ternary complex factors


Summary: A subclass of c-ets proto-oncogene proteins that were first described by their property of binding to DNA when associated with other regulatory proteins such as SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. They contain an amino-terminal ets domain that binds to DNA along with centrally located SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR interacting domain, and carboxy-terminal map kinase activation domains. They play an important role in transcriptional regulation by INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.

Top Publications

  1. Rothe K, Solinski H, Boekhoff I, Gudermann T, Breit A. Morphine activates the E twenty six-like transcription factor-1/serum response factor pathway via extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 in F11 cells derived from dorsal root ganglia neurons. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2012;342:41-52 pubmed publisher
    ..signal-regulated kinases-1/2 (ERK-1/2)-mediated activation of the serum response factor (SRF) and ternary complex factors (TCFs) such as the E twenty six-like transcription factor-1 (ELK-1) in this context...
  2. Kerr N, Pintzas A, Holmes F, Hobson S, Pope R, Wallace M, et al. The expression of ELK transcription factors in adult DRG: Novel isoforms, antisense transcripts and upregulation by nerve damage. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;44:165-77 pubmed publisher
    ..3-fold in DRG (P<0.005), whereas the natural antisense Pctaire2 isoforms show only a small increase (21%, P<0.01) and Elk1 and Elk4 mRNAs are unchanged. ..
  3. Zaromytidou A, Miralles F, Treisman R. MAL and ternary complex factor use different mechanisms to contact a common surface on the serum response factor DNA-binding domain. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:4134-48 pubmed
    ..We propose a model of MAL-SRF complex formation in which MAL interacts with SRF by the addition of a beta-strand to the SRF DNA-binding domain beta-sheet region, while SRF-induced DNA bending facilitates MAL-DNA contact. ..
  4. Nakaoka H, Hara T, Yoshino S, Kanamori A, Matsui Y, Shimamura T, et al. NECAB3 Promotes Activation of Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 during Normoxia and Enhances Tumourigenicity of Cancer Cells. Sci Rep. 2016;6:22784 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of NECAB3 in cancer cells by either expressing shRNAs or generating a dominant negative mutant reduced tumourigenicity. Taken together, the data indicate that NECAB3 is a promising new target for cancer therapy. ..
  5. Namekata K, Watanabe H, Guo X, Kittaka D, Kawamura K, Kimura A, et al. Dock3 regulates BDNF-TrkB signaling for neurite outgrowth by forming a ternary complex with Elmo and RhoG. Genes Cells. 2012;17:688-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Dock3 plays important roles downstream of BDNF signaling in the central nervous system where it stimulates actin polymerization by multiple pathways. ..
  6. Lee S, Vasishtha M, Prywes R. Activation and repression of cellular immediate early genes by serum response factor cofactors. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:22036-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Two families of SRF coactivators have also been implicated in IEG induction, the ternary complex factors (TCFs), ELK1, Sap1, and Net, and the myocardin-related factors, MKL1 and MKL2...
  7. Sharma P, Dube D, Sinha M, Yadav S, Kaur P, Sharma S, et al. Structural insights into the dual strategy of recognition by peptidoglycan recognition protein, PGRP-S: structure of the ternary complex of PGRP-S with lipopolysaccharide and stearic acid. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e53756 pubmed publisher
    ..2 Å) while SA formed 56 van der Waals contacts. The ELISA test showed that increased levels of productions of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IFN-? due to LPS and SA decreased considerably upon the addition of CPGRP-S. ..
  8. Wozniak M, Cheng C, Shen C, Gao L, Olarerin George A, Won K, et al. Adhesion regulates MAP kinase/ternary complex factor exchange to control a proliferative transcriptional switch. Curr Biol. 2012;22:2017-26 pubmed publisher
    The ternary complex factors (TCFs; Elk1, Net, and Sap-1) are growth factor-responsive transcription cofactors of serum response factor (SRF) and are activated by MAP kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation to regulate immediate early gene ..
  9. Gross C, Buchwalter G, Dubois Pot H, Cler E, Zheng H, Wasylyk B. The ternary complex factor net is downregulated by hypoxia and regulates hypoxia-responsive genes. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:4133-41 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the Net TCF is part of the biological response to hypoxia, adding a new component to an important pathological and physiological process. ..

More Information


  1. Rapraeger A. Synstatin: a selective inhibitor of the syndecan-1-coupled IGF1R-?v?3 integrin complex in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis. FEBS J. 2013;280:2207-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes our current knowledge of the Sdc1-coupled ternary receptor complex and the efficacy of synstatin as an emerging therapeutic agent to target this signaling mechanism. ..
  2. Krishnamurthy S, Moorthy B, Liqin L, Anand G. Dynamics of phosphodiesterase-induced cAMP dissociation from protein kinase A: capturing transient ternary complexes by HDXMS. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1834:1215-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mass spectrometry in structural biology. ..
  3. Gu J, Wang X, Jiang X, Chen Y, Chen L, Fang X, et al. Self-assembled carboxymethyl poly (L-histidine) coated poly (?-amino ester)/DNA complexes for gene transfection. Biomaterials. 2012;33:644-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Our approach and the gene delivery system fabrication could potentially be useful for effective gene delivery and therapies to targeted cells. ..
  4. Gross C, Dubois Pot H, Wasylyk B. The ternary complex factor Net/Elk-3 participates in the transcriptional response to hypoxia and regulates HIF-1 alpha. Oncogene. 2008;27:1333-41 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that Net participates in the transcriptional response to hypoxia by regulation of HIF-1alpha protein stability. ..
  5. Solinski H, Petermann F, Rothe K, Boekhoff I, Gudermann T, Breit A. Human Mas-related G protein-coupled receptors-X1 induce chemokine receptor 2 expression in rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and release of chemokine ligand 2 from the human LAD-2 mast cell line. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e58756 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the important role of chemokine signaling in pain chronification, we propose that interruption of this signaling circuit might be a promising new strategy to alleviate chemokine-promoted pain. ..
  6. Okumura M, Katsuyama A, Shibata H, Maki M. VPS37 isoforms differentially modulate the ternary complex formation of ALIX, ALG-2, and ESCRT-I. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2013;77:1715-21 pubmed
    ..The results of in vitro binding assays using purified recombinant proteins indicated that ALG-2 functions as a Ca²?-dependent adaptor protein that bridges ALIX and ESCRT-I to form a ternary complex, ESCRT-I/ALIX/ALG-2. ..
  7. Walter J, Werther R, Brison C, Cragerud R, Healey J, Meeks S, et al. Structure of the factor VIII C2 domain in a ternary complex with 2 inhibitor antibodies reveals classical and nonclassical epitopes. Blood. 2013;122:4270-8 pubmed publisher
  8. Li B, Ni P, Zhu Q, Cao H, Xu H, Zhang S, et al. Growth inhibitory effect of the ternary complex factor Net on human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2008;216:139-47 pubmed
    ..Therefore, Net might be a potential target for the treatment of c-fos-positive pancreatic cancer. ..
  9. Mayer S, Thiel G. Calcium influx into MIN6 insulinoma cells induces expression of Egr-1 involving extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase and the transcription factors Elk-1 and CREB. Eur J Cell Biol. 2009;88:19-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The newly synthesized Egr-1 is biologically active and binds under physiological conditions to the genes encoding basic fibroblast growth factor, tumor necrosis factor alpha, transforming growth factor beta and PTEN. ..
  10. Galardi Castilla M, Pergolizzi B, Bloomfield G, Skelton J, Ivens A, Kay R, et al. SrfB, a member of the Serum Response Factor family of transcription factors, regulates starvation response and early development in Dictyostelium. Dev Biol. 2008;316:260-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Genes coding for lysosomal and ribosomal proteins, developmentally-regulated genes, and some genes coding for proteins involved in cytoskeleton regulation were deregulated during the first stages of development. ..
  11. Descot A, Rex Haffner M, Courtois G, Bluteau D, Menssen A, Mercher T, et al. OTT-MAL is a deregulated activator of serum response factor-dependent gene expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:6171-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that the deregulated activation of MAL-dependent and -independent promoters results in tissue-specific functions of OTT-MAL. ..
  12. Gilbert G. Factor VIII inhibitor epitopes and an enigma. Blood. 2013;122:4160-1 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue of Blood, Walter et al provide an x-ray crystallographic structure of the factor VIII C2 domain in complex with 2 antibodies that illuminates how inhibitory antibodies complicate hemophilia A therapy. ..
  13. Rapraeger A, Ell B, Roy M, Li X, Morrison O, Thomas G, et al. Vascular endothelial-cadherin stimulates syndecan-1-coupled insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor and cross-talk between ?V?3 integrin and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 at the onset of endothelial cell dissemination during angiogenesi. FEBS J. 2013;280:2194-206 pubmed publisher
  14. Tan D, Marzluff W, Dominski Z, Tong L. Structure of histone mRNA stem-loop, human stem-loop binding protein, and 3'hExo ternary complex. Science. 2013;339:318-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The 3' flanking sequence is positioned in the 3'hExo active site, but the ternary complex limits the extent of trimming. ..
  15. Nemeth A, Pérez Fernández J, Merkl P, Hamperl S, Gerber J, Griesenbeck J, et al. RNA polymerase I termination: Where is the end?. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1829:306-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Transcription by Odd Pols. ..
  16. Laishram R, Gowrishankar J. Environmental regulation operating at the promoter clearance step of bacterial transcription. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1258-72 pubmed
    ..coli cells, the ternary complex remains assembled and poised at the argO promoter at all times to respond, positively or negatively, to instantaneous changes in the ratio of intracellular Arg to Lys concentrations. ..
  17. Sekulic N, Black B. Molecular underpinnings of centromere identity and maintenance. Trends Biochem Sci. 2012;37:220-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, recent structural and dynamic studies of CENP-A-containing histone complexes - before and after assembly into nucleosomes - provide models to explain underlying molecular mechanisms at the centromere. ..
  18. Zhang S, Song M, Yang T, Fan R, Liu X, Zhou P. HIV-1 Tat impairs cell cycle control by targeting the Tip60, Plk1 and cyclin B1 ternary complex. Cell Cycle. 2012;11:1217-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Tat, Tip60, cyclin B1 and Plk1 interactions provide new a mechanistic explanation for Tat-mediated cell cycle dysregulation and apoptosis. ..
  19. Rössler O, Thiel G. Thrombin induces Egr-1 expression in fibroblasts involving elevation of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, phosphorylation of ERK and activation of ternary complex factor. BMC Mol Biol. 2009;10:40 pubmed publisher
    ..Elk-1 completely prevented Egr-1 expression in stimulated 39M1-81 cells, indicating that Elk-1 or related ternary complex factors connect the intracellular signaling cascade elicited by activation of protease-activated receptors with ..
  20. Balamotis M, Pennella M, Stevens J, Wasylyk B, Belmont A, Berk A. Complexity in transcription control at the activation domain-mediator interface. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra20 pubmed publisher
    ..Transcriptome analysis suggests that most genes expressed in both cell types, such as Egr1, are regulated by alternative transcription factors in the two cell types that respond differently to the same signal transduction pathways...
  21. Potter J, Kerou M, Lamble H, Bull S, Hough D, Danson M, et al. The structure of Sulfolobus solfataricus 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate kinase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2008;64:1283-7 pubmed publisher
  22. Shyu Y, Suarez C, Hu C. Visualization of ternary complexes in living cells by using a BiFC-based FRET assay. Nat Protoc. 2008;3:1693-702 pubmed publisher
    ..The assay employs a two-chromophore and three-filter FRET setup and is applicable to epifluorescence microscopes. The entire protocol takes about 2-3 weeks to complete. ..
  23. Buchwalter G, Gross C, Wasylyk B. The ternary complex factor Net regulates cell migration through inhibition of PAI-1 expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:10853-62 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Net is a negative regulator of PAI-1 expression and is thereby involved in cell migration. ..