tata box binding protein like proteins


Summary: A class of proteins related in structure and function to TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN that can take the place of TATA-BOX BINDING PROTEIN in the transcription initiation complex. They are found in most multicellular organisms and may be involved in tissue-specific promoter regulation. They bind to DNA and interact with TATA-BINDING PROTEIN ASSOCIATED FACTORS, however they may lack specificity for the TATA-BOX.

Top Publications

  1. Gupta S, Cheng H, Mollah A, Jamison E, Morris S, Chance M, et al. DNA and protein footprinting analysis of the modulation of DNA binding by the N-terminal domain of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae TATA binding protein. Biochemistry. 2007;46:9886-98 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results are consistent with the N-terminal domain actively modulating TATA box binding by TBP and nonionic detergent modulating the interdomain interaction...
  2. Lerner L, Piri N, Farber D. Transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the rod cGMP-phosphodiesterase beta-subunit gene. Recent advances and current concepts. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006;572:217-29 pubmed
  3. Deato M, Tjian R. An unexpected role of TAFs and TRFs in skeletal muscle differentiation: switching core promoter complexes. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2008;73:217-25 pubmed publisher
  4. Castañon Sanchez C, Luna Arias J, de Dios Bravo M, Herrera Aguirre M, Olivares Trejo J, Orozco E, et al. Entamoeba histolytica: a unicellular organism containing two active genes encoding for members of the TBP family. Protein Expr Purif. 2010;70:48-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Homology modeling of EhTRF1 and EhTBP revealed that, although they were very similar, they showed some differences on their surfaces. Thus, E. histolytica is a unicellular organism having two members of the TBP family. ..
  5. Szilard R, Durocher D. Telomere protection: an act of God. Curr Biol. 2006;16:R544-6 pubmed
    ..New work has revealed that Apollo, a nuclease previously implicated in DNA repair, also has a role in safeguarding telomeres during S phase. ..
  6. Yang Y, Cao J, Huang L, Fang H, Sheng H. Regulated expression of TATA-binding protein-related factor 3 (TRF3) during early embryogenesis. Cell Res. 2006;16:610-21 pubmed
    ..In addition, results from co-localization study suggest that TRF3 may be also involved in Pol I transcription. ..
  7. Cristofari G, Lingner J. Telomere length homeostasis requires that telomerase levels are limiting. EMBO J. 2006;25:565-74 pubmed
    ..Thus, long telomeres do not permanently adopt a structural state that is non-extendible. A low cellular concentration of telomerase is critical to achieve preferential elongation of short telomeres and telomere length homeostasis. ..
  8. Chong J, Moran M, Teichmann M, Kaczmarek J, Roeder R, Clapham D. TATA-binding protein (TBP)-like factor (TLF) is a functional regulator of transcription: reciprocal regulation of the neurofibromatosis type 1 and c-fos genes by TLF/TRF2 and TBP. Mol Cell Biol. 2005;25:2632-43 pubmed
    ..We conclude that TLF is a functional regulator of transcription with targets distinct from those of TBP. ..
  9. Leresche A, Wolf V, Gottesfeld J. Repression of RNA polymerase II and III transcription during M phase of the cell cycle. Exp Cell Res. 1996;229:282-8 pubmed
    ..As for pol III genes, purified cdc2/cyclin B kinase is sufficient to inhibit transcription by RNA polymerase II in a reconstituted transcription system containing the basal transcription factors and polymerase. ..

More Information


  1. Jacobi U, Akkers R, Pierson E, Weeks D, Dagle J, Veenstra G. TBP paralogs accommodate metazoan- and vertebrate-specific developmental gene regulation. EMBO J. 2007;26:3900-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A requirement for TBP2 is linked to vertebrate-specific embryonic genes and ventral-specific expression. Therefore TBP paralogs are essential for the gene-regulatory repertoire that is directly linked to early embryogenesis...
  2. Mao Z, Seluanov A, Jiang Y, Gorbunova V. TRF2 is required for repair of nontelomeric DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:13068-73 pubmed
    ..We propose, based on our results and on the ability of TRF2 to mediate strand invasion, that TRF2 plays an essential role in HR by facilitating the formation of early recombination intermediates. ..
  3. Hart D, Raha T, Lawson N, Green M. Initiation of zebrafish haematopoiesis by the TATA-box-binding protein-related factor Trf3. Nature. 2007;450:1082-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, in zebrafish, commitment of mesoderm to the haematopoietic lineage occurs through a transcription factor pathway initiated by a TBP-related factor. ..
  4. O Connor M, Safari A, Xin H, Liu D, Songyang Z. A critical role for TPP1 and TIN2 interaction in high-order telomeric complex assembly. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:11874-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that coordinated interactions among TPP1, TIN2, TRF1, and TRF2 may ensure robust assembly of the telosome, telomere targeting of its subunits, and, ultimately, regulated telomere maintenance. ..
  5. Hart D, Santra M, Raha T, Green M. Selective interaction between Trf3 and Taf3 required for early development and hematopoiesis. Dev Dyn. 2009;238:2540-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we provide evidence that TRF3 and TAF3 are also required for hematopoiesis initiation in the mouse. ..
  6. Pandita R, Sharma G, Laszlo A, Hopkins K, Davey S, Chakhparonian M, et al. Mammalian Rad9 plays a role in telomere stability, S- and G2-phase-specific cell survival, and homologous recombinational repair. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1850-64 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings provide evidence of roles for mammalian Rad9 in telomere stability and HR repair as a mechanism for promoting cell survival after IR exposure. ..
  7. Tahara H, Shin Ya K, Seimiya H, Yamada H, Tsuruo T, Ide T. G-Quadruplex stabilization by telomestatin induces TRF2 protein dissociation from telomeres and anaphase bridge formation accompanied by loss of the 3' telomeric overhang in cancer cells. Oncogene. 2006;25:1955-66 pubmed
    ..This study also identifies the TRF2 protein as a therapeutic target for treating many types of cancer which have the TRF2 protein at caps of the telomere DNA of each chromosome. ..
  8. Maldonado E. Transcriptional functions of a new mammalian TATA-binding protein-related factor. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:12963-6 pubmed
    ..The mammalian TBP-related factor is able to substitute for TBP in supporting transcription by RNA polymerase II in an in vitro reconstituted system. ..
  9. Crowley T, Hoey T, Liu J, Jan Y, Jan L, Tjian R. A new factor related to TATA-binding protein has highly restricted expression patterns in Drosophila. Nature. 1993;361:557-61 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that TBP-related factor is a sequence-specific transcription factor that shares the DNA-binding properties of TBP. ..
  10. Kaltenbach L, Horner M, Rothman J, Mango S. The TBP-like factor CeTLF is required to activate RNA polymerase II transcription during C. elegans embryogenesis. Mol Cell. 2000;6:705-13 pubmed
    ..Since CeTLF and CeTBP are expressed at comparable levels in the same cells, these findings suggest CeTLF performs a unique function in activating Pol II transcription distinct from that of CeTBP. ..
  11. Li S, Yuan X, Bian X, Han Y. [Possible damaging effect of human cytomegalovirus infection on the kidney in children]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi. 2004;42:428 pubmed
  12. Sugiura S, Kashiwabara S, Iwase S, Baba T. Expression of a testis-specific form of TBP-related factor 2 (TRF2) mRNA during mouse spermatogenesis. J Reprod Dev. 2003;49:107-11 pubmed
    ..Thus, the presence of the testis-specific form of TRF2 mRNA may account for overexpression of the TRF2 gene in the testis. ..
  13. Kashiwabara S. [Regulation of spermatid-specific gene expression]. Seikagaku. 2005;77:32-8 pubmed
  14. Persengiev S, Zhu X, Dixit B, Maston G, Kittler E, Green M. TRF3, a TATA-box-binding protein-related factor, is vertebrate-specific and widely expressed. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003;100:14887-91 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, TRF3 is a highly conserved vertebrate-specific TRF whose phylogenetic conservation, expression pattern, and other properties are distinct from those of TBP and all other TRFs...
  15. Shimada M, Ohbayashi T, Ishida M, Nakadai T, Makino Y, Aoki T, et al. Analysis of the chicken TBP-like protein(tlp) gene: evidence for a striking conservation of vertebrate TLPs and for a close relationship between vertebrate tbp and tlp genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1999;27:3146-52 pubmed
    ..On the basis of these results together with phylogenetical exam-ination, we speculate that tlp diverged from an ancestral tbp gene through a process of gene duplication and point mutations. ..
  16. Williams E, Stap J, Essers J, Ponnaiya B, Luijsterburg M, Krawczyk P, et al. DNA double-strand breaks are not sufficient to initiate recruitment of TRF2. Nat Genet. 2007;39:696-8; author reply 698-9 pubmed
  17. Suenaga Y, Ozaki T, Tanaka Y, Bu Y, Kamijo T, Tokuhisa T, et al. TATA-binding Protein (TBP)-like Protein Is Engaged in Etoposide-induced Apoptosis through Transcriptional Activation of Human TAp63 Gene. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:35433-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our present study identifies a TLP-TAp63 pathway that is further implicated in stress-induced apoptosis. ..
  18. Freibaum B, Counter C. hSnm1B is a novel telomere-associated protein. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15033-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the C terminus of hSnm1B was shown to interact with the TRF homology domain of TRF2 indicating that hSnm1B is likely recruited to the telomere via interaction with the double-stranded telomere-binding protein TRF2. ..
  19. Holmes M, Tjian R. Promoter-selective properties of the TBP-related factor TRF1. Science. 2000;288:867-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, metazoans appear to have evolved gene-selective and tissue-specific components of the core transcription machinery to regulate gene expression. ..
  20. Deato M, Tjian R. Switching of the core transcription machinery during myogenesis. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2137-49 pubmed
    ..Although this drastic but parsimonious transcriptional switch had previously escaped our attention, it may represent a more general mechanism for regulating cell type-specific terminal differentiation. ..
  21. Xiao H, Tao Y, Roeder R. The human homologue of Drosophila TRF-proximal protein is associated with an RNA polymerase II-SRB complex. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:3937-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, hTRFP may regulate transcription of class II genes through association with the RNA polymerase II-SRB complex. ..
  22. Gazdag E, Rajkovic A, Torres Padilla M, Tora L. Analysis of TATA-binding protein 2 (TBP2) and TBP expression suggests different roles for the two proteins in regulation of gene expression during oogenesis and early mouse development. Reproduction. 2007;134:51-62 pubmed
    ..Moreover, our results obtained with oocytes lacking the oocyte-specific nuclear chaperone nucleoplasmin 2 suggest that TBP2 function may be related to non-condensed chromatin conformation. ..
  23. Price C. wRAPing up the end to prevent telomere fusions. Mol Cell. 2007;26:463-4 pubmed
  24. Kato T, Shimono Y, Hasegawa M, Jijiwa M, Enomoto A, Asai N, et al. Characterization of the HDAC1 complex that regulates the sensitivity of cancer cells to oxidative stress. Cancer Res. 2009;69:3597-604 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal the diverse cancer-promoting activities of HDAC1 and identify RFP as a key regulator that provides cancer cells with resistance to anticancer drugs. ..
  25. Hochheimer A, Tjian R. Diversified transcription initiation complexes expand promoter selectivity and tissue-specific gene expression. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1309-20 pubmed
  26. Martianov I, Brancorsini S, Gansmuller A, Parvinen M, Davidson I, Sassone Corsi P. Distinct functions of TBP and TLF/TRF2 during spermatogenesis: requirement of TLF for heterochromatic chromocenter formation in haploid round spermatids. Development. 2002;129:945-55 pubmed
    ..This defect is likely to be the primary cause of spermatogenic failure in the TLF mutant mice. ..
  27. Atanasiu C, Deng Z, Wiedmer A, Norseen J, Lieberman P. ORC binding to TRF2 stimulates OriP replication. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:716-21 pubmed
    ..These results support a model in which TRF2 stimulates OriP replication activity by direct binding with ORC subunits. ..
  28. Tanaka Y, Nanba Y, Park K, Mabuchi T, Suenaga Y, Shiraishi S, et al. Transcriptional repression of the mouse wee1 gene by TBP-related factor 2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;352:21-8 pubmed
    ..Data in this study suggest that transcription repressive activity of TRF2 to wee1 promoter needs association with the promoter and TFIIA. ..
  29. Matsuoka S, Tsuchiya H, Sakabe T, Watanabe Y, Hoshikawa Y, Kurimasa A, et al. Involvement of thioredoxin-binding protein 2 in the antitumor activity of CD437. Cancer Sci. 2008;99:2485-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that TBP2 plays a critical role in the mechanism by which CD437 exerts proapoptotic action against SKOV3 cells. ..
  30. Kopytova D, Krasnov A. [The family of TRF (TBP-like factors) proteins]. Genetika. 2007;43:317-22 pubmed
    ..The data providing analysis of the TRF proteins structure and expression, as well as those shedding light on their biological function and involvement in the transcription machinery are presented. ..
  31. Ohbayashi T, Shimada M, Nakadai T, Tamura T. TBP-like protein (TLP/TLF/TRF2) artificially recruited to a promoter stimulates basal transcription in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;285:616-22 pubmed
    ..TLP is presumably able to behave as a transcriptional activator in cells. ..
  32. Nakadai T, Shimada M, Shima D, Handa H, Tamura T. Specific interaction with transcription factor IIA and localization of the mammalian TATA-binding protein-like protein (TLP/TRF2/TLF). J Biol Chem. 2004;279:7447-55 pubmed
    ..TFIIA may regulate the intracellular molecular state and the function of TLP through its property of binding to TLP. ..
  33. Zhang P, Dilley C, Mattson M. DNA damage responses in neural cells: Focus on the telomere. Neuroscience. 2007;145:1439-48 pubmed
    ..Indeed, work in this and other laboratories has shown that dietary folic acid can protect neurons against Alzheimer's disease by keeping homocysteine levels low and thereby minimizing the misincorporation of uracil into DNA in neurons. ..
  34. Zhang D, Penttila T, Morris P, Roeder R. Cell- and stage-specific high-level expression of TBP-related factor 2 (TRF2) during mouse spermatogenesis. Mech Dev. 2001;106:203-5 pubmed
    ..This observation is consistent with an essential regulatory role of TRF2 in male germ cell differentiation during spermatogenesis. ..
  35. Polyakova V, Kvetnoy I, Konovalov S, Zezulin P, Knyazkin I. Age-related differences in expression of signal differentiation factors for human thymic epithelial cells. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2007;144:235-7 pubmed
  36. Swiggers S, Kuijpers M, de Cort M, Beverloo H, Zijlmans J. Critically short telomeres in acute myeloid leukemia with loss or gain of parts of chromosomes. Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2006;45:247-56 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that, consistent with previous in vitro fibroblast models, age-related critical telomere shortening may have a role in generating chromosome instability in human AML development. ..
  37. Jin Y, Yue W, Shi G, Liu Y, Zhao F, Zhu L. Inhibition of 6A8 alpha-mannosidase gene expression resulted in telomere length shortening in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell CNE-2L2. Cancer Lett. 2005;218:229-34 pubmed
    ..The data imply an association between glycosylation modification with telomere shortening in antisense 6A8-treated cells. ..
  38. Ruan J, Arhin G, Ullu E, Tschudi C. Functional characterization of a Trypanosoma brucei TATA-binding protein-related factor points to a universal regulator of transcription in trypanosomes. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9610-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, a search for TRF4 binding sites in the T. brucei genome led to the identification of such sites in the 3' portion of certain protein-coding genes, indicating a unique aspect of Pol II transcription in these organisms. ..
  39. Karlseder J, Hoke K, Mirzoeva O, Bakkenist C, Kastan M, Petrini J, et al. The telomeric protein TRF2 binds the ATM kinase and can inhibit the ATM-dependent DNA damage response. PLoS Biol. 2004;2:E240 pubmed
  40. Deato M, Marr M, Sottero T, Inouye C, Hu P, Tjian R. MyoD targets TAF3/TRF3 to activate myogenin transcription. Mol Cell. 2008;32:96-105 pubmed publisher
  41. D Alessio J, Wright K, Tjian R. Shifting players and paradigms in cell-specific transcription. Mol Cell. 2009;36:924-31 pubmed publisher
    ..New evidence suggests that significant changes in these general transcription factors including TFIID, BAF, and Mediator may facilitate global changes in cell-type-specific transcription. ..
  42. Cesare A, Groff Vindman C, Compton S, McEachern M, Griffith J. Telomere loops and homologous recombination-dependent telomeric circles in a Kluyveromyces lactis telomere mutant strain. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:20-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that disruption of Rap1 results in elevated recombination at telomeres, leading to increased strand invasion of the 3' overhang within t-loop junctions and resolution of the t-loop junctions into free t-circles...
  43. Demény M, Soutoglou E, Nagy Z, Scheer E, Janoshazi A, Richardot M, et al. Identification of a small TAF complex and its role in the assembly of TAF-containing complexes. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e316 pubmed
  44. Dimitrova N, de Lange T. MDC1 accelerates nonhomologous end-joining of dysfunctional telomeres. Genes Dev. 2006;20:3238-43 pubmed
    ..We propose that the binding of MDC1 to gamma-H2AX directly affects NHEJ in a manner that is independent of the ATM-dependent cell cycle arrest pathway. ..
  45. Takada S, Lis J, Zhou S, Tjian R. A TRF1:BRF complex directs Drosophila RNA polymerase III transcription. Cell. 2000;101:459-69 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that in Drosophila, TRF1 rather than TBP forms a complex with BRF that plays a major role in RNA pol III transcription. ..
  46. Di Pietro C, Ragusa M, Duro L, Guglielmino M, Barbagallo D, Carnemolla A, et al. Genomics, evolution, and expression of TBPL2, a member of the TBP family. DNA Cell Biol. 2007;26:369-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our genomic and expression data should contribute to clarify why TBP has a general master role within the transcription apparatus (TA), whereas both TBPL1 and TBPL2 perform tissue-specific functions...
  47. Park K, Tanaka Y, Suenaga Y, Tamura T. TATA-binding protein-related factor 2 is localized in the cytoplasm of mammalian cells and much of it migrates to the nucleus in response to genotoxic agents. Mol Cells. 2006;22:203-9 pubmed
    ..Thus TRF2 may be involved in genotoxin-induced transcriptional regulation. ..
  48. Gomez D, O Donohue M, Wenner T, Douarre C, Macadré J, Koebel P, et al. The G-quadruplex ligand telomestatin inhibits POT1 binding to telomeric sequences in vitro and induces GFP-POT1 dissociation from telomeres in human cells. Cancer Res. 2006;66:6908-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, we propose that G-quadruplex stabilization at telomeric G-overhang inactivates POT1 telomeric function, generating a telomere dysfunction in which chromosome ends are no longer properly protected. ..
  49. Akashi S, Suzuki K, Arai A, Yamada N, Suzuki E, Hirayama K, et al. Top-down analysis of basic proteins by microchip capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2006;20:1932-8 pubmed
    ..Since it requires a much shorter time and a smaller sample amount for analysis than the conventional liquid chromatography (LC)/ESI-MS method, microchip-CE/MS promises to be suitable for the high-throughput characterization of proteins. ..
  50. Zhang P, Furukawa K, Opresko P, Xu X, Bohr V, Mattson M. TRF2 dysfunction elicits DNA damage responses associated with senescence in proliferating neural cells and differentiation of neurons. J Neurochem. 2006;97:567-81 pubmed
  51. Dantonel J, Quintin S, Lakatos L, Labouesse M, Tora L. TBP-like factor is required for embryonic RNA polymerase II transcription in C. elegans. Mol Cell. 2000;6:715-22 pubmed
    ..Thus, CeTLF may positively or negatively regulate Pol II transcription, depending on the developmental stage of the embryo. ..
  52. Reina J, Hernandez N. On a roll for new TRF targets. Genes Dev. 2007;21:2855-60 pubmed
  53. Hockemeyer D, Palm W, Else T, Daniels J, Takai K, Ye J, et al. Telomere protection by mammalian Pot1 requires interaction with Tpp1. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:754-61 pubmed