transcription factor tfiia


Summary: An RNA POLYMERASE II specific transcription factor. It may play a role in transcriptional activation of gene expression by interacting with the TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN component of TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR TFIID.

Top Publications

  1. Lieberman P, Ozer J, Gürsel D. Requirement for transcription factor IIA (TFIIA)-TFIID recruitment by an activator depends on promoter structure and template competition. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:6624-32 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that D-A complex recruitment is one of at least two activation pathways utilized by Zta and is the essential pathway for a subset of promoters and conditions which limit TFIID binding to the TATA element. ..
  2. Zeidler M, Yokomori K, Tjian R, Mlodzik M. Drosophila TFIIA-S is up-regulated and required during Ras-mediated photoreceptor determination. Genes Dev. 1996;10:50-9 pubmed
    ..The coactivator function of the basal transcription factor TFIIA has been shown previously to enhance the trans-activation potential of site-specific transcription ..
  3. Geiger J, Hahn S, Lee S, Sigler P. Crystal structure of the yeast TFIIA/TBP/DNA complex. Science. 1996;272:830-6 pubmed
    ..The four-helix-bundle domain projects away from the TBP/TATA complex, thereby presenting a substantial surface for further protein-protein interactions. ..
  4. Shykind B, Kim J, Sharp P. Activation of the TFIID-TFIIA complex with HMG-2. Genes Dev. 1995;9:1354-65 pubmed
  5. Kokubo T, Swanson M, Nishikawa J, Hinnebusch A, Nakatani Y. The yeast TAF145 inhibitory domain and TFIIA competitively bind to TATA-binding protein. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:1003-12 pubmed
    ..Importantly, this phenotype is suppressed by overexpression of the TFIIA subunits, indicating that the yTAF145 inhibitory domain is involved in TFIIA function. ..
  6. Solow S, Lezina L, Lieberman P. Phosphorylation of TFIIA stimulates TATA binding protein-TATA interaction and contributes to maximal transcription and viability in yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:2846-52 pubmed
    ..Phosphorylation of TFIIA could therefore be an important mechanism of transcription modulation, since it stimulates TFIIA-TBP association, enhances high-level transcription, and contributes to yeast viability. ..
  7. Cang Y, Auble D, Prelich G. A new regulatory domain on the TATA-binding protein. EMBO J. 1999;18:6662-71 pubmed
    ..These results provide strong biochemical and genetic evidence that TBP is directly repressed in vivo, and define a new TBP domain important for transcriptional regulation. ..
  8. Kim Y, Geiger J, Hahn S, Sigler P. Crystal structure of a yeast TBP/TATA-box complex. Nature. 1993;365:512-20 pubmed
    ..The severe bend and a positive writhe radically alter the trajectory of the flanking B-form DNA. ..
  9. Tan S, Hunziker Y, Sargent D, Richmond T. Crystal structure of a yeast TFIIA/TBP/DNA complex. Nature. 1996;381:127-51 pubmed
    ..The four-helix bundle contributes substantially to the surface of the complex available for interaction with additional transcription factors. ..

More Information


  1. Sanders S, Garbett K, Weil P. Molecular characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae TFIID. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:6000-13 pubmed
    ..The results of direct biochemical exchange experiments confirmed this hypothesis. Together, our results represent a concise molecular characterization of the general transcription factor TFIID from S. cerevisiae. ..
  2. Lagrange T, Kim T, Orphanides G, Ebright Y, Ebright R, Reinberg D. High-resolution mapping of nucleoprotein complexes by site-specific protein-DNA photocrosslinking: organization of the human TBP-TFIIA-TFIIB-DNA quaternary complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:10620-5 pubmed
    ..Our results have implications for the energetics, DNA-sequence-specificity, and pathway of assembly of eukaryotic transcription complexes. ..
  3. Dion V, Coulombe B. Interactions of a DNA-bound transcriptional activator with the TBP-TFIIA-TFIIB-promoter quaternary complex. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:11495-501 pubmed
  4. Biswas D, Imbalzano A, Eriksson P, Yu Y, Stillman D. Role for Nhp6, Gcn5, and the Swi/Snf complex in stimulating formation of the TATA-binding protein-TFIIA-DNA complex. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:8312-21 pubmed
    ..Consistent with the idea that Nhp6, Gcn5, and Swi/Snf have overlapping functions in vivo, nhp6a nhp6b gcn5 mutants had a severe growth defect, and mutations in both nhp6a nhp6b swi2 and gcn5 swi2 strains were lethal. ..
  5. Ozer J, Bolden A, Lieberman P. Transcription factor IIA mutations show activator-specific defects and reveal a IIA function distinct from stimulation of TBP-DNA binding. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:11182-90 pubmed
    ..Our results show that different activators utilize the general factor TFIIA in unique ways and that TFIIA contributes transcription activation functions in addition to the facilitation of TBP-DNA binding. ..
  6. Imbalzano A, Zaret K, Kingston R. Transcription factor (TF) IIB and TFIIA can independently increase the affinity of the TATA-binding protein for DNA. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:8280-6 pubmed
    ..We suggest that this property of TFIIA and TFIIB may increase the range of conditions under which high affinity TBP-DNA interactions can occur and may therefore favor the formation of the preinitiation complex. ..
  7. Veenstra G, Wolffe A. Gene-selective developmental roles of general transcription factors. Trends Biochem Sci. 2001;26:665-71 pubmed
    ..However, this machinery is not of universal composition, and variants of the general transcription factors play specific roles in embryonic development, reflecting the constraints and requirements of developmental gene regulation. ..
  8. Roeder R. The role of general initiation factors in transcription by RNA polymerase II. Trends Biochem Sci. 1996;21:327-35 pubmed
  9. Holmes M, Tjian R. Promoter-selective properties of the TBP-related factor TRF1. Science. 2000;288:867-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, metazoans appear to have evolved gene-selective and tissue-specific components of the core transcription machinery to regulate gene expression. ..
  10. Martel L, Brown H, Berk A. Evidence that TAF-TATA box-binding protein interactions are required for activated transcription in mammalian cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2788-98 pubmed
  11. Jiang G, Xia Z, Zhou Y, Wan J, Li D, Chen R, et al. Testifying the rice bacterial blight resistance gene xa5 by genetic complementation and further analyzing xa5 (Xa5) in comparison with its homolog TFIIAgamma1. Mol Genet Genomics. 2006;275:354-66 pubmed
    ..The structural analysis indicates that xa5 and Xa5 potentially retain their basic transcription factor function, which, in turn, may mediate the novel pathway for bacterial blight resistance and susceptibility, respectively. ..
  12. Kamada K, Shu F, Chen H, Malik S, Stelzer G, Roeder R, et al. Crystal structure of negative cofactor 2 recognizing the TBP-DNA transcription complex. Cell. 2001;106:71-81 pubmed
    ..Further regulatory implications of the NC2 heterodimer structure are discussed. ..
  13. Gilfillan S, Stelzer G, Piaia E, Hofmann M, Meisterernst M. Efficient binding of NC2.TATA-binding protein to DNA in the absence of TATA. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:6222-30 pubmed
    ..DNA complexes. Our data suggest that NC2 controls TBP binding and maintenance on DNA that is largely independent of a canonical TATA sequence. ..
  14. Stargell L, Struhl K. The TBP-TFIIA interaction in the response to acidic activators in vivo. Science. 1995;269:75-8 pubmed
    ..Fusion of the small subunit of TFIIA to N2-1 restores activation function in vivo. Thus, an efficient interaction between TBP and TFIIA is required for transcriptional activation in vivo. ..
  15. Kang J, Auble D, Ranish J, Hahn S. Analysis of the yeast transcription factor TFIIA: distinct functional regions and a polymerase II-specific role in basal and activated transcription. Mol Cell Biol. 1995;15:1234-43 pubmed
    To probe the structure and function of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae general transcription factor TFIIA, we have systematically mutagenized the genes encoding both subunits and analyzed the effects of the mutations both in vivo and in ..
  16. Deng W, Malecova B, OELGESCHLAGER T, Roberts S. TFIIB recognition elements control the TFIIA-NC2 axis in transcriptional regulation. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:1389-400 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results provide a basis for the selective recruitment of TFIIA and NC2 to the promoter and give new insights into the functional relationship between core promoter elements and general transcription factor activity. ..
  17. Upadhyaya A, Lee S, DeJong J. Identification of a general transcription factor TFIIAalpha/beta homolog selectively expressed in testis. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:18040-8 pubmed
    ..Overall, the data show that ALF is a functional homolog of human general transcription factor TFIIAalpha/beta that may be uniquely important to testis biology. ..
  18. Bagby S, Mal T, Liu D, Raddatz E, Nakatani Y, Ikura M. TFIIA-TAF regulatory interplay: NMR evidence for overlapping binding sites on TBP. FEBS Lett. 2000;468:149-54 pubmed
    ..Together with previous mutational and biochemical data, our NMR results indicate that subdomain II augments subdomain I-mediated inhibition of TBP function by blocking TBP-TFIIA interaction. ..
  19. Høiby T, Zhou H, Mitsiou D, Stunnenberg H. A facelift for the general transcription factor TFIIA. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2007;1769:429-36 pubmed
    ..This review will focus on functional characteristics of TFIIA and discuss novel insights in the role of this elusive transcription factor. ..
  20. Geisberg J, Struhl K. Cellular stress alters the transcriptional properties of promoter-bound Mot1-TBP complexes. Mol Cell. 2004;14:479-89 pubmed
    ..This suggests that functional preinitiation complexes can contain Mot1 instead of TFIIA in vivo. Thus, Mot1-TBP complexes can exist in active and inactive forms that are regulated by environmental stress. ..
  21. Ranish J, Yudkovsky N, Hahn S. Intermediates in formation and activity of the RNA polymerase II preinitiation complex: holoenzyme recruitment and a postrecruitment role for the TATA box and TFIIB. Genes Dev. 1999;13:49-63 pubmed
    ..These results demonstate an involvement of TFIIB and the TATA box in one or more steps after recruitment of factors to the promoter. ..
  22. Bleichenbacher M, Tan S, Richmond T. Novel interactions between the components of human and yeast TFIIA/TBP/DNA complexes. J Mol Biol. 2003;332:783-93 pubmed
    ..Of particular interest is a previously unobserved region of TFIIA that extends the binding interface with TBP in the yeast, but not in the human complex, and that further elucidates biochemical and genetic results. ..
  23. Warfield L, Ranish J, Hahn S. Positive and negative functions of the SAGA complex mediated through interaction of Spt8 with TBP and the N-terminal domain of TFIIA. Genes Dev. 2004;18:1022-34 pubmed
    ..preinitiation complexes (PICs) was identified on the N-terminal domain (NTD) of the RNA Pol II general transcription factor TFIIA. Site-specific photocross-linkers and tethered protein cleavage reagents positioned on the NTD of TFIIA ..
  24. Kraemer S, Goldstrohm D, Berger A, Hankey S, Rovinsky S, Scott Moye Rowley W, et al. TFIIA plays a role in the response to oxidative stress. Eukaryot Cell. 2006;5:1081-90 pubmed
    To characterize the role of the general transcription factor TFIIA in the regulation of gene expression by RNA polymerase II, we examined the transcriptional profiles of TFIIA mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using DNA microarrays...
  25. Stewart J, Stargell L. The stability of the TFIIA-TBP-DNA complex is dependent on the sequence of the TATAAA element. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:30078-84 pubmed
  26. Ozer J, Moore P, Bolden A, Lee A, Rosen C, Lieberman P. Molecular cloning of the small (gamma) subunit of human TFIIA reveals functions critical for activated transcription. Genes Dev. 1994;8:2324-35 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that TFIIA is an evolutionarily conserved general factor critical for activator-regulated transcription. ..
  27. Hieb A, Halsey W, Betterton M, Perkins T, Kugel J, Goodrich J. TFIIA changes the conformation of the DNA in TBP/TATA complexes and increases their kinetic stability. J Mol Biol. 2007;372:619-32 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, we present a refined model for the effect that TFIIA has on DNA conformation that takes into account potential changes in bend angle as well as twist angle. ..
  28. Stargell L, Struhl K. A new class of activation-defective TATA-binding protein mutants: evidence for two steps of transcriptional activation in vivo. Mol Cell Biol. 1996;16:4456-64 pubmed
    ..Thus, these TBP mutants define two steps in the process of transcriptional stimulation by acidic activators: efficient recruitment to the TATA element and a postrecruitment interaction with a component(s) of the initiation complex. ..
  29. Tang H, Sun X, Reinberg D, Ebright R. Protein-protein interactions in eukaryotic transcription initiation: structure of the preinitiation complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:1119-24 pubmed
    ..The results permit construction of a model for the structure of the preinitiation complex. ..
  30. DeJong J, Bernstein R, Roeder R. Human general transcription factor TFIIA: characterization of a cDNA encoding the small subunit and requirement for basal and activated transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:3313-7 pubmed
    The human general transcription factor TFIIA is one of several factors involved in specific transcription by RNA polymerase II, possibly by regulating the activity of the TATA-binding subunit (TBP) of TFIID...
  31. Iyer Pascuzzi A, Jiang H, Huang L, McCouch S. Genetic and functional characterization of the rice bacterial blight disease resistance gene xa5. Phytopathology. 2008;98:289-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support a model in which xa5-mediated recessive resistance is the result of restricted bacterial movement, but not restricted multiplication. ..
  32. Freiman R. Processing the complexities of transcription. Dev Cell. 2013;27:123-124 pubmed publisher
    ..In this issue of Developmental Cell, Oyama et al. (2013) report a requirement for Taspase 1-dependent TFIIA proteolytic processing in the mouse testis to enable TRF2 targeting to genes regulating spermatogenic differentiation. ..
  33. Catena R, Argentini M, Martianov I, Parello C, Brancorsini S, Parvinen M, et al. Proteolytic cleavage of ALF into alpha- and beta-subunits that form homologous and heterologous complexes with somatic TFIIA and TRF2 in male germ cells. FEBS Lett. 2005;579:3401-10 pubmed
    ..Our observations highlight how cleavage of ALF and coexpression with TFIIA and TRF2 increases the combinatorial possibilities for gene regulation at different developmental stages of spermatogenesis. ..
  34. Andersen P, Tirián L, Vunjak M, Brennecke J. A heterochromatin-dependent transcription machinery drives piRNA expression. Nature. 2017;549:54-59 pubmed publisher
  35. Roy A, Carruthers C, Gutjahr T, Roeder R. Direct role for Myc in transcription initiation mediated by interactions with TFII-I. Nature. 1993;365:359-61 pubmed
    ..TBP probably interacts with Myc, but only slowly. These observations indicate that Myc has the potential to interact physically and functionally with components of the general transcription machinery. ..
  36. Chiang S, Welch J, Rauscher F, Beerman T. Effect of DNA-binding drugs on early growth response factor-1 and TATA box-binding protein complex formation with the herpes simplex virus latency promoter. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:23999-4004 pubmed
    ..TFIIA.DNA complex and restored the EGR1.DNA complex. We conclude that the binding motif and sequence preference of DNA-interactive drugs are manifested in their ability to inhibit the transcription factor-DNA complexes. ..
  37. Bohm S, Frishman D, Mewes H. Variations of the C2H2 zinc finger motif in the yeast genome and classification of yeast zinc finger proteins. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997;25:2464-9 pubmed
    ..These results and application of the recently elaborated finger/DNA recognition rules suggest that the yeast proteins belonging to the same subgroup may recognize identical or very similar DNA sites. ..
  38. Di Pietro C, Rapisarda A, Bonaiuto C, Lizzio M, Engel H, Amico V, et al. Genomics of the human genes encoding four TAFII subunits of TFIID, the three subunits of TFIIA, as well as CDK8 and SURB7. Somat Cell Mol Genet. 1999;25:185-9 pubmed
    ..We have mapped all of them to chromosomal regions where hereditary genetic diseases have been localized or which are involved in malignancies, which makes them potential candidates for a causal involvement in these phenotypes. ..
  39. Solow S, Salunek M, Ryan R, Lieberman P. Taf(II) 250 phosphorylates human transcription factor IIA on serine residues important for TBP binding and transcription activity. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:15886-92 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that TFIIA phosphorylation is important for strengthening the TFIIA.TBP contact or creating a second contact between TFIIA and TBP that was not visible in the crystal structure. ..
  40. Gentile A, Da Cruz P, Tavares R, Krug Baldacin M, Menossi M. Molecular characterization of ScTFIIAgamma, encoding the putative TFIIA small subunit from sugarcane. Plant Cell Rep. 2010;29:857-64 pubmed publisher, we characterized the ScTFIIAgamma gene, which encodes a homolog of the smaller subunit (gamma) of transcription factor TFIIA in sugarcane...
  41. Martinez E, Ge H, Tao Y, Yuan C, Palhan V, Roeder R. Novel cofactors and TFIIA mediate functional core promoter selectivity by the human TAFII150-containing TFIID complex. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:6571-83 pubmed
    ..Our results reveal a parallel between the basal transcription activity of TAFIIs through core promoter elements and TAFII-dependent activator function. ..
  42. Mathieu O, Yukawa Y, Prieto J, Vaillant I, Sugiura M, Tourmente S. Identification and characterization of transcription factor IIIA and ribosomal protein L5 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Nucleic Acids Res. 2003;31:2424-33 pubmed
    ..AtL5 protein accumulates in the nucleus, especially in the nucleolus, and is also present in the cytoplasm. ..
  43. Robinson M, Yatherajam G, Ranallo R, Bric A, Paule M, Stargell L. Mapping and functional characterization of the TAF11 interaction with TFIIA. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:945-57 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies provide essential information regarding the molecular organization of the TAF11-TFIIA interaction and define a mechanistic role for this association in the regulation of gene expression in vivo. ..
  44. Tamayo E, Maldonado E. Cloning, expression and functional characterization of Schizosaccharomyces pombe TFIIB. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1577:395-400 pubmed
    ..Recombinant S. pombe TFIIB is active in in vitro transcription assays, since it can complement the transcription activity of a S. pombe cell extract in which TFIIB was depleted by using antibodies. ..
  45. Biswas D, Dutta Biswas R, Mitra D, Shibata Y, Strahl B, Formosa T, et al. Opposing roles for Set2 and yFACT in regulating TBP binding at promoters. EMBO J. 2006;25:4479-89 pubmed
    ..These synthetic defects are suppressed by set2, demonstrating that yFACT and Set2 oppose one another during transcriptional initiation at a step involving DNA binding by TBP and TFIIA. ..
  46. Deng Z, Chen C, Zerby D, Delecluse H, Lieberman P. Identification of acidic and aromatic residues in the Zta activation domain essential for Epstein-Barr virus reactivation. J Virol. 2001;75:10334-47 pubmed
  47. Ehley J, Melander C, Herman D, Baird E, Ferguson H, Goodrich J, et al. Promoter scanning for transcription inhibition with DNA-binding polyamides. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1723-33 pubmed
    ..Our studies also demonstrate the utility of the Py-Im polyamides for discovery of functionally important protein-DNA contacts involved in transcription. ..
  48. Sun H, Ge S. Molecular evolution of the duplicated TFIIAgamma genes in Oryzeae and its relatives. BMC Evol Biol. 2010;10:128 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that both TFIIAgamma1 and TFIIAgamma5 genes were effectively involved in response to biotic or abiotic factors might be explained by either Dykhuizen-Hartl effect or buffering hypothesis. ..
  49. Papai G, Tripathi M, Ruhlmann C, Layer J, Weil P, Schultz P. TFIIA and the transactivator Rap1 cooperate to commit TFIID for transcription initiation. Nature. 2010;465:956-60 pubmed publisher
  50. Marczylo E, Amoako A, Konje J, Gant T, Marczylo T. Smoking induces differential miRNA expression in human spermatozoa: a potential transgenerational epigenetic concern?. Epigenetics. 2012;7:432-9 pubmed publisher
    ..microRNA-mediated perturbation of such pathways may explain how harmful phenotypes can be induced in the progeny of smokers. ..
  51. Contreras Levicoy J, Urbina F, Maldonado E. Schizosaccharomyces pombe positive cofactor 4 stimulates basal transcription from TATA-containing and TATA-less promoters through Mediator and transcription factor IIA. FEBS J. 2008;275:2873-83 pubmed publisher
    ..PC4 binds to double-stranded and single-stranded DNA and interacts with TATA-binding protein, TFIIB, TFIIA, Mediator, TFIIH and the transcriptional activator protein VP16. ..
  52. Sassone Corsi P. Transcription factors governing male fertility. Andrologia. 2005;37:228-9 pubmed
  53. Kumar R, Eastwood A, Brown M, Laurie G. Human genome search in celiac disease: mutated gliadin T-cell-like epitope in two human proteins promotes T-cell activation. J Mol Biol. 2002;319:593-602 pubmed
    ..Deamidation following peptide release due to injury triggers inflammation, thereafter repeatedly provoked by dietary gliadin immunodominant peptides concentrated in the proximal small intestine. ..