transcription factor tfiid


Summary: The major sequence-specific DNA-binding component involved in the activation of transcription of RNA POLYMERASE II. It was originally described as a complex of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN and TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS. It is now know that TATA BOX BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE PROTEINS may take the place of TATA-box binding protein in the complex.

Top Publications

  1. Brunkhorst A, Neuman T, Hall A, Arenas E, Bartfai T, Hermanson O, et al. Novel isoforms of the TFIID subunit TAF4 modulate nuclear receptor-mediated transcriptional activity. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;325:574-9 pubmed
    The transcription factor TFIID consists of TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors (TAFs)...
  2. Cowan M, Yao X, Pawliczak R, Huang X, Logun C, Madara P, et al. The role of TFIID, the initiator element and a novel 5' TFIID binding site in the transcriptional control of the TATA-less human cytosolic phospholipase A2-alpha promoter. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2004;1680:145-57 pubmed
    ..Finally, this study describes a novel AAGGAG motif at -30 to -35 which is bound by TATA-box binding protein (TBP) and is critical for basal transcriptional activity. ..
  3. Thomas M, Chiang C. The general transcription machinery and general cofactors. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;41:105-78 pubmed
  4. Gegonne A, Tai X, Zhang J, Wu G, Zhu J, Yoshimoto A, et al. The general transcription factor TAF7 is essential for embryonic development but not essential for the survival or differentiation of mature T cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:1984-97 pubmed publisher
    ..However, T cells with TAF7 deleted are not able to undergo activation and expansion in response to antigenic stimuli. These findings suggest that TAF7 is essential for proliferation but not for proliferation-independent differentiation. ..
  5. Tokusumi Y, Ma Y, Song X, Jacobson R, Takada S. The new core promoter element XCPE1 (X Core Promoter Element 1) directs activator-, mediator-, and TATA-binding protein-dependent but TFIID-independent RNA polymerase II transcription from TATA-less promoters. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:1844-58 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest the possibility of the existence of a TAF1 (TFIID)-independent transcriptional initiation mechanism that may be used by a category of TATA-less promoters in higher eukaryotes. ..
  6. Cler E, Papai G, Schultz P, Davidson I. Recent advances in understanding the structure and function of general transcription factor TFIID. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2009;66:2123-34 pubmed publisher
    The general transcription factor TFIID is a macromolecular complex comprising the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and a set of 13-14 TBP associated factors (TAFs)...
  7. Fishburn J, Mohibullah N, Hahn S. Function of a eukaryotic transcription activator during the transcription cycle. Mol Cell. 2005;18:369-78 pubmed
    ..Thus, a single activating region contacts multiple factors, and each contact makes differential contributions to transcriptional activation. ..
  8. Gallagher P, Nilson D, Wong C, Weisbein J, Garrett Beal L, Eber S, et al. A dinucleotide deletion in the ankyrin promoter alters gene expression, transcription initiation and TFIID complex formation in hereditary spherocytosis. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:2501-9 pubmed
  9. Kirschner D, vom Baur E, Thibault C, Sanders S, Gangloff Y, Davidson I, et al. Distinct mutations in yeast TAF(II)25 differentially affect the composition of TFIID and SAGA complexes as well as global gene expression patterns. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:3178-93 pubmed
    The RNA polymerase II transcription factor TFIID, composed of the TATA-binding protein (TBP) and TBP-associated factors (TAF(II)s), nucleates preinitiation complex formation at protein-coding gene promoters...

More Information


  1. Martel L, Brown H, Berk A. Evidence that TAF-TATA box-binding protein interactions are required for activated transcription in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2788-98 pubmed
  2. Wagner L, Bayer A, DeLuca N. Requirement of the N-terminal activation domain of herpes simplex virus ICP4 for viral gene expression. J Virol. 2013;87:1010-8 pubmed publisher
  3. Pintar A, Carugo O, Pongor S. Atom depth as a descriptor of the protein interior. Biophys J. 2003;84:2553-61 pubmed
    ..Finally, we find a correlation between highly conserved residues in structural neighbors of the same fold type, and their mean residue depth in the reference structure. ..
  4. Wang J, Brent J, Tomlinson A, Shneider N, McCabe B. The ALS-associated proteins FUS and TDP-43 function together to affect Drosophila locomotion and life span. J Clin Invest. 2011;121:4118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results establish that FUS and TDP-43 function together in vivo and suggest that molecular pathways requiring the combined activities of both of these proteins may be disrupted in ALS and FTD. ..
  5. Chen Z, Manley J. In vivo functional analysis of the histone 3-like TAF9 and a TAF9-related factor, TAF9L. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:35172-83 pubmed
    ..Strikingly, we provide evidence that TAF9L plays a role in transcriptional repression and/or silencing. ..
  6. Sako W, Morigaki R, Kaji R, Tooyama I, Okita S, Kitazato K, et al. Identification and localization of a neuron-specific isoform of TAF1 in rat brain: implications for neuropathology of DYT3 dystonia. Neuroscience. 2011;189:100-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the distribution of N-TAF1 protein could represent a key molecular characteristic contributing to the pattern of striatal degeneration in DYT3 dystonia. ..
  7. D Alessio J, Wright K, Tjian R. Shifting players and paradigms in cell-specific transcription. Mol Cell. 2009;36:924-31 pubmed publisher
    ..New evidence suggests that significant changes in these general transcription factors including TFIID, BAF, and Mediator may facilitate global changes in cell-type-specific transcription. ..
  8. Klejman M, Zhao X, van Schaik F, Herr W, Timmers H. Mutational analysis of BTAF1-TBP interaction: BTAF1 can rescue DNA-binding defective TBP mutants. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:5426-36 pubmed
    ..Since many proteins contact helix 2 of TBP, this provides a molecular basis for mutually exclusive TBP interactions and stresses the importance of this structural element for eukaryotic transcription. ..
  9. Bereczki O, Ujfaludi Z, Pardi N, Nagy Z, Tora L, Boros I, et al. TATA binding protein associated factor 3 (TAF3) interacts with p53 and inhibits its function. BMC Mol Biol. 2008;9:57 pubmed publisher
    ..We identified TAF3 as an evolutionarily conserved negative regulator of p53 transcription activation function. ..
  10. Deato M, Tjian R. An unexpected role of TAFs and TRFs in skeletal muscle differentiation: switching core promoter complexes. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2008;73:217-25 pubmed publisher
  11. Shao H, Revach M, Moshonov S, Tzuman Y, Gazit K, Albeck S, et al. Core promoter binding by histone-like TAF complexes. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:206-19 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, HFD-mediated interaction stimulated sequence-specific binding by TAF6 and TAF9. These results suggest that TAF HFDs merge with other conserved domains for efficient and specific core promoter binding. ..
  12. Liu W, Coleman R, Grob P, King D, Florens L, Washburn M, et al. Structural changes in TAF4b-TFIID correlate with promoter selectivity. Mol Cell. 2008;29:81-91 pubmed publisher
  13. Metcalf C, Wassarman D. Nucleolar colocalization of TAF1 and testis-specific TAFs during Drosophila spermatogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:2836-43 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results suggest stepwise assembly of a testis-specific TFIID complex (tTFIID) whereby a TAF1 isoform, presumably TAF1-2, is recruited to a core subassembly of tTAFs in spermatocyte nucleoli. ..
  14. Muller F, Zaucker A, Tora L. Developmental regulation of transcription initiation: more than just changing the actors. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2010;20:533-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we summarize the proposed models of transcription initiation by alternative initiation complexes in distinct stages of developmental specialization during vertebrate ontogeny. ..
  15. Guermah M, Ge K, Chiang C, Roeder R. The TBN protein, which is essential for early embryonic mouse development, is an inducible TAFII implicated in adipogenesis. Mol Cell. 2003;12:991-1001 pubmed
    ..Furthermore TAF8 acts as a positive regulator of adipogenesis and reverses the inhibitory effect of its histone fold. These data suggest a selective role for TAF8 in a specific cell differentiation process(es). ..
  16. Leurent C, Sanders S, Ruhlmann C, Mallouh V, Weil P, Kirschner D, et al. Mapping histone fold TAFs within yeast TFIID. EMBO J. 2002;21:3424-33 pubmed
    The transcription factor TFIID is a large multiprotein complex, composed of the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and 14 TBP-associated factors (TAFs), which plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression by RNA polymerase II...
  17. Cheng Y, Buffone M, Kouadio M, Goodheart M, Page D, Gerton G, et al. Abnormal sperm in mice lacking the Taf7l gene. Mol Cell Biol. 2007;27:2582-9 pubmed
    ..Our mouse studies suggest that mutations in the human TAF7L gene might be implicated in X-linked oligozoospermia in men. ..
  18. Wang X, Truckses D, Takada S, Matsumura T, Tanese N, Jacobson R. Conserved region I of human coactivator TAF4 binds to a short hydrophobic motif present in transcriptional regulators. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:7839-44 pubmed
  19. Freiman R. Specific variants of general transcription factors regulate germ cell development in diverse organisms. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1789:161-6 pubmed
  20. Soutoglou E, Demény M, Scheer E, Fienga G, Sassone Corsi P, Tora L. The nuclear import of TAF10 is regulated by one of its three histone fold domain-containing interaction partners. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:4092-104 pubmed
  21. Boyer Guittaut M, Birsoy K, Potel C, Elliott G, Jaffray E, Desterro J, et al. SUMO-1 modification of human transcription factor (TF) IID complex subunits: inhibition of TFIID promoter-binding activity through SUMO-1 modification of hsTAF5. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:9937-45 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that reversible SUMO modification at hsTAF5 contributes to the dynamic regulation of TFIID promoter-binding activity in human cells. ..
  22. Gazit K, Moshonov S, Elfakess R, Sharon M, Mengus G, Davidson I, et al. TAF4/4b x TAF12 displays a unique mode of DNA binding and is required for core promoter function of a subset of genes. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26286-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that DNA binding by TAF4/4b-TAF12 facilitates the association of TFIID with the core promoter of a subset of genes. ..
  23. Werten S, Mitschler A, Romier C, Gangloff Y, Thuault S, Davidson I, et al. Crystal structure of a subcomplex of human transcription factor TFIID formed by TATA binding protein-associated factors hTAF4 (hTAF(II)135) and hTAF12 (hTAF(II)20). J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45502-9 pubmed
    ..structure is presented of a complex formed by the interacting domains from two subunits of the general transcription factor TFIID, the human TATA binding protein-associated factors hTAF4 (hTAF(II)135) and hTAF12 (hTAF(II)20)...
  24. Veenstra G, Wolffe A. Gene-selective developmental roles of general transcription factors. Trends Biochem Sci. 2001;26:665-71 pubmed
    ..However, this machinery is not of universal composition, and variants of the general transcription factors play specific roles in embryonic development, reflecting the constraints and requirements of developmental gene regulation. ..
  25. Bieniossek C, Papai G, Schaffitzel C, Garzoni F, Chaillet M, Scheer E, et al. The architecture of human general transcription factor TFIID core complex. Nature. 2013;493:699-702 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the resulting asymmetric structure serves as a functional scaffold to nucleate holo-TFIID assembly, by accreting one copy each of the remaining TAFs and TBP. ..
  26. Zhou T, Chiang C. The intronless and TATA-less human TAF(II)55 gene contains a functional initiator and a downstream promoter element. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:25503-11 pubmed
    Human TAF(II)55 (hTAF(II)55) is a component of the multisubunit general transcription factor TFIID and has been shown to mediate the functions of many transcriptional activators via direct protein-protein interactions...
  27. Wright K, Marr M, Tjian R. TAF4 nucleates a core subcomplex of TFIID and mediates activated transcription from a TATA-less promoter. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:12347-52 pubmed
    ..In contrast to both TAF1 and TAF4, RNAi knockdown of TAF5 had little effect on transcription from either class of promoter. These studies significantly alter previous models for the assembly, structure, and function of TFIID. ..
  28. Voronina E, Lovasco L, Gyuris A, Baumgartner R, Parlow A, Freiman R. Ovarian granulosa cell survival and proliferation requires the gonad-selective TFIID subunit TAF4b. Dev Biol. 2007;303:715-26 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that TAF4b integrates a program of granulosa cell gene expression required for normal ovarian follicle survival and proliferation in response to diverse ovarian signaling events. ..
  29. Chistiakov D, Chernisheva A, Savost anov K, Turakulov R, Kuraeva T, Dedov I, et al. The TAF5L gene on chromosome 1q42 is associated with type 1 diabetes in Russian affected patients. Autoimmunity. 2005;38:283-93 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that the TAF5L gene, encoding TAF5L-like RNA polymerase II p300/CBP associated factor (PCAF)-associated factor, could represent the susceptibility gene for T1D on chromosome 1q42 in Russian affected patients. ..
  30. Howcroft T, Raval A, Weissman J, Gegonne A, Singer D. Distinct transcriptional pathways regulate basal and activated major histocompatibility complex class I expression. Mol Cell Biol. 2003;23:3377-91 pubmed
    ..We propose that transcription initiation at the core promoter is a dynamic process in which the mechanisms of core promoter function differ depending on the cellular environment. ..
  31. Pereira L, Klejman M, Ruhlmann C, Kavelaars F, Oulad Abdelghani M, Timmers H, et al. Molecular architecture of the basal transcription factor B-TFIID. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:21802-7 pubmed
    ..Comparison of the native B-TFIID with its recombinant form shows that both share a similar domain organization. Collectively, these data provide the first structural model of the B-TFIID complex and map its key functional domains. ..
  32. Huisinga K, Pugh B. A genome-wide housekeeping role for TFIID and a highly regulated stress-related role for SAGA in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell. 2004;13:573-85 pubmed
    ..These two distinct modes of transcription regulation might reflect the need to balance inducible stress responses with the steady output of housekeeping genes. ..
  33. Hiller M, Lin T, Wood C, Fuller M. Developmental regulation of transcription by a tissue-specific TAF homolog. Genes Dev. 2001;15:1021-30 pubmed
    ..encodes a cell type-specific homolog of a more ubiquitously expressed component of the general transcription factor TFIID. cannonball is required in vivo for high level transcription of a set of stage- and tissue-specific ..
  34. Paulson M, Press C, Smith E, Tanese N, Levy D. IFN-Stimulated transcription through a TBP-free acetyltransferase complex escapes viral shutoff. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:140-7 pubmed
    ..We conclude that a non-classical transcriptional mechanism combats an anticellular action of poliovirus, through a TBP-free TAF-containing complex and GCN5. ..
  35. de Graaf P, Mousson F, Geverts B, Scheer E, Tora L, Houtsmuller A, et al. Chromatin interaction of TATA-binding protein is dynamically regulated in human cells. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2663-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that BTAF1 negatively regulates TBP and NC2 binding to active promoters. Our results support a model for a BTAF1-mediated release of TBP-NC2 complexes from chromatin...
  36. Delacroix L, Moutier E, Altobelli G, Legras S, Poch O, Choukrallah M, et al. Cell-specific interaction of retinoic acid receptors with target genes in mouse embryonic fibroblasts and embryonic stem cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:231-44 pubmed publisher
  37. Vorobyeva N, Soshnikova N, Nikolenko J, Kuzmina J, Nabirochkina E, Georgieva S, et al. Transcription coactivator SAYP combines chromatin remodeler Brahma and transcription initiation factor TFIID into a single supercomplex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:11049-54 pubmed publisher
    ..The integrity of BTFly is crucial for its ability to activate transcription. BTFly is distributed genome-wide and appears to be a means of effective transcription activation. ..
  38. Zhang H, Kruk J, Reese J. Dissection of coactivator requirement at RNR3 reveals unexpected contributions from TFIID and SAGA. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:27360-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we described an unexpected shift in the division of labor between these two complexes and provide the first characterization of a gene that requires both SAGA and TFIID. ..
  39. Kasahara K, Kawaichi M, Kokubo T. In vivo synthesis of Taf1p lacking the TAF N-terminal domain using alternative transcription or translation initiation sites. Genes Cells. 2004;9:709-21 pubmed
    ..Finally, this study also demonstrates that Drosophila TAND2 substitutes functionally for yeast TAND2, but Drosophila TAND1 does not substitute for yeast TAND1. ..
  40. Papai G, Tripathi M, Ruhlmann C, Werten S, Crucifix C, Weil P, et al. Mapping the initiator binding Taf2 subunit in the structure of hydrated yeast TFIID. Structure. 2009;17:363-73 pubmed publisher
    The general transcription factor TFIID is a large multisubunit complex required for the transcription of most protein-encoding genes by RNA polymerase II...
  41. Lewis B, Sims R, Lane W, Reinberg D. Functional characterization of core promoter elements: DPE-specific transcription requires the protein kinase CK2 and the PC4 coactivator. Mol Cell. 2005;18:471-81 pubmed
    ..These data establish that CK2 acts as a switch, converting the transcriptional machinery from functioning on one type of downstream element to another. ..
  42. Frontini M, Soutoglou E, Argentini M, Bole Feysot C, Jost B, Scheer E, et al. TAF9b (formerly TAF9L) is a bona fide TAF that has unique and overlapping roles with TAF9. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:4638-49 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate that TAF9 and TAF9b share some of their functions, but more importantly, they have distinct roles in the transcriptional regulatory process. ..
  43. Leurent C, Sanders S, Demény M, Garbett K, Ruhlmann C, Weil P, et al. Mapping key functional sites within yeast TFIID. EMBO J. 2004;23:719-27 pubmed
    The transcription factor TFIID, composed of the TATA box-binding protein (TBP) and 14 TBP-associated factors (TAFs), plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression by RNA polymerase II...
  44. Mengus G, Fadloun A, Kobi D, Thibault C, Perletti L, Michel I, et al. TAF4 inactivation in embryonic fibroblasts activates TGF beta signalling and autocrine growth. EMBO J. 2005;24:2753-67 pubmed
    We have inactivated transcription factor TFIID subunit TBP-associated factor 4 (TAF4) in mouse embryonic fibroblasts...
  45. Lester J, DeLuca N. Herpes simplex virus 1 ICP4 forms complexes with TFIID and mediator in virus-infected cells. J Virol. 2011;85:5733-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the data suggest that ICP4 interacts with components of TFIID and Mediator in the context of viral infection, and this may explain the broad transactivation properties of ICP4. ..
  46. Kasahara K, Ki S, Aoyama K, Takahashi H, Kokubo T. Saccharomyces cerevisiae HMO1 interacts with TFIID and participates in start site selection by RNA polymerase II. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:1343-57 pubmed publisher
  47. Sun L, Johnston S, Kodadek T. Physical association of the APIS complex and general transcription factors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;296:991-9 pubmed
    ..These data add to the growing body of evidence that the APIS complex has a role in transcription, independent of its role in proteolysis and, furthermore, argues that it functions in association with the general transcription complex. ..
  48. Lee D, Gershenzon N, Gupta M, Ioshikhes I, Reinberg D, Lewis B. Functional characterization of core promoter elements: the downstream core element is recognized by TAF1. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:9674-86 pubmed
    ..Finally, these data argue that TFIID is, in fact, a core promoter recognition complex. ..
  49. Lim C, Santoso B, Boulay T, Dong E, Ohler U, Kadonaga J. The MTE, a new core promoter element for transcription by RNA polymerase II. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1606-17 pubmed
    ..In addition, the MTE exhibits strong synergism with the TATA-box as well as the DPE. These findings indicate that the MTE is a novel downstream core promoter element that is important for transcription by RNA polymerase II. ..
  50. Liu W, Coleman R, Ma E, Grob P, Yang J, Zhang Y, et al. Structures of three distinct activator-TFIID complexes. Genes Dev. 2009;23:1510-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that activator contact may induce unique structural features of TFIID, thus providing nanoscale information on activator-dependent TFIID assembly and transcription initiation. ..
  51. Juven Gershon T, Kadonaga J. Regulation of gene expression via the core promoter and the basal transcriptional machinery. Dev Biol. 2010;339:225-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the core promoter and basal transcription factors are important yet mostly unexplored components in the regulation of gene expression. ..
  52. Muller F, Tora L. The multicoloured world of promoter recognition complexes. EMBO J. 2004;23:2-8 pubmed
  53. Li A, Piluso L, Cai X, Gadd B, Ladurner A, Liu X. An acetylation switch in p53 mediates holo-TFIID recruitment. Mol Cell. 2007;28:408-21 pubmed