goosecoid protein


Summary: Goosecoid protein is a homeodomain protein that was first identified in XENOPUS. It is found in the SPEMANN ORGANIZER of VERTEBRATES and plays an important role in neuronal CELL DIFFERENTIATION and ORGANOGENESIS.

Top Publications

  1. Wardle F, Smith J. Refinement of gene expression patterns in the early Xenopus embryo. Development. 2004;131:4687-96 pubmed
    ..Ectodermal cells induced to form mesendoderm by the addition of Activin respond by activating expression of different mesodermal and endodermal markers in the same cell, recapitulating the response of marginal zone cells in the embryo. ..
  2. Rivera Pérez J, Mallo M, Gendron Maguire M, Gridley T, Behringer R. Goosecoid is not an essential component of the mouse gastrula organizer but is required for craniofacial and rib development. Development. 1995;121:3005-12 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that gsc is not essential for organizer activity in the mouse but is required later during embryogenesis for craniofacial and rib cage development. ..
  3. Kawahara A, Wilm T, Solnica Krezel L, Dawid I. Functional interaction of vega2 and goosecoid homeobox genes in zebrafish. Genesis. 2000;28:58-67 pubmed
    ..We suggest that vega2, in cooperation with vega1, functions as a negative regulator of organizer genes including gsc, and participates in the refinement of the gastrula organizer domain...
  4. Saude L, Woolley K, Martin P, Driever W, Stemple D. Axis-inducing activities and cell fates of the zebrafish organizer. Development. 2000;127:3407-17 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the deep tissue included in our transplants is important for proper head formation. ..
  5. Cho K, Blumberg B, Steinbeisser H, De Robertis E. Molecular nature of Spemann's organizer: the role of the Xenopus homeobox gene goosecoid. Cell. 1991;67:1111-20 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the goosecoid homeodomain protein plays a central role in executing Spemann's organizer phenomenon. ..
  6. Shimizu T, Yamanaka Y, Ryu S, Hashimoto H, Yabe T, Hirata T, et al. Cooperative roles of Bozozok/Dharma and Nodal-related proteins in the formation of the dorsal organizer in zebrafish. Mech Dev. 2000;91:293-303 pubmed
  7. Rivera Pérez J, Wakamiya M, Behringer R. Goosecoid acts cell autonomously in mesenchyme-derived tissues during craniofacial development. Development. 1999;126:3811-21 pubmed
    ..Thus, the skeletal defects observed in Gsc-null mice may reflect a regional reduction of precursor cells during embryonic development. ..
  8. Latinkic B, Smith J. Goosecoid and mix.1 repress Brachyury expression and are required for head formation in Xenopus. Development. 1999;126:1769-79 pubmed
    ..Goosecoid, a transcriptional repressor, appears to act directly on transcription of Xbra. In contrast, Mix.1, which functions as a transcriptional activator, may act on Xbra indirectly, in part through activation of goosecoid. ..
  9. Feldman B, Gates M, Egan E, Dougan S, Rennebeck G, Sirotkin H, et al. Zebrafish organizer development and germ-layer formation require nodal-related signals. Nature. 1998;395:181-5 pubmed
    ..Misexpression of sqt RNA within the embryo or specifically in the YSL induces expanded or ectopic dorsal mesoderm. These results establish an essential role for nodal-related signals in organizer development and mesendoderm formation. ..

More Information


  1. Dixon Fox M, Bruce A. Short- and long-range functions of Goosecoid in zebrafish axis formation are independent of Chordin, Noggin 1 and Follistatin-like 1b. Development. 2009;136:1675-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that Gsc has dose dependent effects on axis induction and provide new insights into molecularly distinct short- and long-range signaling activities of the organizer. ..
  2. Artinger M, Blitz I, Inoue K, Tran U, Cho K. Interaction of goosecoid and brachyury in Xenopus mesoderm patterning. Mech Dev. 1997;65:187-96 pubmed
  3. Yamada G, Mansouri A, Torres M, Stuart E, Blum M, Schultz M, et al. Targeted mutation of the murine goosecoid gene results in craniofacial defects and neonatal death. Development. 1995;121:2917-22 pubmed
    ..Although the observed phenotype is in accordance with the late expression domains of goosecoid in wild-type embryos, we suggest that the lack of an earlier phenotype is the result of functional compensation by other genes. ..
  4. Messenger N, Kabitschke C, Andrews R, Grimmer D, Nunez Miguel R, Blundell T, et al. Functional specificity of the Xenopus T-domain protein Brachyury is conferred by its ability to interact with Smad1. Dev Cell. 2005;8:599-610 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a mechanism by which individual T-domain proteins may interact with different partners to elicit a specific response. ..
  5. Saka Y, Smith J. A mechanism for the sharp transition of morphogen gradient interpretation in Xenopus. BMC Dev Biol. 2007;7:47 pubmed
    ..It provides a mechanism by which a sharp boundary might be created between domains of different cell types in response to a morphogen gradient. ..
  6. Belo J, Leyns L, Yamada G, De Robertis E. The prechordal midline of the chondrocranium is defective in Goosecoid-1 mouse mutants. Mech Dev. 1998;72:15-25 pubmed
    ..The role of Gsc-1 during gastrulation and axial development is discussed in relation to possible compensatory interactions with other genes such as HNF-3beta and the recently identified Gsc-2 and Gsc-3 genes. ..
  7. Sasai Y, Lu B, Steinbeisser H, Geissert D, Gont L, De Robertis E. Xenopus chordin: a novel dorsalizing factor activated by organizer-specific homeobox genes. Cell. 1994;79:779-90 pubmed
    ..This molecule is a potent dorsalizing factor that is expressed at the right time and in the right place to regulate cell-cell interactions in the organizing centers of head, trunk, and tail development. ..
  8. Watabe T, Kim S, Candia A, Rothbächer U, Hashimoto C, Inoue K, et al. Molecular mechanisms of Spemann's organizer formation: conserved growth factor synergy between Xenopus and mouse. Genes Dev. 1995;9:3038-50 pubmed
    ..Finally, mechanisms of establishing the organizer are likely to be conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. ..
  9. Filosa S, Rivera Pérez J, Gomez A, Gansmuller A, Sasaki H, Behringer R, et al. Goosecoid and HNF-3beta genetically interact to regulate neural tube patterning during mouse embryogenesis. Development. 1997;124:2843-54 pubmed
    ..Our results also suggest that interaction between gsc and HNF-3beta regulates other signalling molecules required for proper development of the foregut, branchial arches and heart. ..
  10. Winterbottom E, Ramsbottom S, Isaacs H. Gsx transcription factors repress Iroquois gene expression. Dev Dyn. 2011;240:1422-9 pubmed publisher
  11. Brown J, Hallagan S, McGrew L, Miller J, Moon R. The maternal Xenopus beta-catenin signaling pathway, activated by frizzled homologs, induces goosecoid in a cell non-autonomous manner. Dev Growth Differ. 2000;42:347-57 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that maternal Frizzleds can activate the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway in Xenopus embryos, and that induction of a known downstream gene can occur in a cell non-autonomous manner. ..
  12. Su P, Chen J, Chiang C, Ng Y, Chen S. Exclusion of MYF5, GSC, RUNX2, and TCOF1 mutation in a case of cerebro-costo-mandibular syndrome. Clin Dysmorphol. 2010;19:51-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Further molecular studies are needed to evaluate the cause of CCMS. ..
  13. Tsang T, Kinder S, Tam P. Experimental analysis of the emergence of left-right asymmetry of the body axis in early postimplantation mouse embryos. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1999;45:493-503 pubmed
  14. Snider L, Tapscott S. XIC is required for Siamois activity and dorsoanterior development. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:5061-72 pubmed
    ..The data indicate a role for XIC in limiting Tcf3-dependent repression of Siamois activities that are required for goosecoid transcription and for dorsal organizer formation. ..
  15. Fujimoto T, Kataoka T, Otani S, Saito T, Aita T, Yamaha E, et al. Embryonic stages from cleavage to gastrula in the loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus. Zoolog Sci. 2004;21:747-55 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is possible that knowledge of the developmental stages of the zebrafish might be applicable to the loach. ..
  16. Fan M, Sokol S. A role for Siamois in Spemann organizer formation. Development. 1997;124:2581-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Siamois function is essential for beta-catenin-mediated formation of the Spemann organizer, and that Siamois acts prior to noggin in specifying dorsal development. ..
  17. Joore J, Fasciana C, Speksnijder J, Kruijer W, Destree O, van den Eijnden van Raaij A, et al. Regulation of the zebrafish goosecoid promoter by mesoderm inducing factors and Xwnt1. Mech Dev. 1996;55:3-18 pubmed
    ..The distal element is to our knowledge the first enhancer element identified that mediates the induction of a mesodermal gene by activin. ..
  18. Mizuno T, Yamaha E, Kuroiwa A, Takeda H. Removal of vegetal yolk causes dorsal deficencies and impairs dorsal-inducing ability of the yolk cell in zebrafish. Mech Dev. 1999;81:51-63 pubmed
    ..These results suggested that the vegetal yolk cell mass contains the dorsal determinants, and that the dorsal-inducing ability of the yolk cell is dependent on the determinants. ..
  19. Hartwell K, Muir B, Reinhardt F, Carpenter A, Sgroi D, Weinberg R. The Spemann organizer gene, Goosecoid, promotes tumor metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:18969-74 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that Goosecoid promotes tumor cell malignancy and suggest that other conserved organizer genes may function similarly in human cancer...
  20. Gurdon J, Standley H, Dyson S, Butler K, Langon T, Ryan K, et al. Single cells can sense their position in a morphogen gradient. Development. 1999;126:5309-17 pubmed
    ..We conclude that isolated blastula cells can sense and respond individually to activin by expressing genes in a concentration-dependent way. ..
  21. Castro Gonzalez C, Luengo Oroz M, Douloquin L, Savy T, Melani C, Desnoulez S, et al. Towards a digital model of zebrafish embryogenesis. Integration of cell tracking and gene expression quantification. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2010;2010:5520-3 pubmed publisher
    ..More to the point, this paper focuses on the evolution of the expression pattern of transcriptional factor goosecoid (gsc) through the gastrulation process between 6 and 9 hours post fertilization (hpf). ..
  22. Inohaya K, Yasumasu S, Yasumasu I, Iuchi I, Yamagami K. Analysis of the origin and development of hatching gland cells by transplantation of the embryonic shield in the fish, Oryzias latipes. Dev Growth Differ. 1999;41:557-66 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, it was determined that hatching gland cells were derived from the embryonic shield that functioned as the organizer in medaka. ..
  23. Mallo M, Gridley T. Development of the mammalian ear: coordinate regulation of formation of the tympanic ring and the external acoustic meatus. Development. 1996;122:173-9 pubmed
  24. Xu P, Zhu K, Jin Y, Chen Y, Sun X, Deng M, et al. Setdb2 restricts dorsal organizer territory and regulates left-right asymmetry through suppressing fgf8 activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2521-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide unique evidence that a SET domain-containing protein potentially involved in the epigenetic control negatively regulates dorsal organizer formation during early embryonic development. ..
  25. Jones C, Armes N, Smith J. Signalling by TGF-beta family members: short-range effects of Xnr-2 and BMP-4 contrast with the long-range effects of activin. Curr Biol. 1996;6:1468-75 pubmed
    ..Finally, signalling ranges may be regulated by constraints on processing or secretion and by interactions with extracellular components of embryonic tissues. ..
  26. Williams H, Jayaraman P, Gaston K. DNA wrapping and distortion by an oligomeric homeodomain protein. J Mol Biol. 2008;383:10-23 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that PRH octamers wrap DNA in order to bring about transcriptional repression. ..
  27. Zhang H, Fraser S, Papazoglu C, Hoatlin M, Baron M. Transcriptional activation by the Mixl1 homeodomain protein in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells. Stem Cells. 2009;27:2884-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results strongly suggest that Gsc is a direct target gene of Mixl1 during embryogenesis. STEM CELLS 2009;27:2884-2895. ..
  28. Kiyama T, Zhang N, Dayal S, Yun Lee P, Liang S, Villinski J, et al. Strongylocentrotus purpuratus transcription factor GATA-E binds to and represses transcription at an Otx-Goosecoid cis-regulatory element within the aboral ectoderm-specific spec2a enhancer. Dev Biol. 2005;280:436-47 pubmed
    ..Our results show that the recently evolved proximal element contributes to the repression of spec2a in endomesoderm and oral ectoderm territories. ..
  29. Vesque C, Ellis S, Lee A, Szabo M, Thomas P, Beddington R, et al. Development of chick axial mesoderm: specification of prechordal mesoderm by anterior endoderm-derived TGFbeta family signalling. Development. 2000;127:2795-809 pubmed
    ..Together our results suggest that anterior endoderm-derived TGFbetas may specify prechordal mesoderm character in chick axial mesoderm. ..
  30. Harvey S, Smith J. Visualisation and quantification of morphogen gradient formation in the zebrafish. PLoS Biol. 2009;7:e1000101 pubmed publisher
  31. Thisse C, Thisse B, Halpern M, Postlethwait J. Goosecoid expression in neurectoderm and mesendoderm is disrupted in zebrafish cyclops gastrulas. Dev Biol. 1994;164:420-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that in the gastrula head, goosecoid may be important in organizing the ventral neurectoderm. ..
  32. Goriely A, Stella M, Coffinier C, Kessler D, Mailhos C, Dessain S, et al. A functional homologue of goosecoid in Drosophila. Development. 1996;122:1641-50 pubmed
    ..The identification of gsc target genes and/or other genes involved in similar developmental processes will allow the definition of the precise phylogenetic relationship among Gsc proteins. ..
  33. Lanctot C, Lamolet B, Drouin J. The bicoid-related homeoprotein Ptx1 defines the most anterior domain of the embryo and differentiates posterior from anterior lateral mesoderm. Development. 1997;124:2807-17 pubmed
  34. Funke B, Saint Jore B, Puech A, Sirotkin H, Edelmann L, Carlson C, et al. Characterization and mutation analysis of goosecoid-like (GSCL), a homeodomain-containing gene that maps to the critical region for VCFS/DGS on 22q11. Genomics. 1997;46:364-72 pubmed
    ..We did not detect a mutation in this set of VCFS patients. A polymorphism was detected in codon 47 of exon 1. ..
  35. Loucks E, Schwend T, Ahlgren S. Molecular changes associated with teratogen-induced cyclopia. Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol. 2007;79:642-51 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that each teratogen exposure leads to a unique set of molecular changes that underlie the single phenotype of cyclopia. ..
  36. Gazdag E, Jacobi U, van Kruijsbergen I, Weeks D, Veenstra G. Activation of a T-box-Otx2-Gsc gene network independent of TBP and TBP-related factors. Development. 2016;143:1340-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that this network of genes bound by Vegt, Eomes, Otx2 and Gsc utilizes a novel, flexible and non-canonical mechanism of transcription that does not require TBP or TBP-related factors. ..
  37. Lee S, Yoon J, Lee H, Hwang Y, Cha S, Jeong C, et al. The function of heterodimeric AP-1 comprised of c-Jun and c-Fos in activin mediated Spemann organizer gene expression. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e21796 pubmed publisher
    ..AP-1(c-Jun/c-Fos) plays a specific role in organizer gene expression in downstream of activin signal during early Xenopus embryogenesis. ..
  38. Zou W, Chen X, Shim J, Huang Z, Brady N, Hu D, et al. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Wwp2 regulates craniofacial development through mono-ubiquitylation of Goosecoid. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:59-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify for the first time a physiological pathway regulated by Wwp2 in vivo, and also a unique non-proteolytic mechanism through which Wwp2 controls craniofacial development. ..
  39. Izzi L, Silvestri C, Von Both I, Labbé E, Zakin L, Wrana J, et al. Foxh1 recruits Gsc to negatively regulate Mixl1 expression during early mouse development. EMBO J. 2007;26:3132-43 pubmed
    ..As Gsc is itself induced in a Foxh1-dependent manner, we propose that Foxh1 initiates positive and negative transcriptional circuits to refine cell fate decisions during gastrulation. ..
  40. Joore J, Timmermans A, van de Water S, Folkers G, van der Saag P, Zivkovic D. Domains of retinoid signalling and neurectodermal expression of zebrafish otx1 and goosecoid are mutually exclusive. Biochem Cell Biol. 1997;75:601-12 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our data suggest that the action of retinoids is spatially as well as temporally regulated in the developing embryo. ..
  41. Gritsman K, Talbot W, Schier A. Nodal signaling patterns the organizer. Development. 2000;127:921-32 pubmed
    ..Together, these results indicate that differential Nodal signaling patterns the organizer before gastrulation, with the highest level of activity required for anterior fates and lower activity essential for posterior fates. ..
  42. Jin J, Ding J. Analysis of Meox-2 mutant mice reveals a novel postfusion-based cleft palate. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:539-46 pubmed
    ..This article is the first report of a gene required to maintain adherence of the palatal shelves after fusion. ..
  43. Tada S, Era T, Furusawa C, Sakurai H, Nishikawa S, Kinoshita M, et al. Characterization of mesendoderm: a diverging point of the definitive endoderm and mesoderm in embryonic stem cell differentiation culture. Development. 2005;132:4363-74 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that the defined culture condition and surface markers developed in this study are applicable for obtaining pure mesendodermal cells and their immediate progenies from genetically unmanipulated ES cells. ..
  44. Croce J, Lhomond G, Gache C. Coquillette, a sea urchin T-box gene of the Tbx2 subfamily, is expressed asymmetrically along the oral-aboral axis of the embryo and is involved in skeletogenesis. Mech Dev. 2003;120:561-72 pubmed
    ..Coquillette appears to be an integral part of the patterning system along the OA axis. ..
  45. Clouthier D, Hosoda K, Richardson J, Williams S, Yanagisawa H, Kuwaki T, et al. Cranial and cardiac neural crest defects in endothelin-A receptor-deficient mice. Development. 1998;125:813-24 pubmed
    ..These observations define a novel genetic pathway for inductive communication between cephalic neural crest cells and their environmental counterparts. ..
  46. Hahn M, Jackle H. Drosophila goosecoid participates in neural development but not in body axis formation. EMBO J. 1996;15:3077-84 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that this invertebrate homolog of gsc is not required for gastrulation but plays a role in neurogenesis in post-gastrula Drosophila embryos. ..
  47. Germain S, Howell M, Esslemont G, Hill C. Homeodomain and winged-helix transcription factors recruit activated Smads to distinct promoter elements via a common Smad interaction motif. Genes Dev. 2000;14:435-51 pubmed
  48. Niederlander C, Walsh J, Episkopou V, Jones C. Arkadia enhances nodal-related signalling to induce mesendoderm. Nature. 2001;410:830-4 pubmed
    ..Our findings, together with the observation that Arkadia mutant mice lack a node and node-derived mesendoderm, identify Arkadia as an essential modulator of the nodal signalling cascade that leads to induction of Spemann's organizer. ..
  49. O Reilly M, Smith J, Cunliffe V. Patterning of the mesoderm in Xenopus: dose-dependent and synergistic effects of Brachyury and Pintallavis. Development. 1995;121:1351-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Pintallavis cooperates with Brachyury to pattern the mesoderm in Xenopus. ..
  50. Yasuo H, Lemaire P. Role of Goosecoid, Xnot and Wnt antagonists in the maintenance of the notochord genetic programme in Xenopus gastrulae. Development. 2001;128:3783-93 pubmed
  51. Lemaire P, Garrett N, Gurdon J. Expression cloning of Siamois, a Xenopus homeobox gene expressed in dorsal-vegetal cells of blastulae and able to induce a complete secondary axis. Cell. 1995;81:85-94 pubmed
    ..The activation of this gene can be obtained cell autonomously in dispersed embryo cells. These results indicate that Siamois may play an important role in the formation of the Nieuwkoop center. ..
  52. Furue M, Myoishi Y, Fukui Y, Ariizumi T, Okamoto T, Asashima M. Activin A induces craniofacial cartilage from undifferentiated Xenopus ectoderm in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:15474-9 pubmed
    ..This work also suggests that the craniofacial cartilage-induction pathway is downstream of activin A. This study presents a model system suitable for the in vitro analysis of craniofacial cartilage induction in vertebrates. ..
  53. Patwardhan V, Gokhale M, Ghaskadbi S. Acceleration of early chick embryo morphogenesis by insulin is associated with altered expression of embryonic genes. Int J Dev Biol. 2004;48:319-26 pubmed
    ..The function of insulin appears to be mediated by specific genes which orchestrate pattern formation during early development. ..