yy1 transcription factor


Summary: A ubiquitously expressed zinc finger-containing protein that acts both as a repressor and activator of transcription. It interacts with key regulatory proteins such as TATA-BINDING PROTEIN; TFIIB; and ADENOVIRUS E1A PROTEINS.

Top Publications

  1. René C, Lopez E, Claustres M, Taulan M, Romey Chatelain M. NF-E2-related factor 2, a key inducer of antioxidant defenses, negatively regulates the CFTR transcription. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:2297-309 pubmed publisher
    ..To our knowledge, this study is the first to report a repressor role of Nrf2 through the cooperation with YY1 and contributes to clarify the cascade events leading to the oxidative stress-suppressed CFTR expression. ..
  2. Joshi B, Rastogi S, Morris M, Carastro L, DeCook C, Seto E, et al. Differential regulation of human YY1 and caspase 7 promoters by prohibitin through E2F1 and p53 binding sites. Biochem J. 2007;401:155-66 pubmed
    ..Further, it appears very likely that prohibitin carries out many of its cellular functions by affecting the transcription of different genes. ..
  3. Huang H, Li X, Liu M, Song T, He Q, Ma C, et al. Transcription factor YY1 promotes adipogenesis via inhibiting CHOP-10 expression. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2008;375:496-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies suggested that YY1 can be a new adipocyte differentiation stimulator. ..
  4. Kim J, Yu S, Kim J. YY1 is autoregulated through its own DNA-binding sites. BMC Mol Biol. 2009;10:85 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, the transcriptional level of YY1 is self-regulated through its internal DNA-binding sites. This study identifies YY1 as the first known autoregulating transcription factor in mammalian genomes. ..
  5. Deng Z, Wan M, Cao P, Rao A, Cramer S, Sui G. Yin Yang 1 regulates the transcriptional activity of androgen receptor. Oncogene. 2009;28:3746-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our study demonstrates that YY1 interacts with AR and regulates its transcriptional activity. ..
  6. Erkeland S, Valkhof M, Heijmans Antonissen C, Delwel R, Valk P, Hermans M, et al. The gene encoding the transcriptional regulator Yin Yang 1 (YY1) is a myeloid transforming gene interfering with neutrophilic differentiation. Blood. 2003;101:1111-7 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data imply a possible role of perturbed expression of YY1 in the development of AML through interference with the myeloid differentiation program in the leukemic progenitor cells. ..
  7. Parija T, Das B. Involvement of YY1 and its correlation with c-myc in NDEA induced hepatocarcinogenesis, its prevention by d-limonene. Mol Biol Rep. 2003;30:41-6 pubmed
    ..Thus, it is assumed that there is deregulation of YY1 transcription factor in NDEA induced hepatocarcinogenesis...
  8. Wu S, Shi Y, Mulligan P, Gay F, Landry J, Liu H, et al. A YY1-INO80 complex regulates genomic stability through homologous recombination-based repair. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:1165-72 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these observations reveal a link between YY1 and INO80 and roles for both in HRR, providing new insight into mechanisms that control the cellular response to genotoxic stress. ..
  9. Nguyen N, Zhang X, Olashaw N, Seto E. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of the transcription factor YY2. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:25927-34 pubmed

More Information


  1. Ko C, Hsu H, Shen M, Chang W, Wang J. Epigenetic silencing of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta activity by YY1/polycomb group/DNA methyltransferase complex. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:30919-32 pubmed publisher
  2. Srinivasan L, Pan X, Atchison M. Transient requirements of YY1 expression for PcG transcriptional repression and phenotypic rescue. J Cell Biochem. 2005;96:689-99 pubmed
    ..Therefore, YY1 was transiently required for correction of fly defects and was dispensable past the pharate adult stage. Possible mechanisms of repression by YY1 are discussed. ..
  3. Cai Y, Jin J, Yao T, Gottschalk A, Swanson S, Wu S, et al. YY1 functions with INO80 to activate transcription. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2007;14:872-4 pubmed
    ..Binding of YY1 to its DNA sites in target genes requires INO80, suggesting that YY1 uses the INO80 complex not only to activate transcription but also to gain access to target promoters. ..
  4. Caretti G, Di Padova M, Micales B, Lyons G, Sartorelli V. The Polycomb Ezh2 methyltransferase regulates muscle gene expression and skeletal muscle differentiation. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2627-38 pubmed
  5. Kim J, Kim J. In vivo YY1 knockdown effects on genomic imprinting. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:391-401 pubmed
    The YY1 transcription factor is predicted to control several imprinted domains, including the Peg3, Gnas and Xist/Tsix regions...
  6. Jeon Y, Lee J. YY1 tethers Xist RNA to the inactive X nucleation center. Cell. 2011;146:119-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific YY1-to-RNA and YY1-to-DNA contacts are required to load Xist particles onto X. YY1 interacts with Xist RNA through Repeat C. We propose that YY1 acts as adaptor between regulatory RNA and chromatin targets. ..
  7. Yakovleva T, Kolesnikova L, Vukojevic V, Gileva I, Tan No K, Austen M, et al. YY1 binding to a subset of p53 DNA-target sites regulates p53-dependent transcription. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;318:615-24 pubmed
    ..YY1 might attenuate p53-dependent transcription from a subset of p53-target genes and this may be relevant for directing cells either to growth arrest or apoptosis upon p53 activation. ..
  8. Doetsch M, Gluch A, Poznanovic G, Bode J, Vidakovic M. YY1-binding sites provide central switch functions in the PARP-1 gene expression network. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e44125 pubmed publisher
    ..The joint actions of PARP-1 and YY1 emerge as important contributions to cell homeostasis. ..
  9. de Nigris F, Rossiello R, Schiano C, Arra C, Williams Ignarro S, Barbieri A, et al. Deletion of Yin Yang 1 protein in osteosarcoma cells on cell invasion and CXCR4/angiogenesis and metastasis. Cancer Res. 2008;68:1797-808 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, YY1 and VEGF/CXCR4 seem to intervene in the pathogenesis of the malignant phenotype of osteosarcoma by acting on cell invasiveness and metastasis growth. ..
  10. He Y, Casaccia Bonnefil P. The Yin and Yang of YY1 in the nervous system. J Neurochem. 2008;106:1493-502 pubmed publisher
    ..The multiple functions of YY1 in distinct cell types are reviewed and the possible mechanisms underlying the cell specificity for these functions are discussed. ..
  11. Thomas M, Seto E. Unlocking the mechanisms of transcription factor YY1: are chromatin modifying enzymes the key?. Gene. 1999;236:197-208 pubmed
    ..This review will discuss the recent work dealing with the different proteins that interact with YY1, with particular emphasis on ones that modify chromatin, and how they could be involved in regulating YY1's activities. ..
  12. Garcia E, Marcos Gutierrez C, del Mar Lorente M, Moreno J, Vidal M. RYBP, a new repressor protein that interacts with components of the mammalian Polycomb complex, and with the transcription factor YY1. EMBO J. 1999;18:3404-18 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that RYBP may play a relevant role in PcG function in mammals. ..
  13. Lieberthal J, Kaminsky M, Parkhurst C, Tanese N. The role of YY1 in reduced HP1alpha gene expression in invasive human breast cancer cells. Breast Cancer Res. 2009;11:R42 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggests that a reduction of YY1 expression in breast cancer cells could contribute to the acquisition of an invasive phenotype through increased cell migration as well as by reduced expression of HP1alpha. ..
  14. Castellano G, Torrisi E, Ligresti G, Malaponte G, Militello L, Russo A, et al. The involvement of the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 in cancer development and progression. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:1367-72 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the contribution of the upregulation of YY1 exerted in response to therapeutic-induced apoptosis is discussed. ..
  15. Sankar N, Baluchamy S, Kadeppagari R, Singhal G, Weitzman S, Thimmapaya B. p300 provides a corepressor function by cooperating with YY1 and HDAC3 to repress c-Myc. Oncogene. 2008;27:5717-28 pubmed publisher
    ..This corepressor function of p300 prevents the inappropriate induction of c-Myc and S phase. ..
  16. Bain M, Sinclair J. Targeted inhibition of the transcription factor YY1 in an embryonal carcinoma cell line results in retarded cell growth, elevated levels of p53 but no increase in apoptotic cell death. Eur J Cell Biol. 2005;84:543-53 pubmed
    ..However, the cells do not undergo apoptosis, are not induced to differentiate, do not exhibit excessive levels of DNA damage, and synthesise DNA normally. ..
  17. Kim J, Hinz A, Bergmann A, Huang J, Ovcharenko I, Stubbs L, et al. Identification of clustered YY1 binding sites in imprinting control regions. Genome Res. 2006;16:901-11 pubmed
    ..Overall, our identification of three additional clustered YY1 binding sites in imprinted domains suggests a significant role for YY1 in mammalian genomic imprinting. ..
  18. Begon D, Delacroix L, Vernimmen D, Jackers P, Winkler R. Yin Yang 1 cooperates with activator protein 2 to stimulate ERBB2 gene expression in mammary cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:24428-34 pubmed
    ..We detected high levels of YY1 transcription factor in mammary cancer cell lines...
  19. Yao Y, DuPont B, Ghosh S, Fang Y, Leach R, Seto E. Cloning, chromosomal localization and promoter analysis of the human transcription factor YY1. Nucleic Acids Res. 1998;26:3776-83 pubmed
    ..Finally, we have found that overexpression of the adenovirus E1A protein represses expression of a reporter gene directed by the YY1 promoter. ..
  20. Romey M, Pallares Ruiz N, Mange A, Mettling C, Peytavi R, Demaille J, et al. A naturally occurring sequence variation that creates a YY1 element is associated with increased cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:3561-7 pubmed
    ..The finding that the YY1-binding allele causes a significant increase in CFTR expression in vitro may allow a better understanding of the milder phenotype observed in patients who carry a severe CF mutation within the same gene. ..
  21. Oei S, Shi Y. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of transcription factor Yin Yang 1 under conditions of DNA damage. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;285:27-31 pubmed
    ..The narrow time frame of the modification coincides with that known for the activation of PARP-1 under these conditions. This immediate modification correlated with a decreased affinity of YY1 to its cognate DNA binding sites. ..
  22. Santiago F, Lowe H, Bobryshev Y, Khachigian L. Induction of the transcriptional repressor Yin Yang-1 by vascular cell injury. Autocrine/paracrine role of endogenous fibroblast growth factor-2. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:41143-9 pubmed
  23. Tan D, Nonaka K, Nuckolls G, Liu Y, Maxson R, Slavkin H, et al. YY1 activates Msx2 gene independent of bone morphogenetic protein signaling. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:1213-23 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these findings suggest that YY1 functions as an activator for the Msx2 gene, and that this regulation, which is independent of the BMP4 pathway, may be required during early mouse craniofacial and limb morphogenesis. ..
  24. Palko L, Bass H, Beyrouthy M, Hurt M. The Yin Yang-1 (YY1) protein undergoes a DNA-replication-associated switch in localization from the cytoplasm to the nucleus at the onset of S phase. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:465-76 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results provide insight into how YY1 might participate in the cell-cycle control over a variety of nuclear events required for cell division and proliferation. ..
  25. Srinivasan L, Atchison M. YY1 DNA binding and PcG recruitment requires CtBP. Genes Dev. 2004;18:2596-601 pubmed
    ..These results reveal a new role for CtBP in controlling YY1 DNA binding and recruitment of PcG proteins to DNA. ..
  26. Wilkinson F, Pratt H, Atchison M. PcG recruitment by the YY1 REPO domain can be mediated by Yaf2. J Cell Biochem. 2010;109:478-86 pubmed publisher
    ..When the Drosophila homolog of Yaf2 (dRYBP) is mutated, PcG recruitment to DNA is reduced. Taken together, our results suggest that Yaf2 serves as a molecular bridge between YY1 and other PcG complex proteins. ..
  27. Seligson D, Horvath S, Huerta Yepez S, Hanna S, Garban H, Roberts A, et al. Expression of transcription factor Yin Yang 1 in prostate cancer. Int J Oncol. 2005;27:131-41 pubmed
    ..These results may also implicate YY1 as a useful diagnostic and prognostic marker. ..
  28. de Nigris F, Crudele V, Giovane A, Casamassimi A, Giordano A, Garban H, et al. CXCR4/YY1 inhibition impairs VEGF network and angiogenesis during malignancy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14484-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, YY1 may represent a crucial molecular target for antiangiogenic therapy during cancer progression...
  29. Luo C, Lu X, Stubbs L, Kim J. Rapid evolution of a recently retroposed transcription factor YY2 in mammalian genomes. Genomics. 2006;87:348-55 pubmed
  30. Qiao H, May J. Regulation of the human ascorbate transporter SVCT2 exon 1b gene by zinc-finger transcription factors. Free Radic Biol Med. 2011;50:1196-209 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that differential occupancy of transcription factors on the GC-rich consensus sequences in the SVCT2 exon 1b promoter contributes to the regulation of cell and tissue expression of SVCT2. ..
  31. Brown J, Mucci D, Whiteley M, Dirksen M, Kassis J. The Drosophila Polycomb group gene pleiohomeotic encodes a DNA binding protein with homology to the transcription factor YY1. Mol Cell. 1998;1:1057-64 pubmed
    ..This protein (PHO) is a homolog of the ubiquitous mammalian transcription factor Yin Yang-1 and is encoded by pleiohomeotic, a known member of the PcG. We propose that PHO acts to anchor PcG protein complexes to DNA. ..
  32. Pan X, Papasani M, Hao Y, Calamito M, Wei F, Quinn Iii W, et al. YY1 controls Ig? repertoire and B-cell development, and localizes with condensin on the Ig? locus. EMBO J. 2013;32:1168-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Knock-down of a condensin subunit protein or YY1 reduced rearrangement of Ig? V? genes suggesting a direct role for YY1-condensin complexes in Ig? locus structure and rearrangement. ..
  33. Wu S, Hu Y, Liu H, Shi Y. Loss of YY1 impacts the heterochromatic state and meiotic double-strand breaks during mouse spermatogenesis. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:6245-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, this study identifies an important role for YY1 in mouse meiosis and provides new insight into mechanisms that regulate mammalian spermatogenesis...
  34. Faulk C, Kim J. YY1's DNA-binding motifs in mammalian olfactory receptor genes. BMC Genomics. 2009;10:576 pubmed publisher
    ..YY1, or YY1-related transcription factors, may help regulate olfactory receptor genes. Furthermore, the protein-coding regions of vertebrate genes can contain cis-regulatory elements for transcription factor binding as well as codons. ..
  35. Lorente M, Perez C, Sanchez C, Donohoe M, Shi Y, Vidal M. Homeotic transformations of the axial skeleton of YY1 mutant mice and genetic interaction with the Polycomb group gene Ring1/Ring1A. Mech Dev. 2006;123:312-20 pubmed
    ..In addition, YY1 forms complexes with Ring1 and other class II PcG proteins such as Rnf2 and Bmi1 in GST pull down experiments in transfected cells. These findings provide evidence for a PcG function for YY1 in vertebrates. ..
  36. Gilthorpe J, Vandromme M, Brend T, Gutman A, Summerbell D, Totty N, et al. Spatially specific expression of Hoxb4 is dependent on the ubiquitous transcription factor NFY. Development. 2002;129:3887-99 pubmed
  37. Rezai Zadeh N, Zhang X, Namour F, Fejer G, Wen Y, Yao Y, et al. Targeted recruitment of a histone H4-specific methyltransferase by the transcription factor YY1. Genes Dev. 2003;17:1019-29 pubmed
    ..Our data confirm that histone methylation does not occur randomly but rather is a targeted event and provides one mechanism by which HMTs can be recruited to chromatin to activate gene expression. ..
  38. Hongo F, Garban H, Huerta Yepez S, Vega M, Jazirehi A, Mizutani Y, et al. Inhibition of the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 activity by S-nitrosation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;336:692-701 pubmed
    ..Altogether, these findings reveal that NO inhibits YY1 DNA-binding activity through S-nitrosation and consequently results in upregulation of Fas expression and tumor cell sensitization to Fas-induced apoptosis. ..
  39. Liu H, Schmidt Supprian M, Shi Y, Hobeika E, Barteneva N, Jumaa H, et al. Yin Yang 1 is a critical regulator of B-cell development. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1179-89 pubmed
    ..We provide evidence that YY1 binds the intronic Ei mu enhancer within the IgH locus, consistent with a direct role for YY1 in V(H)D(H)J(H) recombination. These findings identified YY1 as a critical regulator of early B-cell development. ..
  40. Baritaki S, Sifakis S, Huerta Yepez S, Neonakis I, Soufla G, Bonavida B, et al. Overexpression of VEGF and TGF-beta1 mRNA in Pap smears correlates with progression of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia to cancer: implication of YY1 in cervical tumorigenesis and HPV infection. Int J Oncol. 2007;31:69-79 pubmed
  41. Calame K, Atchison M. YY1 helps to bring loose ends together. Genes Dev. 2007;21:1145-52 pubmed
  42. Chen L, Shioda T, Coser K, Lynch M, Yang C, Schmidt E. Genome-wide analysis of YY2 versus YY1 target genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:4011-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies show that human YY2 is not redundant to YY1, and YY2 is a significant regulator of genes previously identified as uniquely responding to YY1. ..
  43. René C, Taulan M, Iral F, Doudement J, L honoré A, Gerbon C, et al. Binding of serum response factor to cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator CArG-like elements, as a new potential CFTR transcriptional regulation pathway. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:5271-90 pubmed
  44. Chinnappan D, Xiao D, Ratnasari A, Andry C, King T, Weber H. Transcription factor YY1 expression in human gastrointestinal cancer cells. Int J Oncol. 2009;34:1417-23 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, YY1 was over-expressed in colon cancer in the absence of gene amplification and chromosomal translocation. YY1 mRNA and protein stability are important regulatory mechanisms of YY1 expression in colon cancer. ..
  45. Green M, Monti S, Dalla Favera R, Pasqualucci L, Walsh N, Schmidt Supprian M, et al. Signatures of murine B-cell development implicate Yy1 as a regulator of the germinal center-specific program. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:2873-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings offer important tools and insights for elucidating differences between normal and malignant B cells. ..
  46. Delehouzee S, Yoshikawa T, Sawa C, Sawada J, Ito T, Omori M, et al. GABP, HCF-1 and YY1 are involved in Rb gene expression during myogenesis. Genes Cells. 2005;10:717-31 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that the Rb promoter is subject to regulation by positive and negative factors and that this intricate activation mechanism is critical to allow the accurate Rb gene up-regulation observed during myogenesis. ..
  47. Athanikar J, Badge R, Moran J. A YY1-binding site is required for accurate human LINE-1 transcription initiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:3846-55 pubmed
    ..Indeed, this sequence may explain the evolutionary success of LINE-1 by enabling full-length retrotransposed copies to undergo autonomous retrotransposition in subsequent generations. ..
  48. Rizkallah R, Alexander K, Hurt M. Global mitotic phosphorylation of C2H2 zinc finger protein linker peptides. Cell Cycle. 2011;10:3327-36 pubmed publisher
    ..This global phosphorylation is completely reversed in telophase. In addition, the exclusion of the phospho-linker signal from condensed DNA clearly demonstrates a common mechanism for the mitotic inactivation of C(2)H(2) ZFPs. ..
  49. Hsu K, Hsieh R, Lee Y, Chao C, Wu K, Tseng M, et al. The activated Notch1 receptor cooperates with alpha-enolase and MBP-1 in modulating c-myc activity. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:4829-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that the activated Notch1 receptor and alpha-enolase or MBP-1 cooperate in controlling c-myc expression through binding the YY1 response element of the c-myc promoter to regulate tumorigenesis. ..
  50. Baritaki S, Chatzinikola A, Vakis A, Soulitzis N, Karabetsos D, Neonakis I, et al. YY1 Over-expression in human brain gliomas and meningiomas correlates with TGF-beta1, IGF-1 and FGF-2 mRNA levels. Cancer Invest. 2009;27:184-92 pubmed publisher
  51. Belak Z, Ovsenek N. Assembly of the Yin Yang 1 transcription factor into messenger ribonucleoprotein particles requires direct RNA binding activity. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:37913-20 pubmed
    ..These findings present the first clues to how mRNPs assemble during early development. ..
  52. Huerta Yepez S, Vega M, Garban H, Bonavida B. Involvement of the TNF-alpha autocrine-paracrine loop, via NF-kappaB and YY1, in the regulation of tumor cell resistance to Fas-induced apoptosis. Clin Immunol. 2006;120:297-309 pubmed
    ..Further, these findings identify new targets such as TNF-alpha, NF-kappaB and YY1, whose inhibition can reverse tumor cell resistance to FasL-mediated apoptosis. ..
  53. Wang H, Garzon R, Sun H, Ladner K, Singh R, Dahlman J, et al. NF-kappaB-YY1-miR-29 regulatory circuitry in skeletal myogenesis and rhabdomyosarcoma. Cancer Cell. 2008;14:369-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results identify a NF-kappaB-YY1-miR-29 regulatory circuit whose disruption may contribute to RMS. ..