pax7 transcription factor

Summary

Summary: A paired box transcription factor that is involved in EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and SKELETAL MUSCLE.

Top Publications

  1. Zammit P, Golding J, Nagata Y, Hudon V, Partridge T, Beauchamp J. Muscle satellite cells adopt divergent fates: a mechanism for self-renewal?. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:347-57 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that satellite cells either differentiate or switch from terminal myogenesis to maintain the satellite cell pool. ..
  2. Du S, Lawrence E, Strzelecki D, Rajput P, Xia S, Gottesman D, et al. Co-expression of alternatively spliced forms of PAX3, PAX7, PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR with distinct DNA binding and transactivation properties in rhabdomyosarcoma. Int J Cancer. 2005;115:85-92 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these studies reveal that PAX3, PAX7 and their fusions with FKHR are each expressed in RMS tumors as a consistent mixture of functionally distinct isoforms. ..
  3. Patruno M, Caliaro F, Martinello T, Mascarello F. Expression of the paired box domain Pax7 protein in myogenic cells isolated from the porcine semitendinosus muscle after birth. Tissue Cell. 2008;40:1-6 pubmed
    ..We speculate that Pax7 might be one of the molecules involved in controlling the proliferation/differentiation ratio in the pool of satellite cells present in post-natal porcine skeletal muscles. ..
  4. Thompson J, Lovicu F, Ziman M. Pax7 and superior collicular polarity: insights from Pax6 (Sey) mutant mice. Exp Brain Res. 2007;178:316-25 pubmed
    ..Ephrin-A2 expression is similarly altered. These results implicate Pax7 as an important determinant of polarity within the mouse superior colliculus, and suggest a role in retinotopic mapping. ..
  5. Kuang S, Rudnicki M. The emerging biology of satellite cells and their therapeutic potential. Trends Mol Med. 2008;14:82-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the latest advances in our current understanding of the quiescence, activation, proliferation and self-renewal of satellite cells and the challenges in the development of satellite cell-based regenerative medicine...
  6. Davicioni E, Finckenstein F, Shahbazian V, Buckley J, Triche T, Anderson M. Identification of a PAX-FKHR gene expression signature that defines molecular classes and determines the prognosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas. Cancer Res. 2006;66:6936-46 pubmed
    ..Our results show that PAX-FKHR dictate a specific expression signature that helps define the molecular phenotype of PAX-FKHR-positive ARMS tumors and, because it is linked with disease outcome in ARMS patients, determine tumor behavior...
  7. Bosnakovski D, Xu Z, Li W, Thet S, Cleaver O, Perlingeiro R, et al. Prospective isolation of skeletal muscle stem cells with a Pax7 reporter. Stem Cells. 2008;26:3194-204 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish a novel animal model for the study of muscle stem cell physiology and a culture system for expansion of engraftable muscle progenitors. ..
  8. Gnocchi V, White R, Ono Y, Ellis J, Zammit P. Further characterisation of the molecular signature of quiescent and activated mouse muscle satellite cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5205 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, Jagged-1, a Notch ligand, was not expressed in quiescent satellite cells but was induced upon activation. These findings further contribute to defining the molecular signature of muscle satellite cells. ..
  9. Relaix F, Rocancourt D, Mansouri A, Buckingham M. A Pax3/Pax7-dependent population of skeletal muscle progenitor cells. Nature. 2005;435:948-53 pubmed
  10. Schnapp E, Tanaka E, Tamaka E. Quantitative evaluation of morpholino-mediated protein knockdown of GFP, MSX1, and PAX7 during tail regeneration in Ambystoma mexicanum. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:162-70 pubmed
    ..Our studies in in vivo muscle fibers so far have shown no influence of overexpressing or down-regulating MSX1 on the dedifferentiation process...

Detail Information

Publications61

  1. Zammit P, Golding J, Nagata Y, Hudon V, Partridge T, Beauchamp J. Muscle satellite cells adopt divergent fates: a mechanism for self-renewal?. J Cell Biol. 2004;166:347-57 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that satellite cells either differentiate or switch from terminal myogenesis to maintain the satellite cell pool. ..
  2. Du S, Lawrence E, Strzelecki D, Rajput P, Xia S, Gottesman D, et al. Co-expression of alternatively spliced forms of PAX3, PAX7, PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR with distinct DNA binding and transactivation properties in rhabdomyosarcoma. Int J Cancer. 2005;115:85-92 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, these studies reveal that PAX3, PAX7 and their fusions with FKHR are each expressed in RMS tumors as a consistent mixture of functionally distinct isoforms. ..
  3. Patruno M, Caliaro F, Martinello T, Mascarello F. Expression of the paired box domain Pax7 protein in myogenic cells isolated from the porcine semitendinosus muscle after birth. Tissue Cell. 2008;40:1-6 pubmed
    ..We speculate that Pax7 might be one of the molecules involved in controlling the proliferation/differentiation ratio in the pool of satellite cells present in post-natal porcine skeletal muscles. ..
  4. Thompson J, Lovicu F, Ziman M. Pax7 and superior collicular polarity: insights from Pax6 (Sey) mutant mice. Exp Brain Res. 2007;178:316-25 pubmed
    ..Ephrin-A2 expression is similarly altered. These results implicate Pax7 as an important determinant of polarity within the mouse superior colliculus, and suggest a role in retinotopic mapping. ..
  5. Kuang S, Rudnicki M. The emerging biology of satellite cells and their therapeutic potential. Trends Mol Med. 2008;14:82-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the latest advances in our current understanding of the quiescence, activation, proliferation and self-renewal of satellite cells and the challenges in the development of satellite cell-based regenerative medicine...
  6. Davicioni E, Finckenstein F, Shahbazian V, Buckley J, Triche T, Anderson M. Identification of a PAX-FKHR gene expression signature that defines molecular classes and determines the prognosis of alveolar rhabdomyosarcomas. Cancer Res. 2006;66:6936-46 pubmed
    ..Our results show that PAX-FKHR dictate a specific expression signature that helps define the molecular phenotype of PAX-FKHR-positive ARMS tumors and, because it is linked with disease outcome in ARMS patients, determine tumor behavior...
  7. Bosnakovski D, Xu Z, Li W, Thet S, Cleaver O, Perlingeiro R, et al. Prospective isolation of skeletal muscle stem cells with a Pax7 reporter. Stem Cells. 2008;26:3194-204 pubmed publisher
    ..These results establish a novel animal model for the study of muscle stem cell physiology and a culture system for expansion of engraftable muscle progenitors. ..
  8. Gnocchi V, White R, Ono Y, Ellis J, Zammit P. Further characterisation of the molecular signature of quiescent and activated mouse muscle satellite cells. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5205 pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, Jagged-1, a Notch ligand, was not expressed in quiescent satellite cells but was induced upon activation. These findings further contribute to defining the molecular signature of muscle satellite cells. ..
  9. Relaix F, Rocancourt D, Mansouri A, Buckingham M. A Pax3/Pax7-dependent population of skeletal muscle progenitor cells. Nature. 2005;435:948-53 pubmed
  10. Schnapp E, Tanaka E, Tamaka E. Quantitative evaluation of morpholino-mediated protein knockdown of GFP, MSX1, and PAX7 during tail regeneration in Ambystoma mexicanum. Dev Dyn. 2005;232:162-70 pubmed
    ..Our studies in in vivo muscle fibers so far have shown no influence of overexpressing or down-regulating MSX1 on the dedifferentiation process...
  11. Morrison J, Borg P, Simon A. Plasticity and recovery of skeletal muscle satellite cells during limb regeneration. FASEB J. 2010;24:750-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Morrison, J. I., Borg, P., Simon, A. Plasticity and recovery of skeletal muscle satellite cells during limb regeneration...
  12. Murdoch B, DelConte C, GARCIA CASTRO M. Embryonic Pax7-expressing progenitors contribute multiple cell types to the postnatal olfactory epithelium. J Neurosci. 2010;30:9523-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide the first evidence for a population of Pax7-expressing embryonic progenitors that contribute to multiple OE lineages and demonstrate novel insights into the unique spatiotemporal patterning of the postnatal OE. ..
  13. Seger C, Hargrave M, Wang X, Chai R, Elworthy S, Ingham P. Analysis of Pax7 expressing myogenic cells in zebrafish muscle development, injury, and models of disease. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:2440-51 pubmed publisher
    ..We also analyzed Pax7(+ve) cells in animals with dystrophic phenotypes and found an increased number compared with wild-type. ..
  14. Juan A, Derfoul A, Feng X, Ryall J, Dell Orso S, Pasut A, et al. Polycomb EZH2 controls self-renewal and safeguards the transcriptional identity of skeletal muscle stem cells. Genes Dev. 2011;25:789-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These defects are associated with impaired SC proliferation and derepression of genes expressed in nonmuscle cell lineages. Thus, EZH2 controls self-renewal and proliferation, and maintains an appropriate transcriptional program in SCs. ..
  15. Halevy O, Piestun Y, Allouh M, Rosser B, Rinkevich Y, Reshef R, et al. Pattern of Pax7 expression during myogenesis in the posthatch chicken establishes a model for satellite cell differentiation and renewal. Dev Dyn. 2004;231:489-502 pubmed
  16. Keller C, Hansen M, Coffin C, Capecchi M. Pax3:Fkhr interferes with embryonic Pax3 and Pax7 function: implications for alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma cell of origin. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2608-13 pubmed
  17. Kassar Duchossoy L, Giacone E, Gayraud Morel B, Jory A, Gomès D, Tajbakhsh S. Pax3/Pax7 mark a novel population of primitive myogenic cells during development. Genes Dev. 2005;19:1426-31 pubmed
    ..These findings identify critical cell populations during lineage restriction, and provide a framework for defining myogenic cell states for therapeutic studies. ..
  18. Montarras D, Morgan J, Collins C, Relaix F, Zaffran S, Cumano A, et al. Direct isolation of satellite cells for skeletal muscle regeneration. Science. 2005;309:2064-7 pubmed
    ..Such cells, grafted into muscles of mdx nu/nu mice, contributed both to fiber repair and to the muscle satellite cell compartment. Expansion of these cells in culture before engraftment reduced their regenerative capacity...
  19. Lepper C, Conway S, Fan C. Adult satellite cells and embryonic muscle progenitors have distinct genetic requirements. Nature. 2009;460:627-31 pubmed publisher
  20. Olguin H, Patzlaff N, Olwin B. Pax7-FKHR transcriptional activity is enhanced by transcriptionally repressed MyoD. J Cell Biochem. 2011;112:1410-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that although repressed as a myogenic regulatory factor, MyoD can play an active role in ARMS by augmenting Pax7-FKHR function. ..
  21. Zammit P, Relaix F, Nagata Y, Ruiz A, Collins C, Partridge T, et al. Pax7 and myogenic progression in skeletal muscle satellite cells. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:1824-32 pubmed
    ..Therefore Pax7 may be involved in maintaining proliferation and preventing precocious differentiation, but does not promote quiescence. ..
  22. Schultz E, Chamberlain C, McCormick K, Mozdziak P. Satellite cells express distinct patterns of myogenic proteins in immature skeletal muscle. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:3230-9 pubmed
    ..Overall, results from this study suggest that expression patterns of these markers vary predictably among muscles with different growth dynamics and phenotypic characteristics. ..
  23. Schafer B, Czerny T, Bernasconi M, Genini M, Busslinger M. Molecular cloning and characterization of a human PAX-7 cDNA expressed in normal and neoplastic myocytes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994;22:4574-82 pubmed
    ..However, transcripts for either PAX-3 and/or PAX-7 were expressed at elevated levels in tumorigenic rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines. Hence, overexpression of these PAX genes may be involved in the genesis of myogenic tumors. ..
  24. Reimann J, Brimah K, Schroder R, Wernig A, Beauchamp J, Partridge T. Pax7 distribution in human skeletal muscle biopsies and myogenic tissue cultures. Cell Tissue Res. 2004;315:233-42 pubmed
    ..Most of these were found to be the nuclei of cells engaged in focal regenerative processes, but Pax7 re-expression by myonuclei "in distress" cannot be ruled out entirely. ..
  25. Buckingham M, Relaix F. The role of Pax genes in the development of tissues and organs: Pax3 and Pax7 regulate muscle progenitor cell functions. Annu Rev Cell Dev Biol. 2007;23:645-73 pubmed
    ..Finally, we consider the molecular mechanisms that underlie the function of Pax transcription factors, including the cofactors and regulatory networks with which they interact. ..
  26. Parise G, O Reilly C, Rudnicki M. Molecular regulation of myogenic progenitor populations. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2006;31:773-81 pubmed
  27. Lepper C, Partridge T, Fan C. An absolute requirement for Pax7-positive satellite cells in acute injury-induced skeletal muscle regeneration. Development. 2011;138:3639-46 pubmed publisher
    ..It remains to be established whether there is any significant role for stem cells of other origins. The implications of our results for muscle stem cell-based therapy are discussed. ..
  28. Holland L, Schubert M, Kozmik Z, Holland N. AmphiPax3/7, an amphioxus paired box gene: insights into chordate myogenesis, neurogenesis, and the possible evolutionary precursor of definitive vertebrate neural crest. Evol Dev. 1999;1:153-65 pubmed
  29. Chen J, Tao Y, Li J, Deng Z, Yan Z, Xiao X, et al. microRNA-1 and microRNA-206 regulate skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation by repressing Pax7. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:867-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our experiments suggest that microRNAs participate in a regulatory circuit that allows rapid gene program transitions from proliferation to differentiation...
  30. Sun D, Li H, Zolkiewska A. The role of Delta-like 1 shedding in muscle cell self-renewal and differentiation. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3815-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the proteolytic processing of DLL1 helps achieve an asymmetry in Notch signaling in initially equivalent myogenic cells and helps sustain the balance between differentiation and self-renewal. ..
  31. Zacharias A, Lewandoski M, Rudnicki M, Gage P. Pitx2 is an upstream activator of extraocular myogenesis and survival. Dev Biol. 2011;349:395-405 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Pitx2 is the first demonstrated upstream activator of myogenesis in the extraocular muscles. ..
  32. Bentzinger C, von Maltzahn J, Dumont N, Stark D, Wang Y, Nhan K, et al. Wnt7a stimulates myogenic stem cell motility and engraftment resulting in improved muscle strength. J Cell Biol. 2014;205:97-111 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, we describe a viable and effective ex vivo cell modulation process that profoundly enhances the efficacy of stem cell therapy for skeletal muscle. ..
  33. McKinnell I, Ishibashi J, Le Grand F, Punch V, Addicks G, Greenblatt J, et al. Pax7 activates myogenic genes by recruitment of a histone methyltransferase complex. Nat Cell Biol. 2008;10:77-84 pubmed
    ..Thus, Pax7 induces chromatin modifications that stimulate transcriptional activation of target genes to regulate entry into the myogenic developmental programme. ..
  34. Mitchell K, Pannérec A, Cadot B, Parlakian A, Besson V, Gomes E, et al. Identification and characterization of a non-satellite cell muscle resident progenitor during postnatal development. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our findings uncover a new and anatomically identifiable population of muscle progenitors and define a key role for Pax7 in a non-satellite cell population during postnatal muscle growth. ..
  35. Barr F, Nauta L, Davis R, Schafer B, Nycum L, Biegel J. In vivo amplification of the PAX3-FKHR and PAX7-FKHR fusion genes in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Hum Mol Genet. 1996;5:15-21 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that translocation and amplification can occur sequentially in a cancer to alter both the structure and copy number of a gene and thereby activate oncogenic activity by complementary mechanisms...
  36. Amthor H, Otto A, Macharia R, McKinnell I, Patel K. Myostatin imposes reversible quiescence on embryonic muscle precursors. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:672-80 pubmed
    ..We suggest that Myostatin is an important signalling molecule responsible for imposing quiescence upon myogenic precursors during embryonic and foetal development. ..
  37. Takata H, Terada K, Oka H, Sunada Y, Moriguchi T, Nohno T. Involvement of Wnt4 signaling during myogenic proliferation and differentiation of skeletal muscle. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2800-7 pubmed
    ..The present results are identical to those of myostatin knockout, suggesting that Wnt4 is acting against myostatin as an antagonizing signal for myostatin...
  38. McCauley D, Bronner Fraser M. Conservation of Pax gene expression in ectodermal placodes of the lamprey. Gene. 2002;287:129-39 pubmed
    ..These results suggest conservation of Pax genes and placodal structures in basal and derived vertebrates. ..
  39. Dey B, Gagan J, Dutta A. miR-206 and -486 induce myoblast differentiation by downregulating Pax7. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:203-14 pubmed publisher
    The Pax7 transcription factor is required for muscle satellite cell biogenesis and specification of the myogenic precursor lineage. Pax7 is expressed in proliferating myoblasts but is rapidly downregulated during differentiation...
  40. Messina G, Biressi S, Monteverde S, Magli A, Cassano M, Perani L, et al. Nfix regulates fetal-specific transcription in developing skeletal muscle. Cell. 2010;140:554-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Nfix acts as a transcriptional switch from embryonic to fetal myogenesis. ..
  41. Olguin H, Olwin B. Pax-7 up-regulation inhibits myogenesis and cell cycle progression in satellite cells: a potential mechanism for self-renewal. Dev Biol. 2004;275:375-88 pubmed
    ..These data support the concept that satellite cell self-renewal may be a primary mechanism for replenishment of the satellite cell compartment during skeletal muscle regeneration. ..
  42. Relaix F, Montarras D, Zaffran S, Gayraud Morel B, Rocancourt D, Tajbakhsh S, et al. Pax3 and Pax7 have distinct and overlapping functions in adult muscle progenitor cells. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:91-102 pubmed
    ..These findings underline the importance of cell survival in controlling the stem cell populations of adult tissues and demonstrate a role for upstream factors in this context...
  43. Lindström M, Thornell L. New multiple labelling method for improved satellite cell identification in human muscle: application to a cohort of power-lifters and sedentary men. Histochem Cell Biol. 2009;132:141-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Our multiple marker method is more reliable for SC identification and quantification and can be used to evaluate other markers of muscle progenitor cells. ..
  44. Morrison J, Lööf S, He P, Simon A. Salamander limb regeneration involves the activation of a multipotent skeletal muscle satellite cell population. J Cell Biol. 2006;172:433-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, limb regeneration and mammalian tissue repair share common cellular and molecular programs. Our findings also identify satellite cells as potential targets in promoting mammalian blastema formation. ..
  45. Shinin V, Gayraud Morel B, Gomès D, Tajbakhsh S. Asymmetric division and cosegregation of template DNA strands in adult muscle satellite cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2006;8:677-87 pubmed
    ..The cosegregation of 'immortal' template DNA strands and their link with the asymmetry apparatus has important implications for stem cell biology and cancer...
  46. Kawakami A, Kimura Kawakami M, Nomura T, Fujisawa H. Distributions of PAX6 and PAX7 proteins suggest their involvement in both early and late phases of chick brain development. Mech Dev. 1997;66:119-30 pubmed
  47. Kuang S, Gillespie M, Rudnicki M. Niche regulation of muscle satellite cell self-renewal and differentiation. Cell Stem Cell. 2008;2:22-31 pubmed publisher
    ..A thorough understanding of the molecular regulation and cell fate determination of satellite cells and other potential stem cells resident in muscle is essential for successful stem cell-based therapies to treat muscular diseases. ..
  48. Thomas M, Barker R, Beazley L, Ziman M. Pax7 expression in the adult rat superior colliculus following optic nerve injury. Neuroreport. 2007;18:105-9 pubmed
    ..These findings may have implications for the design of therapeutic interventions to restore functional connections in the adult visual pathway. ..
  49. Darabi R, Santos F, Filareto A, Pan W, Koene R, Rudnicki M, et al. Assessment of the myogenic stem cell compartment following transplantation of Pax3/Pax7-induced embryonic stem cell-derived progenitors. Stem Cells. 2011;29:777-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability to engraft, self-renew, and respond to injury provide foundation for the future therapeutic application of ES-derived myogenic progenitors in muscle disorders. ..
  50. Ziman M, Thomas M, Jacobsen P, Beazley L. A key role for Pax7 transcripts in determination of muscle and nerve cells. Exp Cell Res. 2001;268:220-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a key role for Pax7 transcripts in lineage determination. ..
  51. Ziman M, Fletcher S, Kay P. Alternate Pax7 transcripts are expressed specifically in skeletal muscle, brain and other organs of adult mice. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 1997;29:1029-36 pubmed
    ..It is possible that one of these transcripts may specify an alternate myogenic pathway involved in regeneration of damaged skeletal muscle in adult mice. ..
  52. Mansouri A, Stoykova A, Torres M, Gruss P. Dysgenesis of cephalic neural crest derivatives in Pax7-/- mutant mice. Development. 1996;122:831-8 pubmed
    ..No obvious phenotype could be detected in the central nervous system and skeletal muscle. Functional redundancy between Pax7 and Pax3 is discussed. ..
  53. Barr F. Gene fusions involving PAX and FOX family members in alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma. Oncogene. 2001;20:5736-46 pubmed
    ..This aberrant gene expression program is then hypothesized to contribute to tumorigenic behavior by impacting on the control of growth, apoptosis, differentiation and motility...
  54. Palacios D, Mozzetta C, Consalvi S, Caretti G, Saccone V, Proserpio V, et al. TNF/p38?/polycomb signaling to Pax7 locus in satellite cells links inflammation to the epigenetic control of muscle regeneration. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;7:455-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic knockdown of Pax7 impaired satellite cell proliferation in response to p38 inhibition, thereby establishing the biological link between p38/PRC2 signaling to Pax7 and satellite cell decision to proliferate or differentiate. ..
  55. Conboy I, Rando T. The regulation of Notch signaling controls satellite cell activation and cell fate determination in postnatal myogenesis. Dev Cell. 2002;3:397-409 pubmed
  56. Snider L, Tapscott S. Emerging parallels in the generation and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Cell. 2003;113:811-2 pubmed
    ..show that Wnt signaling induces myogenesis in adult muscle stem cells in a manner analogous to muscle induction in the somite. ..
  57. Hollemann D, Budka H, Löscher W, Yanagida G, Fischer M, Wanschitz J. Endothelial and myogenic differentiation of hematopoietic progenitor cells in inflammatory myopathies. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol. 2008;67:711-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that circulating HPCs colonize skeletal muscle in inflammatory conditions and provide evidence for in situ myoendothelial differentiation of some of these cells. ..
  58. Minchin J, Hughes S. Sequential actions of Pax3 and Pax7 drive xanthophore development in zebrafish neural crest. Dev Biol. 2008;317:508-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, Pax3 in zebrafish is required for specification of two specific lineages of neural crest, xanthophores and enteric neurons. ..
  59. Fedtsova N, Quina L, Wang S, Turner E. Regulation of the development of tectal neurons and their projections by transcription factors Brn3a and Pax7. Dev Biol. 2008;316:6-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, Brn3a regulates the development of neurons contributing to specific ascending and descending tectofugal pathways, while Pax7 globally represses the development of tectofugal projections to nearly all brain structures. ..
  60. Sibthorpe D, Sturlaugsdóttir R, Kristjansson B, Thorarensen H, Skulason S, Johnston I. Characterisation and expression of the paired box protein 7 (Pax7) gene in polymorphic Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus). Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;145:371-83 pubmed
    ..The potential role of multiple alternative splicing of the Pax7 gene for the generation of different Arctic charr morphs is briefly discussed. ..
  61. Siriett V, Salerno M, Berry C, Nicholas G, Bower R, Kambadur R, et al. Antagonism of myostatin enhances muscle regeneration during sarcopenia. Mol Ther. 2007;15:1463-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that the antagonism of myostatin has significant therapeutic potential in the alleviation of sarcopenia. ..