hmgb1 protein


Summary: A 24-kDa HMGB protein that binds to and distorts the minor grove of DNA.

Top Publications

  1. LeBlanc P, Doggett T, Choi J, Hancock M, Durocher Y, Frank F, et al. An immunogenic peptide in the A-box of HMGB1 protein reverses apoptosis-induced tolerance through RAGE receptor. J Biol Chem. 2014;289:7777-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings represent a novel link between caspase-1 and HMGB1, with potential therapeutic implications in infectious and inflammatory diseases. ..
  2. Pérez Carrión M, Ceña V. Knocking down HMGB1 using dendrimer-delivered siRNA unveils its key role in NMDA-induced autophagy in rat cortical neurons. Pharm Res. 2013;30:2584-95 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the dendrimer that we have used here is a good vector for siRNA delivery to neurons allowing lack-of-function studies. ..
  3. Chen T, Guo Z, Li L, Wang L, Jia R, Cao N, et al. Increased HMGB1 serum levels and altered HMGB1 expression in patients with psoriasis vulgaris. Arch Dermatol Res. 2013;305:263-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that HMGB1 might be involved in the pathogenesis of PV. ..
  4. Kim S, Kim S, Pribis J, LOTZE M, Mollen K, Shapiro R, et al. Signaling of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) through toll-like receptor 4 in macrophages requires CD14. Mol Med. 2013;19:88-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, efficient recognition of HMGB1 by the TLR4/MD2 complex requires CD14. ..
  5. Davalos A, Kawahara M, Malhotra G, Schaum N, Huang J, Ved U, et al. p53-dependent release of Alarmin HMGB1 is a central mediator of senescent phenotypes. J Cell Biol. 2013;201:613-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings identify senescence as a novel biological setting in which HMGB1 functions and link HMGB1 redistribution to p53 activity and senescence-associated inflammation. ..
  6. Kang R, Zhang Q, Zeh H, Lotze M, Tang D. HMGB1 in cancer: good, bad, or both?. Clin Cancer Res. 2013;19:4046-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the current knowledge of both HMGB1's oncogenic and tumor-suppressive roles and the potential strategies that target HMGB1 for the prevention and treatment of cancer. ..
  7. Yang H, Antoine D, Andersson U, Tracey K. The many faces of HMGB1: molecular structure-functional activity in inflammation, apoptosis, and chemotaxis. J Leukoc Biol. 2013;93:865-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, post-translational modifications of HMGB1 determine its role in inflammation and immunity. ..
  8. Lu B, Wang H, Andersson U, Tracey K. Regulation of HMGB1 release by inflammasomes. Protein Cell. 2013;4:163-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these studies not only unravel novel mechanisms of HMGB1 release during inflammation, but also provide potential therapeutic targets to treat HMGB1-related inflammatory diseases. ..
  9. Chen Y, Sun W, Gao R, Su Y, Umehara H, Dong L, et al. The role of high mobility group box chromosomal protein 1 in rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2013;52:1739-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Intervention with HMGB1 may ameliorate the pathogenic conditions and attenuate disease progression of RA. Therefore administration of an HMGB1 inhibitor may represent a promising clinical approach for the treatment of RA. ..

More Information


  1. Deng Y, Yang Z, Gao Y, Xu H, Zheng B, Jiang M, et al. Toll-like receptor 4 mediates acute lung injury induced by high mobility group box-1. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64375 pubmed publisher
    ..HMGB-1 can activate alveolar macrophages to produce proinflammatory cytokines and induce ALI through a mechanism that relies on TLR-4. ..
  2. Wang F, Li L, Li J, Wang J, Wang L, Jiang W. High mobility group box-1 promotes the proliferation and migration of hepatic stellate cells via TLR4-dependent signal pathways of PI3K/Akt and JNK. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e64373 pubmed publisher
  3. Fang H, Liu A, Dahmen U, Dirsch O. Dual role of chloroquine in liver ischemia reperfusion injury: reduction of liver damage in early phase, but aggravation in late phase. Cell Death Dis. 2013;4:e694 pubmed publisher
    ..This dual role of chloroquine should be considered when using chloroquine as an inhibitor of inflammation or autophagy in I/R injury. ..
  4. Nadatani Y, Watanabe T, Tanigawa T, Ohkawa F, Takeda S, Higashimori A, et al. High-mobility group box 1 inhibits gastric ulcer healing through Toll-like receptor 4 and receptor for advanced glycation end products. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e80130 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we showed that HMGB1 is a complicating factor in the gastric ulcer healing process, which acts through TLR4 and RAGE to induce excessive inflammatory responses. ..
  5. Bellussi L, Iosif C, Sarafoleanu C, Jianu E, Duda R, Panaitescu E, et al. Are HMGB1 protein expression and secretion markers of upper airways inflammatory diseases?. J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2013;27:791-804 pubmed was to investigate if the expression and localization (nuclear, cytoplasmic and extracellular) of the HMGB1 protein-cytokine is somehow related to the severity and complexity of the histological and clinical picture...
  6. Yanai H, Matsuda A, An J, Koshiba R, Nishio J, Negishi H, et al. Conditional ablation of HMGB1 in mice reveals its protective function against endotoxemia and bacterial infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:20699-704 pubmed publisher
    ..These newly generated HMGB1 conditional knockout mice will serve a useful tool with which to study further the in vivo role of this protein in various pathological conditions. ..
  7. Gero D, Szoleczky P, Módis K, Pribis J, Al Abed Y, Yang H, et al. Identification of pharmacological modulators of HMGB1-induced inflammatory response by cell-based screening. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e65994 pubmed publisher
    ..The current study unveils several drug-like modulators of HMGB1-mediated inflammatory responses and offers pharmacological directions for the therapeutic suppression of inflammatory responses in HMGB1-dependent diseases. ..
  8. Hong S, Cho J, Um J, Shin J, Park I, Lee S, et al. Increased expression of high-mobility group protein B1 in chronic rhinosinusitis. Am J Rhinol Allergy. 2013;27:278-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Western blot analysis showed that the expression level of HMGB1 protein was significantly increased in the tissues of CRS...
  9. Ciubotaru M, Trexler A, Spiridon L, Surleac M, Rhoades E, Petrescu A, et al. RAG and HMGB1 create a large bend in the 23RSS in the V(D)J recombination synaptic complexes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2013;41:2437-54 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this large bend facilitates simultaneous recognition of the heptamer and nonamer, is critical for proper positioning of the active site and contributes to the 12/23 rule. ..
  10. Haraba R, Suica V, Uyy E, Ivan L, Antohe F. Hyperlipidemia stimulates the extracellular release of the nuclear high mobility group box 1 protein. Cell Tissue Res. 2011;346:361-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The cell culture experiments demonstrated the relocation of HMGB1 protein from the nucleus to cytoplasm under hyperlipidemic stress...
  11. Dehbi M, Uzzaman T, Baturcam E, Eldali A, Ventura W, Bouchama A. Toll-like receptor 4 and high-mobility group box 1 are critical mediators of tissue injury and survival in a mouse model for heatstroke. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44100 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest that HMGB1 is an early mediator of inflammation, tissue injury and lethality in heatstroke in the presence of defective TLR4 signaling. ..
  12. Jube S, Rivera Z, Bianchi M, Powers A, Wang E, Pagano I, et al. Cancer cell secretion of the DAMP protein HMGB1 supports progression in malignant mesothelioma. Cancer Res. 2012;72:3290-301 pubmed publisher
  13. Youn J, Kwak M, Wu J, Kim E, Ji Y, Min H, et al. Identification of lipopolysaccharide-binding peptide regions within HMGB1 and their effects on subclinical endotoxemia in a mouse model. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:2753-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that HMGB1 has two LPS-binding peptide regions that can be utilized to design anti-sepsis or LPS-neutralizing therapeutics...
  14. Huang J, Hu J, Chen N, Hu M. Relationship between plasma high-mobility group box-1 levels and clinical outcomes of ischemic stroke. J Crit Care. 2013;28:792-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It improved prognostic value of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. Plasma HMGB1 level represents a novel biomarker for predicting 1-year clinical outcomes of ischemic stroke. ..
  15. Soldevilla B, Diaz R, Silva J, Campos Martín Y, Muñoz C, Garcia V, et al. Prognostic impact of ?TAp73 isoform levels and their target genes in colon cancer patients. Clin Cancer Res. 2011;17:6029-39 pubmed publisher
  16. Lin Q, Yang X, Fang D, Ren X, Zhou H, Fang J, et al. High-mobility group box-1 mediates toll-like receptor 4-dependent angiogenesis. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011;31:1024-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, targeting HMGB1-TLR4 signaling cascade may constitute a novel therapeutic approach to angiogenesis-related diseases. ..
  17. Mazarati A, Maroso M, Iori V, Vezzani A, Carli M. High-mobility group box-1 impairs memory in mice through both toll-like receptor 4 and Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products. Exp Neurol. 2011;232:143-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism may contribute to memory deficits under various neurological and psychiatric conditions associated with the increased HMGB1 levels, such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease and stroke. ..
  18. Berthelot F, Fattoum L, Casulli S, Gozlan J, Marechal V, Elbim C. The effect of HMGB1, a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule, on polymorphonuclear neutrophil migration depends on its concentration. J Innate Immun. 2012;4:41-58 pubmed publisher
    ..The A box component could potentially serve to inhibit inappropriate PMN recruitment during chronic inflammatory disorders associated with excessive HMGB1 release. ..
  19. Lei C, Lin S, Zhang C, Tao W, Dong W, Hao Z, et al. Effects of high-mobility group box1 on cerebral angiogenesis and neurogenesis after intracerebral hemorrhage. Neuroscience. 2013;229:12-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that HMGB1 may promote angiogenesis and neurogenesis in the late phase of ICH. ..
  20. Terada C, Yoshida A, Nasu Y, Mori S, Tomono Y, Tanaka M, et al. Gene expression and localization of high-mobility group box chromosomal protein-1 (HMGB-1)in human osteoarthritic cartilage. Acta Med Okayama. 2011;65:369-77 pubmed
    ..IL-1? and TNF? secretions were stimulated at higher levels of HMGB-1. The results of our study suggest the involvement of HMGB-1 in the pathogenesis of cartilage destruction in OA. ..
  21. Zurolo E, Iyer A, Maroso M, Carbonell C, Anink J, Ravizza T, et al. Activation of Toll-like receptor, RAGE and HMGB1 signalling in malformations of cortical development. Brain. 2011;134:1015-32 pubmed publisher
  22. Maugeri N, Franchini S, Campana L, Baldini M, Ramirez G, Sabbadini M, et al. Circulating platelets as a source of the damage-associated molecular pattern HMGB1 in patients with systemic sclerosis. Autoimmunity. 2012;45:584-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that platelets represent a source of HMGB1, an ancestral signal of necrosis, in the vasculature of SSc patients, possible contributing to persistent microvascular injury and endothelial cell activation. ..
  23. Suzuki Y, Mimura K, Yoshimoto Y, Watanabe M, Ohkubo Y, Izawa S, et al. Immunogenic tumor cell death induced by chemoradiotherapy in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Res. 2012;72:3967-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings indicate that chemoradiation induces tumor antigen-specific T-cell responses, and HMGB1 production is related to clinical outcome after chemoradiation. ..
  24. Antoine D, Jenkins R, Dear J, Williams D, McGill M, Sharpe M, et al. Molecular forms of HMGB1 and keratin-18 as mechanistic biomarkers for mode of cell death and prognosis during clinical acetaminophen hepatotoxicity. J Hepatol. 2012;56:1070-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Activation of the immune response was seen later in the time course as shown by the distinct profile of acetylated HMGB1 and was associated with worse outcome. ..
  25. Tang D, Kang R, Livesey K, Kroemer G, Billiar T, Van Houten B, et al. High-mobility group box 1 is essential for mitochondrial quality control. Cell Metab. 2011;13:701-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal an essential role for HMGB1 in autophagic surveillance with important effects on mitochondrial quality control. ..
  26. Yang J, Chen L, Yang J, Ding J, Rong H, Dong W, et al. High mobility group box-1 induces migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via TLR4-dependent PI3K/Akt pathway activation. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:3361-7 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In conclusion, HMGB1 induces migration of VSMCs through a TLR4-dependent PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway, which suggests a possible molecular mechanism for HMGB1 may contribute to neointima formation in restenosis after vascular damage. ..
  27. Shim E, Chun E, Lee H, Bang B, Kim T, Cho S, et al. The role of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in the pathogenesis of asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012;42:958-65 pubmed publisher
    ..High-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) belonging to endogenous danger signals prolongs eosinophil survival and acts as a chemoattractant...
  28. Lei C, Lin S, Zhang C, Tao W, Dong W, Hao Z, et al. High-mobility group box1 protein promotes neuroinflammation after intracerebral hemorrhage in rats. Neuroscience. 2013;228:190-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that HMGB1 may act as an early proinflammatory cytokine within the neurovascular unit to mediate inflammation during the acute phase of ICH. ..
  29. Ren P, Zhang Y, Zhang X, An L, Lv H, He J, et al. High-mobility group box 1 contributes to mechanical allodynia and spinal astrocytic activation in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes. Brain Res Bull. 2012;88:332-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that HMGB1 is significantly up-regulated in the spinal cord of type 2 diabetes, and inhibiting HMGB1 may provide a novel treatment for diabetic pain. ..
  30. Zhang J, Takahashi H, Liu K, Wake H, Liu R, Maruo T, et al. Anti-high mobility group box-1 monoclonal antibody protects the blood-brain barrier from ischemia-induced disruption in rats. Stroke. 2011;42:1420-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that the anti-HMGB1 mAb could be an effective therapy for brain ischemia by inhibiting the development of brain edema through the protection of the BBB and the efficient clearance of circulating HMGB1. ..
  31. Maroso M, Balosso S, Ravizza T, Liu J, Bianchi M, Vezzani A. Interleukin-1 type 1 receptor/Toll-like receptor signalling in epilepsy: the importance of IL-1beta and high-mobility group box 1. J Intern Med. 2011;270:319-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This emerging evidence identifies specific targets with potential anticonvulsant effects in drug-resistant forms of epilepsy. ..
  32. Urbonaviciute V, Voll R. High-mobility group box 1 represents a potential marker of disease activity and novel therapeutic target in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Intern Med. 2011;270:309-18 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings suggest that HMGB1 is a potential marker of disease activity and, because of its probable involvement in the pathogenesis, a novel therapeutic target in SLE. ..
  33. Kim J, Sohn E, Kim C, Jo K, Kim J. The role of high-mobility group box-1 protein in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Am J Nephrol. 2011;33:524-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that hyperglycemia-induced HMGB1 release may induce the renal injury in diabetic rats, and that the pathogenic role of HMGB1 might be dependent on RAGE and through activation of NF-?B. ..
  34. Morris Rosenfeld S, Blessing E, Preusch M, Albrecht C, Bierhaus A, Andrassy M, et al. Deletion of bone marrow-derived receptor for advanced glycation end products inhibits atherosclerotic plaque progression. Eur J Clin Invest. 2011;41:1164-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This study demonstrates that bone marrow-derived RAGE is an important factor in the progression of atherosclerotic plaques. ..
  35. Riuzzi F, Sorci G, Sagheddu R, Donato R. HMGB1-RAGE regulates muscle satellite cell homeostasis through p38-MAPK- and myogenin-dependent repression of Pax7 transcription. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:1440-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, RAGE signaling physiologically repressed Pax7 transcription in SCs by upregulating myogenin, thereby accelerating muscle regeneration and limiting SC self-renewal. ..
  36. Yang H, Lundbäck P, Ottosson L, Erlandsson Harris H, Venereau E, Bianchi M, et al. Redox modification of cysteine residues regulates the cytokine activity of high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1). Mol Med. 2012;18:250-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal critical posttranslational redox mechanisms that control the proinflammatory activity of HMGB1 and its inactivation during pathogenesis. ..
  37. Yang L, Yu Y, Kang R, Yang M, Xie M, Wang Z, et al. Up-regulated autophagy by endogenous high mobility group box-1 promotes chemoresistance in leukemia cells. Leuk Lymphoma. 2012;53:315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that endogenous HMGB1 is an intrinsic regulator of autophagy in leukemia cells and it enhances leukemia cell chemoresistance likely through the PI3K/Akt/mTORC1 pathway. ..
  38. Lee H, Song M, Shin N, Shin C, Min B, Kim H, et al. Diagnostic significance of serum HMGB1 in colorectal carcinomas. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e34318 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that serum HMGB1 levels are increased in a subset of colorectal carcinomas, suggesting their potential utility as a supportive diagnostic marker for colorectal carcinomas. ..
  39. Bae J. Role of high mobility group box 1 in inflammatory disease: focus on sepsis. Arch Pharm Res. 2012;35:1511-23 pubmed publisher
  40. Nin J, Ferreira I, Schalkwijk C, Jorsal A, Prins M, Parving H, et al. Higher plasma high-mobility group box 1 levels are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes: a 12 year follow-up study. Diabetologia. 2012;55:2489-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Larger studies are needed to ascertain more definitely the role of HMGB1 in the development of vascular complications in diabetes. ..
  41. Arabi Y, Dehbi M, Rishu A, Baturcam E, Kahoul S, Brits R, et al. sRAGE in diabetic and non-diabetic critically ill patients: effects of intensive insulin therapy. Crit Care. 2011;15:R203 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether this difference underlies the dissimilarity in clinical outcome of hyperglycemia in these two conditions warrants further studies. ..
  42. El Asrar A, Nawaz M, Kangave D, Geboes K, Ola M, Ahmad S, et al. High-mobility group box-1 and biomarkers of inflammation in the vitreous from patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Mol Vis. 2011;17:1829-38 pubmed
    ..In addition, we examined the expression of HMGB1 in the retinas of diabetic mice...
  43. Dvoriantchikova G, Hernandez E, Grant J, Santos A, Yang H, Ivanov D. The high-mobility group box-1 nuclear factor mediates retinal injury after ischemia reperfusion. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:7187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..release, ischemic or normal retinas were treated with the neutralizing anti-Hmgb1 antibody or recombinant Hmgb1 protein respectively...
  44. Hou C, Zhao H, Liu L, Li W, Zhou X, Lv Y, et al. High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) in Asthma: comparison of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy controls. Mol Med. 2011;17:807-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance of this observation on asthma and COPD mechanisms and outcomes should be further investigated in large prospective studies. ..
  45. Harris H, Andersson U, Pisetsky D. HMGB1: a multifunctional alarmin driving autoimmune and inflammatory disease. Nat Rev Rheumatol. 2012;8:195-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings indicate that HMGB1 might be an important mediator and biomarker in rheumatic diseases as well as a target of new therapy. ..
  46. Jiang W, Wang Z, Li X, Fan X, Duan Y. High-mobility group box 1 is associated with clinicopathologic features in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Pathol Oncol Res. 2012;18:293-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Western-blot showed the expression of HMGB1 protein in HCC also as the highest among all the groups...
  47. Abe S, Hayashi H, Seo Y, Matsuda K, Kamio K, Saito Y, et al. Reduction in serum high mobility group box-1 level by polymyxin B-immobilized fiber column in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with acute exacerbation. Blood Purif. 2011;32:310-6 pubmed publisher
    ..PMX treatment significantly improved both the serum HMGB-1 level and P/F ratio. HMGB-1 was detected in washing medium from the PMX column. PMX treatment may reduce serum HMGB-1 and improve oxygenation in patients with IPF with AE. ..
  48. Zhang Q, O Hearn S, Kavalukas S, Barbul A. Role of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) in wound healing. J Surg Res. 2012;176:343-7 pubmed publisher
    ..HMGB1 impairs fibroblast collagen synthesis. Reducing wound HMGB1 levels lead to increased tensile strength and collagen synthesis. The data suggest that HMGB1 affects collagen synthesis through activation of RAGE. ..
  49. Jung J, Park J, Jee M, Keum S, Cho M, Yoon S, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection is blocked by HMGB1 released from virus-infected cells. J Virol. 2011;85:9359-68 pubmed publisher
    ..However, its role in hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is not known. Here, we show that HMGB1 protein is translocated from the nucleus to cytoplasm and subsequently is released into the extracellular milieu by ..
  50. Okuma Y, Liu K, Wake H, Zhang J, Maruo T, Date I, et al. Anti-high mobility group box-1 antibody therapy for traumatic brain injury. Ann Neurol. 2012;72:373-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-HMGB1 mAb may provide a novel and effective therapy for TBI by protecting against BBB disruption and reducing the inflammatory responses induced by HMGB1. ..
  51. Romero R, Chaiworapongsa T, Savasan Z, Hussein Y, Dong Z, Kusanovic J, et al. Clinical chorioamnionitis is characterized by changes in the expression of the alarmin HMGB1 and one of its receptors, sRAGE. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012;25:558-67 pubmed publisher
    ..These changes are quite different from those observed in cases of intra-amniotic infection/inflammation in preterm gestations. ..
  52. Thomas J, Stott K. H1 and HMGB1: modulators of chromatin structure. Biochem Soc Trans. 2012;40:341-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The present article focuses mainly on HMGB1 and its interaction with chromatin and H1, as well as its chaperone role in the binding of certain transcription factors (e.g. p53) to their cognate DNA. ..
  53. Yan W, Chang Y, Liang X, Cardinal J, Huang H, Thorne S, et al. High-mobility group box 1 activates caspase-1 and promotes hepatocellular carcinoma invasiveness and metastases. Hepatology. 2012;55:1863-75 pubmed publisher