i kappa b proteins


Summary: A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.

Top Publications

  1. Hayden M, Ghosh S. Shared principles in NF-kappaB signaling. Cell. 2008;132:344-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we attempt to synthesize some of the basic principles that have emerged from studies of NF-kappaB, and we aim to generate a more unified view of NF-kappaB regulation. ..
  2. Ashall L, Horton C, Nelson D, Paszek P, Harper C, Sillitoe K, et al. Pulsatile stimulation determines timing and specificity of NF-kappaB-dependent transcription. Science. 2009;324:242-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Altering the stimulation intervals gave different patterns of NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression, which supports the idea that oscillation frequency has a functional role. ..
  3. Tanabe K, Nishimura K, Dohi S, Kozawa O. Mechanisms of interleukin-1beta-induced GDNF release from rat glioma cells. Brain Res. 2009;1274:11-20 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that IL-1beta stimulates GDNF release through the pathways of IkappaB-nuclear factor kappa B, p38 MAP kinase, p44/p42 MAP kinase and JAK-STAT3, but not through the SAPK/JNK pathway in glioma cells. ..
  4. Nadler C, Baruch K, Kobi S, Mills E, Haviv G, Farago M, et al. The type III secretion effector NleE inhibits NF-kappaB activation. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000743 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this study describes two effectors, NleB and NleE, with no similarity to other known proteins, used by pathogens to manipulate NF-kappaB signaling pathways. ..
  5. Liu Q, Li J, Khoury J, Colgan S, Ibla J. Adenosine signaling mediates SUMO-1 modification of IkappaBalpha during hypoxia and reoxygenation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:13686-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we present an endogenous mechanism by which cells and tissues acquire anti-inflammatory properties by recruiting a nondegradable form of IkappaBalpha, a major control point for NFkappaB activation via Ado signaling. ..
  6. Vallabhapurapu S, Karin M. Regulation and function of NF-kappaB transcription factors in the immune system. Annu Rev Immunol. 2009;27:693-733 pubmed publisher
    ..This recent progress is covered in this review. ..
  7. Ghafoori P, Yoshimura T, Turpie B, Masli S. Increased IkappaB alpha expression is essential for the tolerogenic property of TGF-beta-exposed APCs. FASEB J. 2009;23:2226-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased IkappaB alpha expression in APCs may therefore offer a therapeutic approach to achieve antigen-specific immunomodulation. ..
  8. Berry D, Clark C, Meckling Gill K. 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 stimulates phosphorylation of IkappaBalpha and synergizes with TPA to induce nuclear translocation of NFkappaB during monocytic differentiation of NB4 leukemia cells. Exp Cell Res. 2002;272:176-84 pubmed
  9. Zhao L, Shields J, Tyrrell D. Functional changes, increased apoptosis, and diminished nuclear factor-kappaB activity of myeloid dendritic cells during chronic hepatitis C infection. Hum Immunol. 2010;71:751-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, mDCs from CHC patients demonstrated functional changes with increased apoptosis, and diminished nuclear factor-kappaB activity. These changes may contribute to the impaired specific T-cell responses in CHC patients. ..

More Information


  1. Chhikara M, Wang S, Kern S, Ferreyra G, Barb J, Munson P, et al. Carbon monoxide blocks lipopolysaccharide-induced gene expression by interfering with proximal TLR4 to NF-kappaB signal transduction in human monocytes. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8139 pubmed publisher
    ..These rapid, but transient effects of CO may have therapeutic applications in acute pulmonary and vascular injury. ..
  2. Park S, Park G, Ko W, Kim Y. Dichroa febrifuga Lour. inhibits the production of IL-1beta and IL-6 through blocking NF-kappaB, MAPK and Akt activation in macrophages. J Ethnopharmacol. 2009;125:246-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect and underlying molecular mechanism of aqueous extract of Dichroa febrifuga (AEDF) in C57BL/6 mouse peritoneal macrophages...
  3. Ohno Y, Yamada S, Sugiura T, Ohira Y, Yoshioka T, Goto K. A possible role of NF-kappaB and HSP72 in skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by heat stress in rats. Gen Physiol Biophys. 2010;29:234-42 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that the decrease in NF-kappaB signaling may play a part of a role in heat stress-associated muscle hypertrophy. ..
  4. Turner D, Paszek P, Woodcock D, Nelson D, Horton C, Wang Y, et al. Physiological levels of TNFalpha stimulation induce stochastic dynamics of NF-kappaB responses in single living cells. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2834-43 pubmed publisher
  5. Lyall K, Hurst S, Cooney J, Jensen D, Lo K, Hurst R, et al. Short-term blackcurrant extract consumption modulates exercise-induced oxidative stress and lipopolysaccharide-stimulated inflammatory responses. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R70-81 pubmed publisher
  6. Checker R, Sharma D, Sandur S, Khanam S, Poduval T. Anti-inflammatory effects of plumbagin are mediated by inhibition of NF-kappaB activation in lymphocytes. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:949-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, plumbagin prevented Graft Versus Host Disease-induced mortality in mice. To our knowledge this is the first report showing the immunomodulatory effects of plumbagin in lymphocytes via modulation of NF-kappaB activation...
  7. Ye X, Ding J, Zhou X, Chen G, Liu S. Divergent roles of endothelial NF-kappaB in multiple organ injury and bacterial clearance in mouse models of sepsis. J Exp Med. 2008;205:1303-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that endothelial NF-kappaB activity is an essential mediator of septic multiple organ inflammation and injury but plays little role in the host defense response to eradicate invading pathogenic bacteria. ..
  8. Zmijewski J, Lorne E, Banerjee S, Abraham E. Participation of mitochondrial respiratory complex III in neutrophil activation and lung injury. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2009;296:L624-34 pubmed publisher
  9. King A, Collins F, Klonisch T, Sallenave J, Critchley H, Saunders P. An additive interaction between the NFkappaB and estrogen receptor signalling pathways in human endometrial epithelial cells. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:510-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Aberrations in the interaction between the ER and NFkappaB signalling pathways may have a negative impact on implantation contributing to pathologies such as early pregnancy loss and infertility. ..
  10. Ghosh C, Ramaswami S, Juvekar A, Vu H, Galdieri L, Davidson D, et al. Gene-specific repression of proinflammatory cytokines in stimulated human macrophages by nuclear I?B?. J Immunol. 2010;185:3685-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that the inhibition of NF-kappaB-dependent transcription by nuclear IkappaBalpha in LPS-stimulated macrophages is gene specific and depends on the S536 phosphorylation status of the recruited p65 NF-kappaB. ..
  11. Bhattacharyya S, Borthakur A, Dudeja P, Tobacman J. Lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of NF-?B non-canonical pathway requires BCL10 serine 138 and NIK phosphorylations. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:3317-27 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate the important role of BCL10 in mediating LPS-induced inflammation in human colonic epithelial cells and may open new avenues for therapeutic interventions. ..
  12. Kaur J, Shalini S, Bansal M. Influence of vitamin E on alcohol-induced changes in antioxidant defenses in mice liver. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2010;20:82-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Vitamin E can mitigate the toxic effects of alcohol and can be suitably used as a potential therapeutic agent for alcohol-induced oxidative damage in liver. ..
  13. Fazal F, Bijli K, Minhajuddin M, Rein T, Finkelstein J, Rahman A. Essential role of cofilin-1 in regulating thrombin-induced RelA/p65 nuclear translocation and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) expression in endothelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:21047-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data show that cofilin-1 occupies a central position in RhoA-actin pathway mediating nuclear translocation of RelA/p65 and expression of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells. ..
  14. Bi Y, Meng yin C, Liang H, Sun W, Chen X, Zhu Y, et al. [Effect of early insulin therapy on nuclear factor-kappaB inflammatory pathway in liver of diabetic rat]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi. 2009;48:17-22 pubmed
    ..Such results might be due to indirect antiinflammatory effects of insulin thus relieving glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity in peripheral tissues. ..
  15. Yang X, Hu W, Zhang Q, Wang Y, Sun L. Puerarin inhibits C-reactive protein expression via suppression of nuclear factor kappaB activation in lipopolysaccharide-induced peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with stable angina pectoris. Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol. 2010;107:637-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that puerarin acts as an anti-inflammatory agent by blocking NF-kappaB signalling, and may possibly be developed as a useful agent for the chemoprevention of atherosclerosis. ..
  16. Marino A, Di Paola R, Crisafulli C, Mazzon E, Morabito R, Paterniti I, et al. Protective effect of melatonin against the inflammatory response elicited by crude venom from isolated nematocysts of Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa). J Pineal Res. 2009;47:56-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, based on these findings we propose that melatonin may be useful a treatment of local acute inflammation induced by P. noctiluca crude venom...
  17. Zmijewski J, Lorne E, Zhao X, Tsuruta Y, Sha Y, Liu G, et al. Antiinflammatory effects of hydrogen peroxide in neutrophil activation and acute lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009;179:694-704 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that H(2)O(2) has antiinflammatory effects on neutrophil activation and inflammatory processes, such as ALI, in which activated neutrophils play a major role. ..
  18. Kim S, Jun T, Lee Y, Na H, Surh Y, Song W. Effects of exercise on cyclooxygenase-2 expression and nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009;1171:464-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, a single bout of exercise induced COX-2 expression and DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB in human PBMCs, and both COX-2 expression and DNA-binding activity of NF-kappaB were dependent on exercise intensity. ..
  19. Skalniak L, Mizgalska D, Zarebski A, Wyrzykowska P, Koj A, Jura J. Regulatory feedback loop between NF-kappaB and MCP-1-induced protein 1 RNase. FEBS J. 2009;276:5892-905 pubmed publisher
  20. Zhang W, Wang J, Zhang Y, Yuan Y, Guan W, Jin C, et al. The scaffold protein TANK/I-TRAF inhibits NF-kappaB activation by recruiting polo-like kinase 1. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:2500-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal that the scaffold protein TANK recruits PLK1 to negatively regulate NF-kappaB activation and provide direct evidence that PLK1 is required for the repression function of TANK. ..
  21. He Y, Zhang H, Yin J, Xie J, Tan X, Liu S, et al. IkappaBalpha gene promoter polymorphisms are associated with hepatocarcinogenesis in patients infected with hepatitis B virus genotype C. Carcinogenesis. 2009;30:1916-22 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, NFKB1 -94ATTG2 allele and haplotype -881G-826T-519C in NFKBIA promoter were associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. NFKBIA -826T and -881AG were associated with the risk of HCC in the subjects infected with HBV genotype C. ..
  22. You B, Jiang Y, Chen S, Yan G, Sun J. The orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 suppresses endothelial cell activation through induction of IkappaBalpha expression. Circ Res. 2009;104:742-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Nur77 negatively regulates the TNF-alpha- and interleukin-1beta-induced vascular EC activation by transcriptionally upregulation of IkappaBalpha expression. ..
  23. Barisic S, Schmidt C, Walczak H, Kulms D. Tyrosine phosphatase inhibition triggers sustained canonical serine-dependent NFkappaB activation via Src-dependent blockade of PP2A. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;80:439-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally to the known survival pathways triggered by Src, Src-mediated canonical and persistent NFkappaB activation may fortify its tumorigenic effects. ..
  24. Shimizu S, Okuda N, Kato N, Rittling S, Okawa A, Shinomiya K, et al. Osteopontin deficiency impairs wear debris-induced osteolysis via regulation of cytokine secretion from murine macrophages. Arthritis Rheum. 2010;62:1329-37 pubmed publisher
    ..OPN plays critical roles in wear debris-induced osteolysis, suggesting that OPN is a candidate therapeutic target for periprosthetic osteolysis. ..
  25. Yuan D, Ma B, Yang J, Xie Y, Wang L, Zhang L, et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline in mouse N9 microglial cells and the molecular mechanism. Int Immunopharmacol. 2009;9:1549-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that RIN and IRN may be effective therapeutic candidates for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases accompanied by microglial activation. ..
  26. Ang E, Pavlos N, Chai L, Qi M, Cheng T, Steer J, et al. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester, an active component of honeybee propolis attenuates osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption via the suppression of RANKL-induced NF-kappaB and NFAT activity. J Cell Physiol. 2009;221:642-9 pubmed publisher
  27. Ferreiro D, Komives E. Molecular mechanisms of system control of NF-kappaB signaling by IkappaBalpha. Biochemistry. 2010;49:1560-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This review summarizes results of in vitro and in vivo experiments that converge demonstrating the effective interplay between biophysics and cell biology in understanding transcriptional control by the NF-kappaB signaling module. ..
  28. Gasparini C, Foxwell B, Feldmann M. RelB/p50 regulates CCL19 production, but fails to promote human DC maturation. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:2215-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrated that RelB/p50 was active only in DC expressing both RelB and p50, and induced CCL19 production, but not DC maturation. ..
  29. Brown V, Elborn J, Bradley J, Ennis M. Dysregulated apoptosis and NFkappaB expression in COPD subjects. Respir Res. 2009;10:24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that apoptosis is reduced in the sputum of COPD subjects and in healthy control smokers and may be regulated by an associated activation of NFkappaB. ..
  30. Mizutani A, Maeda N, Toku S, Isohama Y, Sugahara K, Yamamoto H. Inhibition by ethyl pyruvate of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB in cultured lung epithelial cells. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2010;23:308-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Ethyl pyruvate may be a good therapeutic drug for inflammation in which activation of the NF-kappaB pathway is involved. ..
  31. Dong X, Luo M, Fan L, Zhang T, Liu L, Dong J, et al. Corilagin inhibits the double strand break-triggered NF-kappaB pathway in irradiated microglial cells. Int J Mol Med. 2010;25:531-6 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest that corilagin inhibits radiation-induced microglia activation via suppression of the NF-kappaB pathway and the compound is a potential treatment for RIBI. ..
  32. Duan L, De Vos P, Fan M, Ren Y. IkappaBalpha regulates Hes1 in osteoclast differentiation and resorption. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2010;2:1065-72 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest IkappaBalpha regulates Hes1-mediated activity in osteoclast differentiation and resorption, which supports a cross-talk between NF-kappaB and Notch in osteoclast activity. ..
  33. Savion S, Aroch I, Mammon K, Orenstein H, Fein A, Torchinsky A, et al. Effect of maternal immunopotentiation on apoptosis-associated molecules expression in teratogen-treated embryos. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2009;62:400-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data implicate maternal immunopotentiation to protect the embryo against teratogenic insults, possibly through its effect on the expression of p65, bcl-2 or p53. ..
  34. Frieman M, Ratia K, Johnston R, Mesecar A, Baric R. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus papain-like protease ubiquitin-like domain and catalytic domain regulate antagonism of IRF3 and NF-kappaB signaling. J Virol. 2009;83:6689-705 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential mechanism of PLP antagonism and its role in pathogenesis are discussed. ..
  35. Mondello S, Mazzon E, Di Paola R, Crisafulli C, Mondello P, Buemi M, et al. Thalidomide suppresses sclerosing encapsulating peritonitis in a rat experimental model. Shock. 2009;32:332-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, thalidomide treatment reduces the degree of peritoneal fibrosis caused by CG. We propose that this evidence may help clarify the potential therapeutic actions of thalidomide in patients with peritoneal fibrosis. ..
  36. Hamelet J, Couty J, Crain A, Noll C, Postic C, Paul J, et al. Calpain activation is required for homocysteine-mediated hepatic degradation of inhibitor I kappa B alpha. Mol Genet Metab. 2009;97:114-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia induces calpain-mediated I kappaB alpha degradation which is responsible for anti-apoptotic signals in liver. ..
  37. An M, Cheon J, Kim S, Park J, Moon C, Han S, et al. Bovine colostrum inhibits nuclear factor kappaB-mediated proinflammatory cytokine expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Nutr Res. 2009;29:275-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrated that bovine colostrum might protect against IEC inflammation by inhibiting the NF-kappaB pathway, suggesting colostrum has a therapeutic potential for intestinal inflammation. ..
  38. Lee H, Crawley S, Hokari R, Kwon S, Kim Y. Bile acid regulates MUC2 transcription in colon cancer cells via positive EGFR/PKC/Ras/ERK/CREB, PI3K/Akt/IkappaB/NF-kappaB and p38/MSK1/CREB pathways and negative JNK/c-Jun/AP-1 pathway. Int J Oncol. 2010;36:941-53 pubmed
    ..These results provide new insight into the complex molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of mucin gene by bile acids in colon cancer cells that may contribute to further elucidation of colorectal carcinogenesis. ..
  39. Wang H, Moreau F, Hirota C, MacNaughton W. Proteinase-activated receptors induce interleukin-8 expression by intestinal epithelial cells through ERK/RSK90 activation and histone acetylation. FASEB J. 2010;24:1971-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies provide evidence of a new role for serine proteinases and PARs in the regulation of gene expression in colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis. ..
  40. Trappoliere M, Caligiuri A, Schmid M, Bertolani C, Failli P, Vizzutti F, et al. Silybin, a component of sylimarin, exerts anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrogenic effects on human hepatic stellate cells. J Hepatol. 2009;50:1102-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This action seems to be mostly related to a marked inhibition of the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, a clear anti-oxidant effect and a reduction of the direct and indirect pro-fibrogenic potential of HSC. ..
  41. Zhao L, Wei R, Cheng J, Cai J, Li Y. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 induced by CD40-CD40L ligand signaling in orbital fibroblasts in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:4652-60 pubmed publisher
    ..CD40L can potently induce ICAM-1 expression in OF cells through multiple signal pathways. The p38 MAPKs and NF-kappaB pathways may play an important permissive role in CD40L-induced ICAM-1 expression in OFs. ..
  42. Oh Y, Kang O, Choi J, Chae H, Lee Y, Brice O, et al. Anti-inflammatory effect of resveratrol by inhibition of IL-8 production in LPS-induced THP-1 cells. Am J Chin Med. 2009;37:1203-14 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings may help elucidate the mechanism by which resveratrol modulates THP-1 cell activation under inflammatory conditions. ..
  43. Badham H, Winn L. In utero exposure to benzene disrupts fetal hematopoietic progenitor cell growth via reactive oxygen species. Toxicol Sci. 2010;113:207-15 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ROS play a key role in the development of in utero-initiated benzene toxicity potentially through disruption of hematopoietic cell signaling pathways. ..
  44. Reuse S, Calao M, Kabeya K, Guiguen A, Gatot J, Quivy V, et al. Synergistic activation of HIV-1 expression by deacetylase inhibitors and prostratin: implications for treatment of latent infection. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6093 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that combinations of different kinds of proviral activators may have important implications for reducing the size of latent HIV-1 reservoirs in HAART-treated patients. ..
  45. Wu S, Walenkamp M, Lankester A, Bidlingmaier M, Wit J, De Luca F. Growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I insensitivity of fibroblasts isolated from a patient with an I{kappa}B{alpha} mutation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:1220-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that this patient's IkappaBalpha mutation caused GH and IGF-l resistance which, in turn, contributed to his growth failure. ..
  46. Okada K, Fujii T, Ohtsuka Y, Yamakawa Y, Izumi H, Yamashiro Y, et al. Overfeeding can cause NEC-like enterocolitis in premature rat pups. Neonatology. 2010;97:218-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased expression of PPAR-gamma may possibly regulate further development of enterocolitis in this system. ..
  47. Patial S, Luo J, Porter K, Benovic J, Parameswaran N. G-protein-coupled-receptor kinases mediate TNF?-induced NF?B signalling via direct interaction with and phosphorylation of I?B?. Biochem J. 2009;425:169-78 pubmed publisher
    ..7 macrophages did not affect TNF?-induced I?B? phosphorylation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both GRK2 and 5 are important and novel mediators of a non-traditional I?B?-NF?B signaling pathway. ..
  48. Ge J, Xu H, Li T, Zhou Y, Zhang Z, Li S, et al. A Legionella type IV effector activates the NF-kappaB pathway by phosphorylating the IkappaB family of inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:13725-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, LegK1 is a bacterial effector that directly activates the host NF-kappaB signaling and likely plays important roles in modulating macrophage defense or inflammatory responses during L. pneumophila infection. ..
  49. Kuwayama K, Matsuzaki K, Mizobuchi Y, Mure H, Kitazato K, Kageji T, et al. Promyelocytic leukemia protein induces apoptosis due to caspase-8 activation via the repression of NFkappaB activation in glioblastoma. Neuro Oncol. 2009;11:132-41 pubmed publisher
    ..This novel mechanism of PML-regulated apoptosis may represent a therapeutic target for GBM. ..
  50. Chen L, Yang G, Zhang X, Wu J, Gu Q, Wei M, et al. Induction of MIF expression by oxidized LDL via activation of NF-kappaB in vascular smooth muscle cells. Atherosclerosis. 2009;207:428-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results revealed that MIF expression can be induced by oxLDL in VSMCs via a NF-kappaB dependent manner, which may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. ..
  51. Ricciotti E, Dovizio M, Di Francesco L, Anzellotti P, Salvatore T, Di Francesco A, et al. NCX 4040, a nitric oxide-donating aspirin, exerts anti-inflammatory effects through inhibition of I kappa B-alpha degradation in human monocytes. J Immunol. 2010;184:2140-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, NCX 4040 is an inhibitor of IkappaB-alpha degradation and proteasome function, and it should be taken into consideration for the development of novel anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive agents. ..
  52. Safa M, Zand H, Mousavizadeh K, Kazemi A, Bakhshayesh M, Hayat P. Elevation of cyclic AMP causes an imbalance between NF-kappaB and p53 in NALM-6 cells treated by doxorubicin. FEBS Lett. 2010;584:3492-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that cAMP abrogates the balance between apoptotic and antiapoptotic transcription factors that are hallmarks of DNA damage signaling. ..