fushi tarazu transcription factors


Summary: Fushi tarazu transcription factors were originally identified in DROSOPHILA. They are found throughout ARTHROPODS and play important roles in segmentation and CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM development.

Top Publications

  1. Lala D, Rice D, Parker K. Steroidogenic factor I, a key regulator of steroidogenic enzyme expression, is the mouse homolog of fushi tarazu-factor I. Mol Endocrinol. 1992;6:1249-58 pubmed
    ..The demonstration that a member of the nuclear hormone receptor family interacts with the steroidogenic regulatory elements provides intriguing insights into possible mechanisms by which these essential genes are regulated. ..
  2. Han W, Yu Y, Altan N, Pick L. Multiple proteins interact with the fushi tarazu proximal enhancer. Mol Cell Biol. 1993;13:5549-59 pubmed
  3. Von Hofsten J, Karlsson J, Olsson P. Fushi tarazu factor-1 mRNA and protein is expressed in steroidogenic and cholesterol metabolising tissues during different life stages in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003;132:96-102 pubmed
    ..Thus, a division of NR5A into SF-1 (NR5A1) and FTF (NR5A2) specific functions does not appear to have occurred in teleosts. ..
  4. Nomura M, Bartsch S, Nawata H, Omura T, Morohashi K. An E box element is required for the expression of the ad4bp gene, a mammalian homologue of ftz-f1 gene, which is essential for adrenal and gonadal development. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:7453-61 pubmed
  5. Palazzo A, Springer M, Shibata Y, Lee C, Dias A, Rapoport T. The signal sequence coding region promotes nuclear export of mRNA. PLoS Biol. 2007;5:e322 pubmed
    ..The discovery of an SSCR-mediated pathway explains the previously noted amino acid bias in signal sequences and suggests a link between nuclear export and membrane targeting of mRNAs. ..
  6. Yoshiura Y, Senthilkumaran B, Watanabe M, Oba Y, Kobayashi T, Nagahama Y. Synergistic expression of Ad4BP/SF-1 and cytochrome P-450 aromatase (ovarian type) in the ovary of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, during vitellogenesis suggests transcriptional interaction. Biol Reprod. 2003;68:1545-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Ad4BP/SF-1 probably acts as a transcriptional modulator to implement the paradoxical actions of gonadotropins on oP450arom gene...
  7. de Santa Barbara P, Bonneaud N, Boizet B, Desclozeaux M, Moniot B, Sudbeck P, et al. Direct interaction of SRY-related protein SOX9 and steroidogenic factor 1 regulates transcription of the human anti-Müllerian hormone gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:6653-65 pubmed
    ..Our work thus identifies SOX9 as an interaction partner of SF-1 that could be involved in the Sertoli cell-specific expression of AMH during embryogenesis. ..
  8. Han W, Yu Y, Su K, Kohanski R, Pick L. A binding site for multiple transcriptional activators in the fushi tarazu proximal enhancer is essential for gene expression in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:3384-94 pubmed
    ..The finding of repeated binding sites for multiple nuclear proteins underscores the high degree of redundancy built into embryonic gene regulatory networks. ..
  9. Pick L, Schier A, Affolter M, Schmidt Glenewinkel T, Gehring W. Analysis of the ftz upstream element: germ layer-specific enhancers are independently autoregulated. Genes Dev. 1990;4:1224-39 pubmed
    ..We suggest that ftz protein acts in combination with germ layer-restricted transcription factors directly and positively to regulate the transcription of its own gene. ..

More Information


  1. Ohno C, Ueda H, Petkovich M. The Drosophila nuclear receptors FTZ-F1 alpha and FTZ-F1 beta compete as monomers for binding to a site in the fushi tarazu gene. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:3166-75 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that FTZ-F1 alpha and FTZ-F1 beta likely coregulate common target genes by competition for binding to a 9-bp recognition element. ..
  2. Ikeda Y, Shen W, Ingraham H, Parker K. Developmental expression of mouse steroidogenic factor-1, an essential regulator of the steroid hydroxylases. Mol Endocrinol. 1994;8:654-62 pubmed
    ..Additionally, SF-1 is expressed in the embryonic forebrain, implying a role in neural development. ..
  3. Gurates B, Amsterdam A, Tamura M, Yang S, Zhou J, Fang Z, et al. WT1 and DAX-1 regulate SF-1-mediated human P450arom gene expression in gonadal cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2003;208:61-75 pubmed
    ..Given the characterized roles of these transcription factors in gonadal development and function, modulation of SF-1 action by WT1 and DAX-1 may represent an important key mechanism in steroidogenesis. ..
  4. Tsai C, Gergen P. Pair-rule expression of the Drosophila fushi tarazu gene: a nuclear receptor response element mediates the opposing regulatory effects of runt and hairy. Development. 1995;121:453-62 pubmed
  5. Crews D, Fleming A, Willingham E, Baldwin R, Skipper J. Role of steroidogenic factor 1 and aromatase in temperature-dependent sex determination in the red-eared slider turtle. J Exp Zool. 2001;290:597-606 pubmed
    ..The inhibition of estrogen results in upregulation of SF-1 and male hatchlings. Thus, SF-1 may lie at the center of one molecular crossroad in male versus female differentiation of the red-eared slider. ..
  6. Tokunaga K, Shibuya T, Ishihama Y, Tadakuma H, Ide M, Yoshida M, et al. Nucleocytoplasmic transport of fluorescent mRNA in living mammalian cells: nuclear mRNA export is coupled to ongoing gene transcription. Genes Cells. 2006;11:305-17 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that nuclear mRNA export is coupled to ongoing gene transcription in mammalian cells. ..
  7. Achermann J, Ito M, Hindmarsh P, Jameson J. A mutation in the gene encoding steroidogenic factor-1 causes XY sex reversal and adrenal failure in humans. Nat Genet. 1999;22:125-6 pubmed
  8. Ito M, Masuda A, Yumoto K, Otomo A, Takahashi Y, Takamatsu N, et al. cDNA cloning of a new member of the FTZ-F1 subfamily from a rainbow trout. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1395:271-4 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the overall homology between tFZR1 and zebrafish FTZ-F1 is low (33.0%). The results indicate that tFZR1 is a new member of fushitarazu factor 1 (FTZ-F1) subfamily...
  9. Kudo T, Sutou S. Molecular cloning of chicken FTZ-F1-related orphan receptors. Gene. 1997;197:261-8 pubmed
    ..However, OR2.0 consists of 2945 bp, is expressed in the livers and the adrenal glands, and is considered to be the chicken counterpart of mouse LRH-1, which is a member of the FTZ-F1 family in mammals. ..
  10. Luo M, Reed R. Splicing is required for rapid and efficient mRNA export in metazoans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999;96:14937-42 pubmed
    ..Our results, revealing a link between splicing and efficient mRNA export, may explain the reports that an intron is required for efficient expression of many protein-coding genes in metazoans. ..
  11. Galarneau L, Pare J, Allard D, Hamel D, Levesque L, Tugwood J, et al. The alpha1-fetoprotein locus is activated by a nuclear receptor of the Drosophila FTZ-F1 family. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:3853-65 pubmed
    ..FTF is also abundantly expressed in the pancreas and may exert differentiation functions in endodermal sublineages, similar to SF-1 in steroidogenic tissues. HepG2 hepatoma cells seem to express a mutated form of FTF. ..
  12. Lynch J, Lala D, Peluso J, Luo W, Parker K, White B. Steroidogenic factor 1, an orphan nuclear receptor, regulates the expression of the rat aromatase gene in gonadal tissues. Mol Endocrinol. 1993;7:776-86 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these studies implicate SF-1 in the regulation of steroid hydroxylase gene expression in nonadrenal tissues, significantly extending previous studies in adrenocortical cells. ..
  13. Lavorgna G, Ueda H, Clos J, Wu C. FTZ-F1, a steroid hormone receptor-like protein implicated in the activation of fushi tarazu. Science. 1991;252:848-51 pubmed
    ..This finding raises the possibility that a hormonal ligand affects the expression of a homeobox segmentation gene early in embryonic development. ..
  14. Honda S, Morohashi K, Nomura M, Takeya H, Kitajima M, Omura T. Ad4BP regulating steroidogenic P-450 gene is a member of steroid hormone receptor superfamily. J Biol Chem. 1993;268:7494-502 pubmed
    ..Transfection of a Ad4BP expression plasmid into CV-1 cells activated the transcription of the CAT reporter gene carrying the Ad4 sequence in the promoter region. ..
  15. Kosman D, Small S. Concentration-dependent patterning by an ectopic expression domain of the Drosophila gap gene knirps. Development. 1997;124:1343-54 pubmed
    ..Evidence is presented that the level and timing of expression, as well as protein diffusion, are important for determining the specific responses of target genes. ..
  16. Parker K, Schimmer B. Steroidogenic factor 1: a key determinant of endocrine development and function. Endocr Rev. 1997;18:361-77 pubmed
  17. Sadovsky Y, Crawford P, Woodson K, Polish J, Clements M, Tourtellotte L, et al. Mice deficient in the orphan receptor steroidogenic factor 1 lack adrenal glands and gonads but express P450 side-chain-cleavage enzyme in the placenta and have normal embryonic serum levels of corticosteroids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:10939-43 pubmed
    ..These results confirm that SF-1 is an important regulator of adrenal and gonadal development, but its regulation of steroid hydroxylase expression in vivo remains to be established. ..
  18. Watanabe M, Tanaka M, Kobayashi D, Yoshiura Y, Oba Y, Nagahama Y. Medaka (Oryzias latipes) FTZ-F1 potentially regulates the transcription of P-450 aromatase in ovarian follicles: cDNA cloning and functional characterization. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 1999;149:221-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest a potential role of mdFTZ-F1 in the transcriptional regulation of P-450arom in the ovarian follicle of medaka...
  19. Ellinger Ziegelbauer H, Hihi A, Laudet V, Keller H, Wahli W, Dreyer C. FTZ-F1-related orphan receptors in Xenopus laevis: transcriptional regulators differentially expressed during early embryogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 1994;14:2786-97 pubmed
    ..At early tailbud stages, xFTZ-F1-related antigens are found in all nuclei of the embryo. ..
  20. Von Hofsten J, Karlsson J, Jones I, Olsson P. Expression and regulation of fushi tarazu factor-1 and steroidogenic genes during reproduction in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus). Biol Reprod. 2002;67:1297-304 pubmed
    ..Although these results indicate conserved steroidogenic functions for FTZ-F1 among vertebrates, they also raise the question of additional roles for FTZ-F1 in teleosts...
  21. Higa M, Ando H, Urano A. Expression of Fushi tarazu factor 1 homolog and Pit-1 genes in the pituitaries of pre-spawning chum and sockeye salmon. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2001;129:503-9 pubmed
    ..Physiological factors regulating gene expression of FTZ-F1 and Pit-1 are discussed in this review...
  22. Wibbels T, Cowan J, LeBoeuf R. Temperature-dependent sex determination in the red-eared slider turtle, Trachemys scripta. J Exp Zool. 1998;281:409-16 pubmed
    ..scripta. Further, such studies could help pinpoint the temperature-sensitive element(s). ..
  23. Hughes C, Liu P, Kaufman T. Expression patterns of the rogue Hox genes Hox3/zen and fushi tarazu in the apterygote insect Thermobia domestica. Evol Dev. 2004;6:393-401 pubmed
    ..Hox3 appears to have evolved directly into zen within the insects, whereas ftz seems to have adopted the expression patterns of a segmentation and neurogenesis gene earlier in the mandibulate arthropods. ..
  24. Liu Y, Gao W, Teh H, Tan J, Chan W. Prox1 is a novel coregulator of Ff1b and is involved in the embryonic development of the zebra fish interrenal primordium. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:7243-55 pubmed
  25. Sun G, Hirose S, Ueda H. Intermittent expression of BmFTZ-F1, a member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily during development of the silkworm Bombyx mori. Dev Biol. 1994;162:426-37 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that BmFTZ-F1 is inducible by decline in the ecdysteroid titer and may play an important role in the development of the silkworm as a transcription factor...
  26. Wong M, Ramayya M, Chrousos G, Driggers P, Parker K. Cloning and sequence analysis of the human gene encoding steroidogenic factor 1. J Mol Endocrinol. 1996;17:139-47 pubmed
  27. Nasiadka A, Krause H. Kinetic analysis of segmentation gene interactions in Drosophila embryos. Development. 1999;126:1515-26 pubmed
    ..In total, 11 putative Ftz target genes are analyzed, and the data provide a substantially revised view of Ftz roles and activities within the segmentation hierarchy. ..
  28. Von Hofsten J, Olsson P. Zebrafish sex determination and differentiation: involvement of FTZ-F1 genes. Reprod Biol Endocrinol. 2005;3:63 pubmed
    ..The role of FTZ-F1 and other candidates for zebrafish sex determination and differentiation is in focus of this review. ..
  29. Calhoun V, Levine M. Long-range enhancer-promoter interactions in the Scr-Antp interval of the Drosophila Antennapedia complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:9878-83 pubmed
    ..We suggest that homotypic interactions between the tethering elements stabilize long-range T1-Scr interactions during development. ..
  30. Ueda H, Sonoda S, Brown J, Scott M, Wu C. A sequence-specific DNA-binding protein that activates fushi tarazu segmentation gene expression. Genes Dev. 1990;4:624-35 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that FTZ-F1 is a transcriptional activator necessary for the proper expression of the ftz gene. ..
  31. Ikeda Y, Lala D, Luo X, Kim E, Moisan M, Parker K. Characterization of the mouse FTZ-F1 gene, which encodes a key regulator of steroid hydroxylase gene expression. Mol Endocrinol. 1993;7:852-60 pubmed
    ..ELP transcripts were not detected from embryonic day 8 to adult, consistent with its previous isolation from embryonal carcinoma cells and its postulated role in early embryonic development.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  32. Tevosian S, Albrecht K, Crispino J, Fujiwara Y, Eicher E, Orkin S. Gonadal differentiation, sex determination and normal Sry expression in mice require direct interaction between transcription partners GATA4 and FOG2. Development. 2002;129:4627-34 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that GATA4 and FOG2 and their physical interaction are required for normal gonadal development. ..
  33. Oba K, Yanase T, Nomura M, Morohashi K, Takayanagi R, Nawata H. Structural characterization of human Ad4bp (SF-1) gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1996;226:261-7 pubmed
    ..The gene is about 30 kb long and is split into 7 exons including a non-coding exon 1. The deduced amino acid sequence of the human Ad4BP consists of 461 amino acid residues and was highly homologous to those of other mammalian species. ..
  34. Topol J, Dearolf C, Prakash K, Parker C. Synthetic oligonucleotides recreate Drosophila fushi tarazu zebra-stripe expression. Genes Dev. 1991;5:855-67 pubmed
    ..The reconstructed promoter system presented provides an effective means of studying molecular mechanisms governing spatially restricted transcription in the early embryo. ..
  35. Huang N, Miller W. Cloning of factors related to HIV-inducible LBP proteins that regulate steroidogenic factor-1-independent human placental transcription of the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:2852-8 pubmed
    ..Their modulation of placental but not adrenal P450scc transcription underscores the distinctiveness of placental strategies for steroidogenic enzyme gene transcription. ..
  36. Wu K, Wolgemuth D. Protein product of the somatic-type transcript of the Hoxa-4 (Hox-1.4) gene binds to homeobox consensus binding sites in its promoter and intron. J Cell Biochem. 1993;52:449-62 pubmed
    ..These results also suggested that the Hoxa-4 gene has the potential to auto-regulate its expression by interacting with the homeodomain binding sites present in the promoter as well as in the intron. ..
  37. Thiboutot D, Jabara S, McAllister J, Sivarajah A, Gilliland K, Cong Z, et al. Human skin is a steroidogenic tissue: steroidogenic enzymes and cofactors are expressed in epidermis, normal sebocytes, and an immortalized sebocyte cell line (SEB-1). J Invest Dermatol. 2003;120:905-14 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that the skin is in fact a steroidogenic tissue. The clinical significance of this finding in mediating androgenic skin disorders such as acne, hirsutism, or androgenetic alopecia remains to be established. ..
  38. Bamberger A, Ezzat S, Cao B, Wong M, Parker K, Schulte H, et al. Expression of steroidogenic factor-1 (SF-1) mRNA and protein in the human placenta. Mol Hum Reprod. 1996;2:457-61 pubmed
    ..We conclude that SF-1 is expressed in human first trimester and term placenta, where it could be implicated in the regulation of HCG production, in steroidogenesis, or both. ..
  39. Suzuki T, Kasahara M, Yoshioka H, Morohashi K, Umesono K. LXXLL-related motifs in Dax-1 have target specificity for the orphan nuclear receptors Ad4BP/SF-1 and LRH-1. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:238-49 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results indicate that the specificities of LXXLL-related motifs in Dax-1 based on their amino acid sequences play an important role in regulation of orphan receptors. ..
  40. Ramkissoon Y, Goodfellow P. Early steps in mammalian sex determination. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1996;6:316-21 pubmed
    ..The gene responsible for adrenal hypoplasia congenita, DAX1, is a candidate for the X-linked dosage sensitive sex reversal gene (DSS). ..
  41. Stallings N, Hanley N, Majdic G, Zhao L, Bakke M, Parker K. Development of a transgenic green fluorescent protein lineage marker for steroidogenic factor 1. Endocr Res. 2002;28:497-504 pubmed
    ..The SF-1/eGFP transgene provides a valuable tool to expand our understanding of the actions of SF-1 in endocrine development and function...
  42. Martinez A, Val P, Jean C, Veyssiere G, Lefrançois Martinez A. SF-1 controls the expression of the scavenger gene akr1b7: in vitro and in vivo approaches. Endocr Res. 2002;28:515-8 pubmed
  43. Zhao L, Bakke M, Krimkevich Y, Cushman L, Parlow A, Camper S, et al. Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) is essential for pituitary gonadotrope function. Development. 2001;128:147-54 pubmed
    ..The pituitary-specific SF1 knockout mice are a novel genetic model of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism that establishes essential role(s) of SF1 in pituitary gonadotropes. ..
  44. Li L, Chiang E, Chen J, Hsu N, Chen Y, Chung B. Function of steroidogenic factor 1 domains in nuclear localization, transactivation, and interaction with transcription factor TFIIB and c-Jun. Mol Endocrinol. 1999;13:1588-98 pubmed
    ..These results delineate the importance of the FP and AF2 regions in nuclear localization, protein-protein interaction, and transcriptional activation. ..
  45. McElreavey K, Fellous M. Sex determination and the Y chromosome. Am J Med Genet. 1999;89:176-85 pubmed
    ..Despite recent advances, however, we are still unable to explain the genetic cause of most cases of 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis or even a single case of Y-chromosome-negative 46,XX maleness. ..
  46. Yu R, Ito M, Jameson J. The murine Dax-1 promoter is stimulated by SF-1 (steroidogenic factor-1) and inhibited by COUP-TF (chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter-transcription factor) via a composite nuclear receptor-regulatory element. Mol Endocrinol. 1998;12:1010-22 pubmed
    ..We propose that Dax-1 is stimulated by SF-1, and that SF-1 and COUP-TF provide antagonistic pathways that converge upon a common regulatory site. ..
  47. Maier D, Sperlich D, Powell J. Conservation and change of the developmentally crucial fushi tarazu gene in Drosophila. J Mol Evol. 1993;36:315-26 pubmed
    ..This proposition could be tested in the present case because we could predict a priori from the developmental studies which DNA regions should be most conserved. ..
  48. Shalitin S, Josefsberg Z, Vilain E, Shomrat R, Weintrob N. Adrenal hypoplasia congenita with multiple pituitary hormone deficiency without documented mutation in DAX1 or SF1 gene. Mol Genet Metab. 2002;76:157-61 pubmed
    ..A boy with adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) and multiple pituitary hormone deficiency (MPHD), without mutations in the DAX1 or SF1 genes, is described. The association of AHC and MPHD has not been previously reported. ..
  49. Brown S, Hilgenfeld R, Denell R. The beetle Tribolium castaneum has a fushi tarazu homolog expressed in stripes during segmentation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994;91:12922-6 pubmed
    ..These and other observations demonstrate that a ftz gene preexisted the radiation of holometabolous insects and suggest that it has a role in beetle embryogenesis which differs somewhat from that described in flies. ..
  50. Tanaka N, Dye L, Stopfer M. Dual-labeling method for electron microscopy to characterize synaptic connectivity using genetically encoded fluorescent reporters in Drosophila. J Neurosci Methods. 2011;194:312-5 pubmed publisher
  51. Tran P, Lee M, Marin O, Xu B, Jones K, Reichardt L, et al. Requirement of the orphan nuclear receptor SF-1 in terminal differentiation of ventromedial hypothalamic neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2003;22:441-53 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that SF-1 is required for terminal differentiation of the VMN and suggest that transcriptional targets of SF-1 mediate normal circuitry between the hypothalamus and limbic structures in the telencephalon. ..
  52. Yamada M, Murata T, Hirose S, Lavorgna G, Suzuki E, Ueda H. Temporally restricted expression of transcription factor betaFTZ-F1: significance for embryogenesis, molting and metamorphosis in Drosophila melanogaster. Development. 2000;127:5083-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that betaFTZ-F1 regulates genes associated with ecdysis and metamorphosis, and that the exact timing of its action in the ecdysone-induced gene cascade is important for proper development. ..
  53. Muller J, Bienz M. Sharp anterior boundary of homeotic gene expression conferred by the fushi tarazu protein. EMBO J. 1992;11:3653-61 pubmed
    ..Direct activation of homeotic gene control regions by ftz (or eve) protein may be a regulatory step which is generally used to align expression of homeotic genes with parasegmental boundaries. ..