smad2/Smad3 in endothelium is indispensable for vascular stability via S1PR1 and N-cadherin expressions. Blood. 2012;119:5320-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that Smad2/3 signaling in ECs is indispensable for maintenance of vascular integrity via the fine-tuning of N-cadherin, VE-cadherin, and S1PR1 expressions in the vasculature...
  45. Zeng J, Dou Y, Guo J, Wu X, Dai Y. Paeoniflorin of Paeonia lactiflora prevents renal interstitial fibrosis induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction in mice. Phytomedicine. 2013;20:753-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest that PF can effectively prevent renal interstitial fibrosis, and the underlying mechanisms are, at least in part, through blocking EMT via BMP-7 recovery and TGF-?/Smad signaling inhibition...
  46. Li C, Nie H, Wang M, Su L, Li J, Yu Y, et al. microRNA-155 is downregulated in gastric cancer cells and involved in cell metastasis. Oncol Rep. 2012;27:1960-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that miR-155 may function as a tumor suppressor to regulate gastric cancer cell metastasis by targeting SMAD2, and its downregulation in gastric cancer cells may be partly ascribed to DNA methylation. ..
  47. Guo X, Stice S, Boyd N, Chen S. A novel in vitro model system for smooth muscle differentiation from human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2013;304:C289-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our study characterized a novel SMC differentiation model that can be used for studying human SMC differentiation from mesoderm during vascular development. ..
  48. Bourgeois B, Gilquin B, Tellier Lebegue C, Ostlund C, Wu W, Perez J, et al. Inhibition of TGF-? signaling at the nuclear envelope: characterization of interactions between MAN1, Smad2 and Smad3, and PPM1A. Sci Signal. 2013;6:ra49 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a nuclear envelope-localized mechanism of inactivating TGF-? signaling in which MAN1 competes with transcription factors for binding to Smad2 and Smad3 and facilitates their dephosphorylation by PPM1A...
  49. Peterson A, Jensen P, Shimell M, Stefancsik R, Wijayatonge R, Herder R, et al. R-Smad competition controls activin receptor output in Drosophila. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e36548 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the dual activity of TGF-?/Activin receptors is an ancient feature, and we discuss several ways this activity can modulate TGF-? signaling output. ..
  50. Velten M, Britt R, Heyob K, Tipple T, Rogers L. Maternal dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation attenuates fetal growth restriction and enhances pulmonary function in a newborn mouse model of perinatal inflammation. J Nutr. 2014;144:258-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In a model of severe inflammation, maternal DHA supplementation lessened inflammation and improved lung growth in the offspring. Maternal supplementation with DHA may be a therapeutic strategy to reduce neonatal inflammation. ..
  51. Kim K, Sampson E, Maynard R, O Keefe R, Chen D, Drissi H, et al. Ski inhibits TGF-?/phospho-Smad3 signaling and accelerates hypertrophic differentiation in chondrocytes. J Cell Biochem. 2012;113:2156-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that inhibition of TGF-? signaling by Ski, which involves its association with phospho-Smad3 and recruitment of HDAC4 and 5, leads to accelerated chondrocyte differentiation. ..
  52. Wang N, Ren G, Zhou Z, Xu Y, Qin T, Yu R, et al. Cooperation of myocardin and Smad2 in inducing differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into smooth muscle cells. IUBMB Life. 2012;64:331-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal the cooperation of myocardin and Smad2 in process of MSC differentiation into SMCs. ..
  53. Li C, Wang J, Kong J, Tang J, Wu Y, Xu E, et al. GDF15 promotes EMT and metastasis in colorectal cancer. Oncotarget. 2016;7:860-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, GDF15 may promote colorectal cancer metastasis through activating EMT. Promisingly, GDF15 could be considered as a novel prognostic marker for CRC in the clinic. ..