ets domain protein elk 1

Summary

Summary: A member of the ternary complex family of ets-related transcription factors that is regulated by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES including JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 1; MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE 3; and P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.

Top Publications

  1. Townsend K, Zhou P, Qian L, Bieszczad C, Lowrey C, Yen A, et al. Regulation of MCL1 through a serum response factor/Elk-1-mediated mechanism links expression of a viability-promoting member of the BCL2 family to the induction of hematopoietic cell differentiation. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:1801-13 pubmed
    ..g. c-FOS and EGR1) that affect maturation commitment in these cells and therefore suggests a means through which enhancement of cell viability may be linked to the induction of differentiation. ..
  2. Boros J, Donaldson I, O Donnell A, Odrowaz Z, Zeef L, Lupien M, et al. Elucidation of the ELK1 target gene network reveals a role in the coordinate regulation of core components of the gene regulation machinery. Genome Res. 2009;19:1963-73 pubmed publisher
  3. Nentwich O, Dingwell K, Nordheim A, Smith J. Downstream of FGF during mesoderm formation in Xenopus: the roles of Elk-1 and Egr-1. Dev Biol. 2009;336:313-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the myogenic regulatory factor XMyoD is activated by XEgr-1 in a direct manner. We discuss these counterintuitive results in terms of the genetic regulatory network to which XEgr-1 contributes. ..
  4. Choi C, Sellak H, Brown F, Lincoln T. cGMP-dependent protein kinase and the regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell gene expression: possible involvement of Elk-1 sumoylation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010;299:H1660-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that PKG-I decreases Elk-1 activity by sumo modification of Elk-1, thereby increasing myocardin-SRF activity on SMC-specific gene expression. ..
  5. Mitra A, Gao L, Zucker I. Angiotensin II-induced upregulation of AT(1) receptor expression: sequential activation of NF-kappaB and Elk-1 in neurons. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;299:C561-9 pubmed publisher
    ..a cell neuronal model. These data imply a positive feedback mechanism that may impact neuronal discharge sensitivity in response to ANG II. ..
  6. Lee S, Vasishtha M, Prywes R. Activation and repression of cellular immediate early genes by serum response factor cofactors. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:22036-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the TCFs can function both as activators and repressors of target gene expression depending upon the cellular growth conditions. ..
  7. He K, Aizenman E. ERK signaling leads to mitochondrial dysfunction in extracellular zinc-induced neurotoxicity. J Neurochem. 2010;114:452-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide new insight on the mechanism of extracellular zinc-induced toxicity in which the regulation of mitochondrial function by the Ras/MEK/ERK pathway is closely associated with neuronal viability. ..
  8. Köenig A, Linhart T, Schlengemann K, Reutlinger K, Wegele J, Adler G, et al. NFAT-induced histone acetylation relay switch promotes c-Myc-dependent growth in pancreatic cancer cells. Gastroenterology. 2010;138:1189-99.e1-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study uncovers a novel mechanism regulating cell growth and identifies the NFAT/ELK complex as modulators of early stages of mitogen-stimulated proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells. ..
  9. Schmitt J, Abell E, Wagner A, Davare M. ERK activation and cell growth require CaM kinases in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;335:155-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results suggest that carbachol treatment of MCF-7 cells activates CaM KI, ERK, the transcription factor Elk-1, cyclin D1, and cell growth through CaM KK. ..

More Information

Publications62

  1. Shin S, Song H, Kim C, Choi Y, Lee K, Lee S, et al. Egr-1 is necessary for fibroblast growth factor-2-induced transcriptional activation of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor in murine astrocytes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:30583-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that FGF2-induced Gdnf expression is mediated by the induction of Egr-1 through activation of the ERK and JNK/Elk-1 signaling pathways. ..
  2. Yu J, Bulk E, Ji P, Hascher A, Koschmieder S, Berdel W, et al. The kinase defective EPHB6 receptor tyrosine kinase activates MAP kinase signaling in lung adenocarcinoma. Int J Oncol. 2009;35:175-9 pubmed
    ..Intriguingly, EPHB6-induced phosphorylation of ERK was uncoupled by activation of the Elk-1 transcriptional factor. These analyses suggest that kinase defective EPHB6 can lead to MAPK activation. ..
  3. Garcia Garcia E, Nieto Castañeda G, Ruiz Saldaña M, Mora N, Rosales C. FcgammaRIIA and FcgammaRIIIB mediate nuclear factor activation through separate signaling pathways in human neutrophils. J Immunol. 2009;182:4547-56 pubmed publisher
    ..FcgammaRIIIB, but not FcgammaRIIA, activates a unique signaling pathway leading to the nuclear-restricted phosphorylation of ERK and Elk-1, independently of Syk, PI3K, or MEK. ..
  4. Tamama K, Sen C, Wells A. Differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into the smooth muscle lineage by blocking ERK/MAPK signaling pathway. Stem Cells Dev. 2008;17:897-908 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach has obvious implications for cell therapeutics and tissue engineering of hollow visceral organs such as blood vessels. ..
  5. Tripathi A, Sodhi A. Growth hormone-induced production of cytokines in murine peritoneal macrophages in vitro: role of JAK/STAT, PI3K, PKC and MAP kinases. Immunobiology. 2009;214:430-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that JAK2 plays a central role in mediating proinflammatory responses of macrophages on GH treatment...
  6. Mancinelli R, Onori P, Gaudio E, Demorrow S, Franchitto A, Francis H, et al. Follicle-stimulating hormone increases cholangiocyte proliferation by an autocrine mechanism via cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and Elk-1. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2009;297:G11-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Silencing of FSH gene decreases cholangiocyte proliferation and ERK1/2 and Elk-1 phosphorylation. Modulation of cholangiocyte FSH expression may be important for the management of cholangiopathies. ..
  7. Li L, Saxton J, Shaw P. Post-translational control of ETS transcription factors: detection of modified factors at target gene promoters. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;647:279-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Here chromatin immunoprecipitation is used to demonstrate the inducible appearance of phosphorylated Elk-1 at the human c-fos promoter. ..
  8. Ferreiro I, Barragan M, Gubern A, Ballestar E, Joaquin M, Posas F. The p38 SAPK is recruited to chromatin via its interaction with transcription factors. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:31819-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, SAPK recruitment to target genes appears to be a broad mechanism to regulate transcription that has been preserved from yeast to mammals. ..
  9. Tur G, Georgieva E, Gagete A, López Rodas G, Rodriguez J, Franco L. Factor binding and chromatin modification in the promoter of murine Egr1 gene upon induction. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:4065-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The changes in histone acetylation and the differential recruitment of histone-modifying complexes further show the role of chromatin in the activation of this immediate-early gene. ..
  10. Stegmeier F, Sowa M, Nalepa G, Gygi S, Harper J, Elledge S. The tumor suppressor CYLD regulates entry into mitosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:8869-74 pubmed
    ..We propose that this additional function of CYLD could provide an explanation for the benign nature of most cylindroma lesions. ..
  11. Muller I, Endo T, Thiel G. Regulation of AP-1 activity in glucose-stimulated insulinoma cells. J Cell Biochem. 2010;110:1481-94 pubmed publisher
  12. Uchiumi F, Enokida K, Shiraishi T, Masumi A, Tanuma S. Characterization of the promoter region of the human IGHMBP2 (Smubp-2) gene and its response to TPA in HL-60 cells. Gene. 2010;463:8-17 pubmed publisher
    ..1 modulates TPA-induced IGHMBP2 promoter activity. Taken together, these observations suggest that the duplicated GGAA motifs are essential for the IGHMBP2 promoter activity and its positive response to TPA in HL-60 cells. ..
  13. Yang X, Jin Y, Cattini P. Appearance of the pituitary factor Pit-1 increases chromatin remodeling at hypersensitive site III in the human GH locus. J Mol Endocrinol. 2010;45:19-32 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are consistent with recruitment and an early role for Pit-1 in remodeling of the GH LCR at the constitutively open HS III through protein-protein interaction. ..
  14. Person R, Whalen M. Effects of butyltin exposures on MAP kinase-dependent transcription regulators in human natural killer cells. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2010;20:227-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, it appears that TBT-induced alterations on phosphorylation, total levels, and binding activity of c-Jun might contribute to, but are not fully responsible for, TBT-induced alterations of NK protein expression. ..
  15. Hung C, Liu X, Kwon M, Kang Y, Chung S, Perrella M. Regulation of heme oxygenase-1 gene by peptidoglycan involves the interaction of Elk-1 and C/EBPalpha to increase expression. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2010;298:L870-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, silencing of C/EBPalpha in macrophages prevented induction of HO-1 promoter activity by either Elk-1 or PGN. These data provide further insight into the regulation and function of HO-1 by a mediator of Gram-positive bacteria. ..
  16. Asur R, Balasubramaniam M, Marples B, Thomas R, Tucker J. Bystander effects induced by chemicals and ionizing radiation: evaluation of changes in gene expression of downstream MAPK targets. Mutagenesis. 2010;25:271-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide evidence for bystander-induced changes in MAPK proteins and downstream targets and suggest that the bystander effects are a part of a general stress response. ..
  17. Sharma A, Callahan L, Sul J, Kim T, Barrett L, Kim M, et al. A neurotoxic phosphoform of Elk-1 associates with inclusions from multiple neurodegenerative diseases. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9002 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a molecular link between the presence of inclusions and neuronal loss that is shared across a spectrum of neurodegenerative disease. ..
  18. Mahmoodzadeh S, Dworatzek E, Fritschka S, Pham T, Regitz Zagrosek V. 17beta-Estradiol inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-2 transcription via MAP kinase in fibroblasts. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;85:719-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These mechanisms may contribute to sex-specific differences in fibrotic processes that are observed in human heart and other diseases. ..
  19. Jong Y, Kumar V, O Malley K. Intracellular metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) activates signaling cascades distinct from cell surface counterparts. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35827-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Glutamate activation of intracellular mGluR5 serves an important role in the regulation of nuclear Ca(2+), transcriptional activation, and gene expression necessary for physiological processes such as synaptic plasticity. ..
  20. Trifilieff P, Lavaur J, Pascoli V, Kappes V, Brami Cherrier K, Pages C, et al. Endocytosis controls glutamate-induced nuclear accumulation of ERK. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2009;41:325-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide the first evidence that the endocytic pathway controls ERK nuclear translocation and ERK-dependent gene regulations induced by glutamate. ..
  21. Wang P, Sun B, Hao D, Zhang X, Shi T, Ma D. Human TMEM174 that is highly expressed in kidney tissue activates AP-1 and promotes cell proliferation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:993-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible mechanism of activation of AP-1 by TMEM174 was further examined. Our results suggest the potential role of TMEM174 in renal development and physiological function. ..
  22. Sampey B, Carbone D, Doorn J, Drechsel D, Petersen D. 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal adduction of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and the inhibition of hepatocyte Erk-Est-like protein-1-activating protein-1 signal transduction. Mol Pharmacol. 2007;71:871-83 pubmed
    ..These novel results show that the formation of 4-HNE-Erk-1/2 monomer-adducts results in the inhibition of Erk-Elk-AP-1 signaling in hepatocytes and implicates the His 178 residue with the mechanism of inhibition. ..
  23. Israel D, Regan J. EP(3) prostanoid receptor isoforms utilize distinct mechanisms to regulate ERK 1/2 activation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1791:238-45 pubmed publisher
    ..These differences result in unique differences in the regulation of reporter plasmid activity for the downstream effectors ELK1 and AP-1 by the EP(3-II) and EP(3-III) prostanoid receptor isoforms. ..
  24. Costello P, Nicolas R, Willoughby J, Wasylyk B, Nordheim A, Treisman R. Ternary complex factors SAP-1 and Elk-1, but not net, are functionally equivalent in thymocyte development. J Immunol. 2010;185:1082-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Ectopic expression of Egr-1 restored positive selection in SAP-1 null thymocytes, establishing it (and possibly other Egr family members) as the major effector for ERK-SAP-1 signaling in thymocyte positive selection. ..
  25. Mamali I, Lamprou I, Karagiannis F, Karakantza M, Lampropoulou M, Marmaras V. A beta integrin subunit regulates bacterial phagocytosis in medfly haemocytes. Dev Comp Immunol. 2009;33:858-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly LPS is not internalized through integrins. ..
  26. Osabe M, Sugatani J, Takemura A, Kurosawa M, Yamazaki Y, Ikari A, et al. Up-regulation of CAR expression through Elk-1 in HepG2 and SW480 cells by serum starvation stress. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:885-9 pubmed publisher
  27. Wang H, Hsieh H, Wu C, Yang C. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression via PKC-delta/p42/p44 MAPK/Elk-1 cascade in brain astrocytes. Neurotox Res. 2010;17:50-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the regulatory mechanisms by which oxLDL induced MMP-9 expression in astrocytes might provide a new therapeutic strategy of brain diseases. ..
  28. Yang L, RAZZAGHI H, Hokanson J, Kamboh M. Identification and characterization of a novel 5 bp deletion in a putative insulin response element in the lipoprotein lipase gene. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1791:1057-65 pubmed publisher
    ..There was also a slight reduction in LPL translation in the deletion mutant. Our data suggest the presence of an IRE in the 3'UTR of the LPL gene. ..
  29. Jiang J, Yang W, Huang P, Bu X, Zhang N, Li J. Increased phosphorylation of Ets-like transcription factor-1 in neurons of hypoxic preconditioned mice. Neurochem Res. 2009;34:1443-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that the enhanced neuron-specific phosphorylation of Elk-1 at Ser383 is involved in cerebral HPC of mice. ..
  30. Shukla A, Jain M, Chauhan S. Ets-1/Elk-1 is a critical mediator of dipeptidyl-peptidase III transcription in human glioblastoma cells. FEBS J. 2010;277:1861-75 pubmed publisher
    ..From these results, we conclude that Ets-1/Elk-1 plays a critical role in transcription of the human DPP-III gene. ..
  31. Esfandyari T, Tefferi A, Szmidt A, Alain T, Zwolak P, Lasho T, et al. Transcription factors down-stream of Ras as molecular indicators for targeting malignancies with oncolytic herpes virus. Mol Oncol. 2009;3:464-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study, therefore, for the first time documents permissiveness of lymphoma cells to oncolytic herpes viruses and introduces ELK as a suitable factor for predicting tumor susceptibility to these novel anticancer agents. ..
  32. Bardwell A, Frankson E, Bardwell L. Selectivity of docking sites in MAPK kinases. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13165-73 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that MAPK-docking sites in MAPK kinases bind selectively to their cognate MAPKs. ..
  33. Vispé S, DeVries L, Creancier L, Besse J, Bréand S, Hobson D, et al. Triptolide is an inhibitor of RNA polymerase I and II-dependent transcription leading predominantly to down-regulation of short-lived mRNA. Mol Cancer Ther. 2009;8:2780-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the data shed light on the effect of triptolide on transcription, along with its novel potential applications in cancers, including acute myeloid leukemia, which is in part driven by the aforementioned oncogenic factors. ..
  34. Maniccia A, Lewis C, Begum N, Xu J, Cui J, Chipitsyna G, et al. Mitochondrial localization, ELK-1 transcriptional regulation and growth inhibitory functions of BRCA1, BRCA1a, and BRCA1b proteins. J Cell Physiol. 2009;219:634-41 pubmed publisher
    ..J. Cell. Physiol. 219: 634-641, 2009. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. ..
  35. Lattka E, Eggers S, Moeller G, Heim K, Weber M, Mehta D, et al. A common FADS2 promoter polymorphism increases promoter activity and facilitates binding of transcription factor ELK1. J Lipid Res. 2010;51:182-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that rs968567 influences FADS2 transcription and offer first insights into the modulation of complex regulation mechanisms of FADS2 gene transcription by SNPs. ..
  36. Boros J, O Donnell A, Donaldson I, Kasza A, Zeef L, Sharrocks A. Overlapping promoter targeting by Elk-1 and other divergent ETS-domain transcription factor family members. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:7368-80 pubmed publisher
  37. Wang W, Huang L, Huang Y, Yin J, Berk A, Friedman J, et al. Mediator MED23 links insulin signaling to the adipogenesis transcription cascade. Dev Cell. 2009;16:764-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results suggest that Med23 serves as a critical link transducing insulin signaling to the transcriptional cascade during adipocyte differentiation. ..
  38. Ronda A, Buitrago C, Boland R. Role of estrogen receptors, PKC and Src in ERK2 and p38 MAPK signaling triggered by 17?-estradiol in skeletal muscle cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;122:287-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, these data indicate that 17?-estradiol activates ERK2 through ER? and p38 MAPK in an ER?/?-independent manner and that PKC and Src proteins are key upstream components on MAPKs activation in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells. ..
  39. Christoffersen N, Shalgi R, Frankel L, Leucci E, Lees M, Klausen M, et al. p53-independent upregulation of miR-34a during oncogene-induced senescence represses MYC. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:236-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, in addition to its integration in the p53 pathway, we show that alternative cancer-related pathways regulate miR-34a, emphasising its significance as a tumour suppressor. ..
  40. Kilka S, Erdmann F, Migdoll A, Fischer G, Weiwad M. The proline-rich N-terminal sequence of calcineurin Abeta determines substrate binding. Biochemistry. 2009;48:1900-10 pubmed publisher
  41. Kasza A, Wyrzykowska P, Horwacik I, Tymoszuk P, Mizgalska D, Palmer K, et al. Transcription factors Elk-1 and SRF are engaged in IL1-dependent regulation of ZC3H12A expression. BMC Mol Biol. 2010;11:14 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the transcription factor Elk-1 plays an important role in the activation of ZC3H12A expression in response to IL-1beta stimulation. ..
  42. Ochs M, Rink L, Tarn C, Mburu S, Taguchi T, Eisenberg B, et al. Detection of treatment-induced changes in signaling pathways in gastrointestinal stromal tumors using transcriptomic data. Cancer Res. 2009;69:9125-32 pubmed publisher
    ..DESIDE infers the global reprogramming of signaling networks during treatment, permitting treatment modification that leverages ongoing drug development efforts, which is crucial for personalized medicine. ..
  43. Wang W, Cui Q, Li Y, Li B, Yang X, Cui L, et al. The role of ERK-1/2 in the N/OFQ-induced inhibition of delayed rectifier potassium currents. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;394:1058-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the ERK-1/2 pathway, at least in part, mediates the inhibitory effect of N/OFQ on the I(K) in acutely dissociated rat cerebral parietal cortical neurons. ..
  44. Kerr N, Pintzas A, Holmes F, Hobson S, Pope R, Wallace M, et al. The expression of ELK transcription factors in adult DRG: Novel isoforms, antisense transcripts and upregulation by nerve damage. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;44:165-77 pubmed publisher
    ..3-fold in DRG (P<0.005), whereas the natural antisense Pctaire2 isoforms show only a small increase (21%, P<0.01) and Elk1 and Elk4 mRNAs are unchanged. ..
  45. Zhong S, Johnson D. The JNKs differentially regulate RNA polymerase III transcription by coordinately modulating the expression of all TFIIIB subunits. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:12682-7 pubmed publisher
  46. Ng M, Ng R, Kong C, Jin D, Chan L. Activation of Ras-dependent Elk-1 activity by MLL-AF4 family fusion oncoproteins. Exp Hematol. 2010;38:481-8 pubmed publisher
  47. Cotta Grand N, Rovere C, Guyon A, Cervantes A, Brau F, Nahon J. Melanin-concentrating hormone induces neurite outgrowth in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells through p53 and MAPKinase signaling pathways. Peptides. 2009;30:2014-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results provide the first evidence for a role of MCH in neuronal differentiation of endogenously MCH-R1-expressing cells via non-exclusive MAPKinase and p53 signaling pathways. ..
  48. Witty J, Aguilar Martinez E, Sharrocks A. SENP1 participates in the dynamic regulation of Elk-1 SUMOylation. Biochem J. 2010;428:247-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results therefore reveal an important role for SENP1 in the regulation of Elk-1-mediated gene expression in response to mitogenic signalling cues. ..
  49. Zhou W, Negash S, Liu J, Raj J. Modulation of pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype in hypoxia: role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase and myocardin. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;296:L780-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The inhibitory effects of hypoxia on PKG may explain hypoxia-induced SMC phenotype modulation by decreasing the effects of PKG on myocardin. ..
  50. Mayer S, Rössler O, Endo T, Charnay P, Thiel G. Epidermal-growth-factor-induced proliferation of astrocytes requires Egr transcription factors. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3340-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data show that Egr transcription factors are essential for conversion of the mitogenic signal of EGF into a proliferative response. ..
  51. Boufaied N, Wioland M, Falardeau P, Gourdeau H. TLN-4601, a novel anticancer agent, inhibits Ras signaling post Ras prenylation and before MEK activation. Anticancer Drugs. 2010;21:543-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, TLN-4601 induces Raf-1 proteasomal-dependent degradation. These data indicate that TLN-4601 may inhibit the Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase-signaling pathway by depleting the Raf-1 protein...
  52. Kenzel S, Santos Sierra S, Deshmukh S, Moeller I, Ergin B, Fitzgerald K, et al. Role of p38 and early growth response factor 1 in the macrophage response to group B streptococcus. Infect Immun. 2009;77:2474-81 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, MyD88, p38, and Egr-1, but not Elk-1, essentially mediate the inflammatory cytokine response to GBS organisms. ..
  53. Caposio P, Luganini A, Bronzini M, Landolfo S, Gribaudo G. The Elk-1 and serum response factor binding sites in the major immediate-early promoter of human cytomegalovirus are required for efficient viral replication in quiescent cells and compensate for inactivation of the NF-kappaB sites in proliferating c. J Virol. 2010;84:4481-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations highlight the importance of the combination of different MIEP binding sites to optimize IE gene expression in cells in different physiological states. ..