interferon regulatory factor 1


Summary: An interferon regulatory factor that binds upstream TRANSCRIPTIONAL REGULATORY ELEMENTS in the GENES for INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA. It functions as a transcriptional activator for the INTERFERON TYPE I genes.

Top Publications

  1. Kular R, Yehiely F, Kotlo K, Cilensek Z, Bedi R, Deiss L. GAGE, an antiapoptotic protein binds and modulates the expression of nucleophosmin/B23 and interferon regulatory factor 1. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009;29:645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..that GAGE overexpression resulted in down-regulation of a key player of IFN-gamma-signaling pathway, interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), and its target genes caspase-1 and caspase-7...
  2. Zhang J, Qian X, Ning H, Yang J, Xiong H, Liu J. Activation of IL-27 p28 gene transcription by interferon regulatory factor 8 in cooperation with interferon regulatory factor 1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:21269-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides further mechanistic information regarding how signals initiated during innate and adaptive immune responses synergize to yield greater IL-27 production and sustained cellular immunity. ..
  3. Trilling M, Le V, Zimmermann A, Ludwig H, Pfeffer K, Sutter G, et al. Gamma interferon-induced interferon regulatory factor 1-dependent antiviral response inhibits vaccinia virus replication in mouse but not human fibroblasts. J Virol. 2009;83:3684-95 pubmed publisher
    ..These data have implications for the understanding of VACV pathogenesis and identify an incongruent IFN-gamma response between the human host and the mouse model. ..
  4. Zheng L, Yu C, Zhang Z, Yang C, Cai X. Expression of interferon regulatory factor 1, 3, and 7 in primary Sjögren syndrome. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2009;107:661-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Also, IRF1-positive cells exist in the epithelial islands, lymphocytes, and ductal epithelial cells of the parotid glands of individuals affected by pSS, but are limited to the ductal epithelial cells of healthy control subjects. ..
  5. Feng C, Johnson S, Hori T, Rise M, Hall J, Gamperl A, et al. Identification and analysis of differentially expressed genes in immune tissues of Atlantic cod stimulated with formalin-killed, atypical Aeromonas salmonicida. Physiol Genomics. 2009;37:149-63 pubmed publisher
    ..salmonicida included interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-8, a small inducible cytokine, interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), ferritin heavy subunit, cathelicidin, and hepcidin...
  6. Lace M, Anson J, Haugen T, Turek L. Interferon regulatory factor (IRF)-2 activates the HPV-16 E6-E7 promoter in keratinocytes. Virology. 2010;399:270-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these observations reveal a complex viral strategy utilizing multiple signal transduction pathways during the establishment and maintenance of HPV persistence. ..
  7. Wang Y, Ren Z, Tao D, Tilwalli S, Goswami R, Balabanov R. STAT1/IRF-1 signaling pathway mediates the injurious effect of interferon-gamma on oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Glia. 2010;58:195-208 pubmed publisher
    ..The conclusion of this study is that STAT1 and IRF-1 function as components of the signaling pathway that mediates IFN-gamma-induced OPC death. ..
  8. Pion E, Narayan V, Eckert M, Ball K. Role of the IRF-1 enhancer domain in signalling polyubiquitination and degradation. Cell Signal. 2009;21:1479-87 pubmed publisher
  9. Narayan V, Eckert M, Zylicz A, Zylicz M, Ball K. Cooperative regulation of the interferon regulatory factor-1 tumor suppressor protein by core components of the molecular chaperone machinery. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:25889-99 pubmed publisher
    ..This study begins to elucidate the role of the Mf1 domain of IRF-1 in orchestrating the recruitment of regulatory factors that can impact on both its turnover and transcriptional activity. ..

More Information


  1. Lou Y, Pan X, Jia P, Zhang Z, Xu G, Li D, et al. [Role of the interferon-stimulated response elements I/II in expression regulation of the retinoic acid induced gene G]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2010;27:255-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Both ISRE I and ISRE II on the RIG-G promoter are the binding sites for the complex of transcription factors. They are required for RIG-G expression, and ISRE I has a preferential role over ISRE II. ..
  2. Shultz D, Rani M, Fuller J, Ransohoff R, Stark G. Roles of IKK-beta, IRF1, and p65 in the activation of chemokine genes by interferon-gamma. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009;29:817-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, IKK-beta has a novel role in IFN-gamma-dependent activation of chemokine gene expression through its activation of IRF1 and p65. ..
  3. Fortier A, Doiron K, Saleh M, Grinstein S, Gros P. Restriction of Legionella pneumophila replication in macrophages requires concerted action of the transcriptional regulators Irf1 and Irf8 and nod-like receptors Naip5 and Nlrc4. Infect Immun. 2009;77:4794-805 pubmed publisher
    ..They also suggest that flagellin sensing by the NLR proteins Naip5 and Nlrc4 may be coupled to Irf1-Irf8-mediated transcriptional activation of key effector genes essential for macrophage resistance to L. pneumophila infection. ..
  4. Hua D, Liu M, Cheng Z, Qin X, Zhang H, Chen Y, et al. Small interfering RNA-directed targeting of Toll-like receptor 4 inhibits human prostate cancer cell invasion, survival, and tumorigenicity. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:2876-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, RNA interference-directed targeting of TLR4 may raise the potential of its application for cancer therapy. ..
  5. Zhou X, Gao P, Sun B. Pravastatin attenuates interferon-gamma action via modulation of STAT1 to prevent aortic atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E-knockout mice. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2009;36:373-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This providing us with a new therapeutic approach and a clearer insight into the clinical benefits of pravastatin. ..
  6. Ueki S, Dhupar R, Cardinal J, Tsung A, Yoshida J, Ozaki K, et al. Critical role of interferon regulatory factor-1 in murine liver transplant ischemia reperfusion injury. Hepatology. 2010;51:1692-701 pubmed publisher
    ..However, LTx with chimeric liver grafts showed that grafts lacking hepatocellular IRF-1 had better protection compared with those lacking IRF-1 in NPC. The study identifies a critical role for IRF-1 in liver transplant I/R injury. ..
  7. Mangano V, Luoni G, Rockett K, Sirima B, Konate A, Forton J, et al. Interferon regulatory factor-1 polymorphisms are associated with the control of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Genes Immun. 2008;9:122-9 pubmed publisher
    ..02). These findings provide the first evidence of the involvement in malaria susceptibility of a specific locus within the 5q31 region, previously shown to be linked with P. falciparum infection levels. ..
  8. Clarke R, Shajahan A, Riggins R, Cho Y, Crawford A, Xuan J, et al. Gene network signaling in hormone responsiveness modifies apoptosis and autophagy in breast cancer cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;114:8-20 pubmed
    ..Signaling proceeds through BCL2 gene family members and BECN1 ultimately to regulate cell fate. ..
  9. Sakaguchi M, Kataoka K, Abarzua F, Tanimoto R, Watanabe M, Murata H, et al. Overexpression of REIC/Dkk-3 in normal fibroblasts suppresses tumor growth via induction of interleukin-7. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:14236-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Ad-REIC has another arm against human cancer, an indirect host-mediated effect because of overproduction of IL-7 by mis-targeted NHF, in addition to its direct effect on cancer cells. ..
  10. Frontini M, Vijayakumar M, Garvin A, Clarke N. A ChIP-chip approach reveals a novel role for transcription factor IRF1 in the DNA damage response. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:1073-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data provides a more complete understanding of the regulatory networks controlled by IRF1 and reveals a novel role for IRF1 in regulating the ICL DNA damage response. ..
  11. Antonios D, Rousseau P, Larangé A, Kerdine Romer S, Pallardy M. Mechanisms of IL-12 synthesis by human dendritic cells treated with the chemical sensitizer NiSO4. J Immunol. 2010;185:89-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that p38 MAPK, NF-kappaB, and IRF-1 are activated by NiSO(4) in Mo-DC and cooperate for IL-12 production. ..
  12. Matsuzaki S, Ishizuka T, Hisada T, Aoki H, Komachi M, Ichimonji I, et al. Lysophosphatidic acid inhibits CC chemokine ligand 5/RANTES production by blocking IRF-1-mediated gene transcription in human bronchial epithelial cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:4863-72 pubmed publisher
    ..LPA(1) coupled to G(i) and activation of PI3K is required for this unique effect. ..
  13. Bergan V, Kileng y, Sun B, Robertsen B. Regulation and function of interferon regulatory factors of Atlantic salmon. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:2005-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Surprisingly, AsIRF7A and AsIRF7B seemed to have a lesser role in salmon IFNa1 induction, which may indicate that these factors have a larger role in activating other IFN genes or interferon stimulatory genes of Atlantic salmon...
  14. Chatterjee Kishore M, van den Akker F, Stark G. Adenovirus E1A down-regulates LMP2 transcription by interfering with the binding of stat1 to IRF1. J Biol Chem. 2000;275:20406-11 pubmed
    ..E1A interferes with the formation of this complex by occupying domains of Stat1 that bind to IRF1. These results reveal how adenovirus infection attenuates LMP2 expression, thereby interfering with the presentation of viral antigens. ..
  15. Dhillon N, Murphy W, Filla M, Crespo A, Latham H, O Brien Ladner A. Down modulation of IFN-gamma signaling in alveolar macrophages isolated from smokers. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;237:22-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Decreased IFN-gamma signal transduction in AM from smokers may have an important implication regarding the use of therapeutic IFN-gamma in the lungs of patients that develop respiratory disorders as a result of tobacco use...
  16. Pinheiro R, Metze K, Silva M, Chauffaille M. The ambiguous role of interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) immunoexpression in myelodysplastic syndrome. Leuk Res. 2009;33:1308-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Whereas high levels of IRF-1 in myeloid cells are a favorable prognostic factor for overall survival, they increase the probability of the manifestation of autoimmune phenomena, with a diminished quality of life. ..
  17. Yang C, Murti A, Valentine W, Du Z, Pfeffer L. Interferon alpha activates NF-kappaB in JAK1-deficient cells through a TYK2-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:25849-53 pubmed
    ..In the IFN signaling pathway leading to STAT activation, both JAK1 and TYK2 are essential, whereas NF-kappaB activation requires only TYK2. ..
  18. la Sala A, He J, Laricchia Robbio L, Gorini S, Iwasaki A, Braun M, et al. Cholera toxin inhibits IL-12 production and CD8alpha+ dendritic cell differentiation by cAMP-mediated inhibition of IRF8 function. J Exp Med. 2009;206:1227-35 pubmed publisher
  19. Madonna S, Scarponi C, Sestito R, Pallotta S, Cavani A, Albanesi C. The IFN-gamma-dependent suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 promoter activity is positively regulated by IFN regulatory factor-1 and Sp1 but repressed by growth factor independence-1b and Krüppel-like factor-4, and it is dysregulated in psoriatic kera. J Immunol. 2010;185:2467-81 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the SOCS1 increased levels in psoriatic keratinocytes are not sufficient to completely inhibit the expression of proinflammatory genes. ..
  20. Shen Y, Xia M, Zhang J, Xu L, Yang J, Chen A, et al. IRF-1 and p65 mediate upregulation of constitutive HLA-A antigen expression by hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:2045-53 pubmed publisher
    ..HLA-A expression in the liver cell lines QGY7701 and BEL7402 was found to be mediated by binding of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) to interferon stimulated response element, and of nuclear transcription factor p65 binding to ..
  21. LE SOUEF P. Gene-environmental interaction in the development of atopic asthma: new developments. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;9:123-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Advances in knowledge of the genetics of viral defence have contributed to improved insight into asthma in children and could lead to effective new antiviral asthma therapies. ..
  22. Zaheer R, Proud D. Human rhinovirus-induced epithelial production of CXCL10 is dependent upon IFN regulatory factor-1. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;43:413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that HRV-16-induced CXCL10 production is dependent upon IRF-1, and that the MEK1 pathway-dependent suppression of CXCL10 expression is also mediated via effects on IRF-1. ..
  23. Li R, Maminishkis A, Banzon T, Wan Q, Jalickee S, Chen S, et al. IFN{gamma} regulates retinal pigment epithelial fluid transport. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;297:C1452-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a protective role for IFNgamma in regulating retinal hydration across the outer blood-retinal barrier in inflammatory disease processes and provide the basis for possible therapeutic interventions. ..
  24. Letourneur M, Valentino L, Travagli Gross J, Bertoglio J, Pierre J. Sp2 regulates interferon-gamma-mediated socs1 gene expression. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:2151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite the absence of Sp2 in the 5'-upstream sequence of the human promoter, silencing of Sp2 by RNA interference clearly demonstrated that Sp2 is required for IFN-gamma-induced regulation of socs1 mRNA both in human and mouse. ..
  25. Matte C, Descoteaux A. Leishmania donovani amastigotes impair gamma interferon-induced STAT1alpha nuclear translocation by blocking the interaction between STAT1alpha and importin-alpha5. Infect Immun. 2010;78:3736-43 pubmed publisher
    ..donovani amastigotes to interfere with IFN-gamma-activated macrophage functions and provide a better understanding of the strategies deployed by this parasite to ensure its intracellular survival. ..
  26. De Marchis M, Ballarino M, Salvatori B, Puzzolo M, Bozzoni I, Fatica A. A new molecular network comprising PU.1, interferon regulatory factor proteins and miR-342 stimulates ATRA-mediated granulocytic differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Leukemia. 2009;23:856-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, we showed that enforced expression of miR-342 in APL cells stimulated ATRA-induced differentiation. These data identified miR-342 as a new player in the granulocytic differentiation program activated by ATRA in APL. ..
  27. Stirnweiss A, Ksienzyk A, Klages K, Rand U, Grashoff M, Hauser H, et al. IFN regulatory factor-1 bypasses IFN-mediated antiviral effects through viperin gene induction. J Immunol. 2010;184:5179-85 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism becomes important when viruses evade innate immunity by antagonizing the induction and function of the IFN system. ..
  28. Gao J, Senthil M, Ren B, Yan J, Xing Q, Yu J, et al. IRF-1 transcriptionally upregulates PUMA, which mediates the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in IRF-1-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Cell Death Differ. 2010;17:699-709 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that IFN-gamma induces IRF-1-mediated upregulation of PUMA in cancer cells. We conclude that IRF-1 can induce apoptosis by the intrinsic pathway independent of the extrinsic pathway by upregulation of PUMA. ..
  29. Gysemans C, Callewaert H, Moore F, Nelson Holte M, Overbergh L, Eizirik D, et al. Interferon regulatory factor-1 is a key transcription factor in murine beta cells under immune attack. Diabetologia. 2009;52:2374-2384 pubmed publisher
    ..These data indicate a key regulatory role for IRF-1 in insulin and chemokine secretion by pancreatic islets under inflammatory attack. ..
  30. Huang Y, Walstrom A, Zhang L, Zhao Y, Cui M, Ye L, et al. Type I interferons and interferon regulatory factors regulate TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) in HIV-1-infected macrophages. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5397 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that IRF-1, IRF-7, type I IFNs, and STAT1 form a signaling feedback loop that is critical in regulating TRAIL expression in HIV-1-infected macrophages. ..
  31. Thanthrige Don N, Read L, Abdul Careem M, Mohammadi H, Mallick A, Sharif S. Marek's disease virus influences the expression of genes associated with IFN-gamma-inducible MHC class II expression. Viral Immunol. 2010;23:227-32 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study shed light on the possible mechanisms by which MDV may evade host immunosurveillance. ..
  32. Fluhr H, Ramp K, Krenzer S, Licht P, Zygmunt M. Inverse regulation of the interferon-gamma receptor and its signaling in human endometrial stromal cells during decidualization. Fertil Steril. 2009;91:2131-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The early embryonic signal hCG has no effect on this process. This mechanism may finely modulate the reactivity of ESCs to IFN-gamma-mediated signals from immune cells at the implantation site. ..
  33. Lee S, Qin H, Benveniste E. The IFN-gamma-induced transcriptional program of the CIITA gene is inhibited by statins. Eur J Immunol. 2008;38:2325-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The recruitment of USF-1 to CIITA pIV is also reduced by statins, as is the recruitment of RNA polymerase II (Pol II), p300 and Brg-1. These data indicate that statins inhibit the transcriptional program of the CIITA gene. ..
  34. Yamashita M, Toyota M, Suzuki H, Nojima M, Yamamoto E, Kamimae S, et al. DNA methylation of interferon regulatory factors in gastric cancer and noncancerous gastric mucosae. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:1708-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that epigenetic IRF inactivation plays a key role in tumorigenesis of gastric cancer, and that inhibition of DNA methylation may restore the antitumor activity of interferons through up-regulation of IRFs. ..
  35. Koetzler R, Zaheer R, Newton R, Proud D. Nitric oxide inhibits IFN regulatory factor 1 and nuclear factor-kappaB pathways in rhinovirus-infected epithelial cells. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124:551-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the ability of HRV-16 to induce epithelial expression of IRF-1 is dependent, at least in part, on viral activation of NF-kappaB. ..
  36. Castaldello A, Sgarbanti M, Marsili G, Brocca Cofano E, Remoli A, Caputo A, et al. Interferon regulatory factor-1 acts as a powerful adjuvant in tat DNA based vaccination. J Cell Physiol. 2010;224:702-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings define IRF-1 and its mutated form as efficacious T helper 1-inducing adjuvants in the context of tat-based vaccination and also providing a new promising candidate for genetic vaccine development...
  37. Lee J, Park S, Kim O, Lee C, Woo J, Park S, et al. Differential SUMOylation of LXRalpha and LXRbeta mediates transrepression of STAT1 inflammatory signaling in IFN-gamma-stimulated brain astrocytes. Mol Cell. 2009;35:806-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our data show that SUMOylation is required for the suppression of STAT1-dependent inflammatory responses by LXRs in IFN-gamma-stimulated brain astrocytes. ..
  38. Lou Y, Pan X, Jia P, Li D, Xiao S, Zhang Z, et al. IRF-9/STAT2 [corrected] functional interaction drives retinoic acid-induced gene G expression independently of STAT1. Cancer Res. 2009;69:3673-80 pubmed publisher
  39. Machida K, Tsukiyama Kohara K, Sekiguch S, Seike E, Tone S, Hayashi Y, et al. Hepatitis C virus and disrupted interferon signaling promote lymphoproliferation via type II CD95 and interleukins. Gastroenterology. 2009;137:285-96, 296.e1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This mouse model, in which HCV expression and disruption of IFN signaling synergize to promote lymphoproliferation, will be an important tool for the development of therapeutic agents that target the lymphoproliferative pathway. ..
  40. Lazzerini G, Del Turco S, Basta G, O Loghlen A, Zampolli A, Caterina R. Prominent role of NF-kappaB in the induction of endothelial activation by endogenous nitric oxide inhibition. Nitric Oxide. 2009;21:184-91 pubmed publisher
  41. Cavalli L, Riggins R, Wang A, Clarke R, Haddad B. Frequent loss of heterozygosity at the interferon regulatory factor-1 gene locus in breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2010;121:227-31 pubmed publisher
    ..00; P = 0.003; n = 273 cases) and risk of death (OR = 4.18; P = 0.004; n = 191 cases). Our findings strongly imply a tumor suppressor role for the IRF1 gene in breast cancer. ..
  42. Bhandare R, Damera G, Banerjee A, Flammer J, Keslacy S, Rogatsky I, et al. Glucocorticoid receptor interacting protein-1 restores glucocorticoid responsiveness in steroid-resistant airway structural cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010;42:9-15 pubmed publisher
  43. Parajuli N, Doppler W. Precision-cut slice cultures of tumors from MMTV-neu mice for the study of the ex vivo response to cytokines and cytotoxic drugs. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2009;45:442-50 pubmed publisher
  44. Son Y, Ahn S, Kim G, Moon Y, Kim S, Park Y, et al. Resistin enhances the expansion of regulatory T cells through modulation of dendritic cells. BMC Immunol. 2010;11:33 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, FoxP3 expression is increased in CD4+ T cells when co-cultured with DCs and concomitantly treated with resistin. Our results suggest that resistin induces expansion of functional Tregs only when co-cultured with DCs. ..
  45. Zeimet A, Reimer D, Schwentner L, Fuchs D, Wolf D, Fuith L, et al. Urinary neopterin does not reflect the local antitumor immune milieu in ovarian cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 2010;59:1813-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that in ovarian carcinomas the unspecific "cancer-related inflammation" contributes to a significant subversion of the adaptive antitumor immune defense mounted at the tumor site. ..
  46. Bauvois B, Nguyen J, Tang R, Billard C, Kolb J. Types I and II interferons upregulate the costimulatory CD80 molecule in monocytes via interferon regulatory factor-1. Biochem Pharmacol. 2009;78:514-22 pubmed publisher
  47. Guo M, Mao X, Ji Q, Lang M, Li S, Peng Y, et al. Inhibition of IFN regulatory factor-1 down-regulate Th1 cell function in patients with acute coronary syndrome. J Clin Immunol. 2010;30:241-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The present data demonstrate that inhibition of IRF-1 obviously decrease the function of Th1 cells and may be a novel participator in the progress of ACS. ..
  48. Hama N, Yanagisawa Y, Dono K, Kobayashi S, Marubashi S, Nagano H, et al. Gene expression profiling of acute cellular rejection in rat liver transplantation using DNA microarrays. Liver Transpl. 2009;15:509-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Two interferon-gamma inducible genes, interferon regulatory factor 1 and guanylate nucleotide binding protein 2, were overexpressed in both the peripheral leukocytes and ..
  49. Zekri A, Moharram R, Mohamed W, Bahnassy A, Alam El Din H, Abo Shadi M, et al. Disease progression from chronic hepatitis C to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma is associated with repression of interferon regulatory factor-1. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2010;22:450-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, IRF-1 could be nominated as one of the tumor suppressor factors and could aid in the early detection of HCC. ..
  50. Arakaki R, Nagaoka A, Ishimaru N, Yamada A, Yoshida S, Hayashi Y. Role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells for aberrant class II expression in exocrine glands from estrogen-deficient mice of healthy background. Am J Pathol. 2009;174:1715-24 pubmed publisher
  51. Romieu Mourez R, Francois M, Boivin M, Bouchentouf M, Spaner D, Galipeau J. Cytokine modulation of TLR expression and activation in mesenchymal stromal cells leads to a proinflammatory phenotype. J Immunol. 2009;182:7963-73 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, IFN priming combined with TLR activation may increase immune responses induced by Ag-presenting MSC through presentation of Ag in an inflammatory context, a mechanism that could be applied in a cell-based vaccine. ..