activating transcription factor 3


Summary: An activating transcription factor that plays a key role in cellular responses to GENOTOXIC STRESS and OXIDATIVE STRESS.

Top Publications

  1. Khasabova I, Khasabov S, Paz J, Harding Rose C, Simone D, Seybold V. Cannabinoid type-1 receptor reduces pain and neurotoxicity produced by chemotherapy. J Neurosci. 2012;32:7091-101 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results suggest that pharmacological facilitation of AEA signaling is a promising strategy for attenuating cisplatin-associated sensory neuropathy...
  2. Liu B, Lin G, Willingham E, Ning H, Lin C, Lue T, et al. Estradiol upregulates activating transcription factor 3, a candidate gene in the etiology of hypospadias. Pediatr Dev Pathol. 2007;10:446-54 pubmed
    ..Expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is elevated in human foreskin tissue from hypospadic patients, and in utero exposure to ..
  3. Turchi L, Aberdam E, Mazure N, Pouyssegur J, Deckert M, Kitajima S, et al. Hif-2alpha mediates UV-induced apoptosis through a novel ATF3-dependent death pathway. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:1472-80 pubmed publisher
    In this study, we describe a novel activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3)-dependent death pathway triggered by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation...
  4. Fernandes K, Harder J, Kim J, Libby R. JUN regulates early transcriptional responses to axonal injury in retinal ganglion cells. Exp Eye Res. 2013;112:106-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, JUN appears to play a multifaceted role in regulating RGC response to axonal injury. ..
  5. Stenberg L, Kanje M, Dolezal K, Dahlin L. Expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF 3) and caspase 3 in Schwann cells and axonal outgrowth after sciatic nerve repair in diabetic BB rats. Neurosci Lett. 2012;515:34-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to evaluate nerve regeneration in relation to the transcription factor, Activating Transcription Factor 3 (ATF 3), and an apoptotic marker, caspase 3, in the Schwann cells of diabetic BB rats (i.e...
  6. Tanaka Y, Nakamura A, Morioka M, Inoue S, Tamamori Adachi M, Yamada K, et al. Systems analysis of ATF3 in stress response and cancer reveals opposing effects on pro-apoptotic genes in p53 pathway. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e26848 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is induced by a variety of stress and inflammatory conditions and is over-expressed in many ..
  7. Maciag A, Nandurdikar R, Hong S, Chakrapani H, Diwan B, Morris N, et al. Activation of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) pathway characterizes effective arylated diazeniumdiolate-based nitric oxide-releasing anticancer prodrugs. J Med Chem. 2011;54:7751-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that rate of reactivity with glutathione and activation of JNK/ATF3 are determinants of cancer cell killing by these prodrugs. ..
  8. Zmuda E, Qi L, Zhu M, Mirmira R, Montminy M, Hai T. The roles of ATF3, an adaptive-response gene, in high-fat-diet-induced diabetes and pancreatic beta-cell dysfunction. Mol Endocrinol. 2010;24:1423-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results support a model in which, before apoptosis becomes obvious, expression of ATF3 can be beneficial by helping beta-cells to cope with higher metabolic demand. ..
  9. Qi L, Saberi M, Zmuda E, Wang Y, Altarejos J, Zhang X, et al. Adipocyte CREB promotes insulin resistance in obesity. Cell Metab. 2009;9:277-86 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that adipocyte CREB provides an early signal in the progression to type 2 diabetes. ..

More Information


  1. Nakagomi S, Suzuki Y, Namikawa K, Kiryu Seo S, Kiyama H. Expression of the activating transcription factor 3 prevents c-Jun N-terminal kinase-induced neuronal death by promoting heat shock protein 27 expression and Akt activation. J Neurosci. 2003;23:5187-96 pubmed
    b>Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is induced and functions both as a cellular response to stress and to stimulate proliferation in multiple tissues. However, in the nervous system ATF3 is expressed only in injured neurons...
  2. Taketani K, Kawauchi J, Tanaka Okamoto M, Ishizaki H, Tanaka Y, Sakai T, et al. Key role of ATF3 in p53-dependent DR5 induction upon DNA damage of human colon cancer cells. Oncogene. 2012;31:2210-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results provide a novel insight into the role of ATF3 as an essential co-transcription factor for p53 upon DNA damage, and this may represent a useful biomarker for TRAIL-based anticancer therapy. ..
  3. Gao M, Tang T, Guo T, Sun S, Feramisco J, Hammond H. Adenylyl cyclase type VI gene transfer reduces phospholamban expression in cardiac myocytes via activating transcription factor 3. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:38797-802 pubmed
    ..These findings indicate that AC(VI) has effects on gene transcription that are not directly dependent on cAMP generation. ..
  4. Isacsson A, Kanje M, Dahlin L. Induction of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) by peripheral nerve compression. Scand J Plast Reconstr Surg Hand Surg. 2005;39:65-72 pubmed
    Nuclear translocation of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), used as a marker for neuronal injury, was studied by immunocytochemistry in sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia and locally along the sciatic nerve after severe ..
  5. Vlug A, Teuling E, Haasdijk E, French P, Hoogenraad C, Jaarsma D. ATF3 expression precedes death of spinal motoneurons in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-SOD1 transgenic mice and correlates with c-Jun phosphorylation, CHOP expression, somato-dendritic ubiquitination and Golgi fragmentation. Eur J Neurosci. 2005;22:1881-94 pubmed
  6. Liu B, Wang Z, Lin G, Agras K, Ebbers M, Willingham E, et al. Activating transcription factor 3 is up-regulated in patients with hypospadias. Pediatr Res. 2005;58:1280-3 pubmed
    ..Genomic analysis of hypospadic tissue indicated a potential role for activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in the development of this anomaly...
  7. Hasin T, Elhanani O, Abassi Z, Hai T, Aronheim A. Angiotensin II signaling up-regulates the immediate early transcription factor ATF3 in the left but not the right atrium. Basic Res Cardiol. 2011;106:175-87 pubmed publisher
  8. Lv D, Meng D, Zou F, Fan L, Zhang P, Yu Y, et al. Activating transcription factor 3 regulates survivability and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells. IUBMB Life. 2011;63:62-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the ATF/CREB (CAMP responsive element binding protein) family of transcription factors...
  9. Cho K, Sukhthankar M, Lee S, Yoon J, Baek S. Green tea catechin (-)-epicatechin gallate induces tumour suppressor protein ATF3 via EGR-1 activation. Eur J Cancer. 2007;43:2404-12 pubmed
    ..We previously reported that ECG induces activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), which is involved in pro-apoptosis in HCT-116 cells...
  10. Hashimoto Y, Zhang C, Kawauchi J, Imoto I, Adachi M, Inazawa J, et al. An alternatively spliced isoform of transcriptional repressor ATF3 and its induction by stress stimuli. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002;30:2398-406 pubmed
    b>Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors and its expression is increased by various pathophysiological conditions and in several cancer cells...
  11. Turchi L, Fareh M, Aberdam E, Kitajima S, Simpson F, Wicking C, et al. ATF3 and p15PAF are novel gatekeepers of genomic integrity upon UV stress. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:728-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that repression of the transcription factor, activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), after ultraviolet (UV)-mediated genotoxic stress impairs the DNA repair process...
  12. Akram A, Han B, Masoom H, Peng C, Lam E, Litvack M, et al. Activating transcription factor 3 confers protection against ventilator-induced lung injury. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010;182:489-500 pubmed publisher
    ..significant enrichment for genes containing putative binding sites for the transcription factor activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3)...
  13. Young B, Girard B, Parsons R. Neurturin suppresses injury-induced neuronal activating transcription factor 3 expression in cultured guinea pig cardiac ganglia. J Comp Neurol. 2008;508:795-805 pubmed publisher
    ..ganglia were used as an in vitro model to investigate the induction of the stress/injury marker activating transcription factor 3 (ATF-3). ATF-3 expression was quantified by using immunocytochemical labeling and real-time PCR...
  14. Hyatt Sachs H, Schreiber R, Shoemaker S, Sabe A, Reed E, Zigmond R. Activating transcription factor 3 induction in sympathetic neurons after axotomy: response to decreased neurotrophin availability. Neuroscience. 2007;150:887-97 pubmed
    b>Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is induced in a high proportion of axotomized sensory and motor neurons after sciatic nerve transection...
  15. Gilchrist M, Thorsson V, Li B, Rust A, Korb M, Roach J, et al. Systems biology approaches identify ATF3 as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor 4. Nature. 2006;441:173-8 pubmed
    ..TLR)-activated macrophages to identify a prominent group of genes that appear to be regulated by activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of the CREB/ATF family of transcription factors...
  16. Janz M, Hummel M, Truss M, Wollert Wulf B, Mathas S, Johrens K, et al. Classical Hodgkin lymphoma is characterized by high constitutive expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), which promotes viability of Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells. Blood. 2006;107:2536-9 pubmed
    ..We performed microarray analysis of Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin cell lines and identified activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB)/ATF family, as a ..
  17. Lopez A, Wang C, Huang C, Yaman I, Li Y, Chakravarty K, et al. A feedback transcriptional mechanism controls the level of the arginine/lysine transporter cat-1 during amino acid starvation. Biochem J. 2007;402:163-73 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the transient increase in cat-1 transcription is due to transcriptional activation caused by ATF4 followed by transcriptional repression by ATF3 via a feedback mechanism. ..
  18. Yin X, Wolford C, Chang Y, McConoughey S, Ramsey S, Aderem A, et al. ATF3, an adaptive-response gene, enhances TGF{beta} signaling and cancer-initiating cell features in breast cancer cells. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:3558-65 pubmed publisher
    The activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) gene is induced by a variety of signals, including many of those encountered by cancer cells...
  19. Kuroda J, Yamamoto M, Nagoshi H, Kobayashi T, Sasaki N, Shimura Y, et al. Targeting activating transcription factor 3 by Galectin-9 induces apoptosis and overcomes various types of treatment resistance in chronic myelogenous leukemia. Mol Cancer Res. 2010;8:994-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..5 to 164.9 nmol/L. Our study revealed that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of the ATF/cAMP-responsive element binding protein family transcription factors, is ..
  20. Wang J, Cao Y, Steiner D. Regulation of proglucagon transcription by activated transcription factor (ATF) 3 and a novel isoform, ATF3b, through the cAMP-response element/ATF site of the proglucagon gene promoter. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:32899-904 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate the existence of a novel mechanism by which the transcription of the proglucagon gene is regulated in response to cAMP signals, in addition to CREB and in relation to glucose fluctuations in pancreatic alpha cells. ..
  21. Hua B, Tamamori Adachi M, Luo Y, Tamura K, Morioka M, Fukuda M, et al. A splice variant of stress response gene ATF3 counteracts NF-kappaB-dependent anti-apoptosis through inhibiting recruitment of CREB-binding protein/p300 coactivator. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:1620-9 pubmed
  22. Neve L, Savage A, Koke J, Garcia D. Activating transcription factor 3 and reactive astrocytes following optic nerve injury in zebrafish. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2012;155:213-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In previous work, we have shown that activating transcription factor 3 (atf3) is expressed at higher levels following optic nerve injury...
  23. Filén S, Ylikoski E, Tripathi S, West A, Bjorkman M, Nyström J, et al. Activating transcription factor 3 is a positive regulator of human IFNG gene expression. J Immunol. 2010;184:4990-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data indicate that ATF3 promotes human Th1 differentiation. ..
  24. Mungrue I, Pagnon J, Kohannim O, Gargalovic P, Lusis A. CHAC1/MGC4504 is a novel proapoptotic component of the unfolded protein response, downstream of the ATF4-ATF3-CHOP cascade. J Immunol. 2009;182:466-76 pubmed
  25. Whitlock N, Bahn J, Lee S, Eling T, Baek S. Resveratrol-induced apoptosis is mediated by early growth response-1, Krüppel-like factor 4, and activating transcription factor 3. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011;4:116-27 pubmed publisher
    ..effect of resveratrol treatment on gene modulation in human colorectal cancer cells and identified activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) as the most highly induced gene after treatment...
  26. Yan L, Della Coletta L, Powell K, Shen J, Thames H, Aldaz C, et al. Activation of the canonical Wnt/?-catenin pathway in ATF3-induced mammary tumors. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16515 pubmed publisher
    ..By chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis, both ATF3 and JUN proteins appear to bind to a particular subclass of AP-1 sites upstream of the transcriptional start sites of each of these genes. ..
  27. Chen H, Wang D. Nitric oxide inhibits matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression via the induction of activating transcription factor 3 in endothelial cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;65:1130-40 pubmed
    ..b>Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) has been reported to act as a transcriptional repressor for p53...
  28. Oh Y, Lee H, Jeong M, Rhee M, Mo J, Song E, et al. Role of activating transcription factor 3 on TAp73 stability and apoptosis in paclitaxel-treated cervical cancer cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2008;6:1232-49 pubmed publisher
    ..In wild-type activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3)-overexpressed cells, paclitaxel enhanced apoptosis through increased alpha and beta isoform ..
  29. Hai T, Wolfgang C, Marsee D, Allen A, Sivaprasad U. ATF3 and stress responses. Gene Expr. 1999;7:321-35 pubmed
    ..Even less is understood about the physiological significance of inducing ATF3. We will discuss our preliminary results and some reports by other investigators in this regard. ..
  30. Hamdi M, Popeijus H, Carlotti F, Janssen J, van der Burgt C, Cornelissen Steijger P, et al. ATF3 and Fra1 have opposite functions in JNK- and ERK-dependent DNA damage responses. DNA Repair (Amst). 2008;7:487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we identify novel reciprocal functions of ATF3 and Fra1 in JNK- and ERK-dependent DNA damage responses. ..
  31. Hunt D, Hossain Ibrahim K, Mason M, Coffin R, Lieberman A, Winterbottom J, et al. ATF3 upregulation in glia during Wallerian degeneration: differential expression in peripheral nerves and CNS white matter. BMC Neurosci. 2004;5:9 pubmed
    ..The absence of the ATF3 and c-Jun from CNS glia during Wallerian degeneration may limit their ability to support regeneration. ..
  32. Wang L, Deng S, Lu Y, Zhang Y, Yang L, Guan Y, et al. Increased inflammation and brain injury after transient focal cerebral ischemia in activating transcription factor 3 knockout mice. Neuroscience. 2012;220:100-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-induced transcription factor that has been shown to repress inflammatory gene expression in multiple cell types and diseases...
  33. Suganami T, Yuan X, Shimoda Y, Uchio Yamada K, Nakagawa N, Shirakawa I, et al. Activating transcription factor 3 constitutes a negative feedback mechanism that attenuates saturated Fatty acid/toll-like receptor 4 signaling and macrophage activation in obese adipose tissue. Circ Res. 2009;105:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data also suggest that activation of ATF3 in macrophages offers a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent or treat obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation. ..
  34. Jiang X, Zhang J, Xia M, Qiu W, Wang H, Zhao D, et al. Role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in sublytic C5b-9-induced glomerular mesangial cell apoptosis. Cell Mol Immunol. 2010;7:143-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) gene is an immediate early gene for the cell to cope with a variety of stress signals and can ..
  35. Nawa T, Nawa M, Adachi M, Uchimura I, Shimokawa R, Fujisawa K, et al. Expression of transcriptional repressor ATF3/LRF1 in human atherosclerosis: colocalization and possible involvement in cell death of vascular endothelial cells. Atherosclerosis. 2002;161:281-91 pubmed
    ..b>Activating transcription factor 3/liver regenerating factor-1 (ATF3/LRF-1), a stress-inducible transcriptional repressor, was shown to ..
  36. Brown S, Sekhar K, Rachakonda G, Sasi S, Freeman M. Activating transcription factor 3 is a novel repressor of the nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated stress pathway. Cancer Res. 2008;68:364-8 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) can repress Nrf2-mediated signaling in a manner that is not well understood...
  37. Allen Jennings A, Hartman M, Kociba G, Hai T. The roles of ATF3 in liver dysfunction and the regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:20020-5 pubmed
    b>Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a member of the ATF/cAMP-responsive element-binding protein family of transcription factors, is a transcriptional repressor, and the expression of its corresponding gene, ATF3, is induced by many ..
  38. Li D, Yin X, Zmuda E, Wolford C, Dong X, White M, et al. The repression of IRS2 gene by ATF3, a stress-inducible gene, contributes to pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis. Diabetes. 2008;57:635-44 pubmed
    ..We tested the hypothesis that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a stress-inducible proapoptotic gene, downregulates the expression of IRS2 in beta-cells...
  39. Pan Y, Chen H, Thiaville M, Kilberg M. Activation of the ATF3 gene through a co-ordinated amino acid-sensing response programme that controls transcriptional regulation of responsive genes following amino acid limitation. Biochem J. 2007;401:299-307 pubmed
    Expression of ATF3 (activating transcription factor 3) is induced by a variety of environmental stress conditions, including nutrient limitation...
  40. Xu K, Zhou Y, Qiu W, Liu X, Xia M, Liu L, et al. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) promotes sublytic C5b-9-induced glomerular mesangial cells apoptosis through up-regulation of Gadd45? and KLF6 gene expression. Immunobiology. 2011;216:871-81 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is an immediate early gene for cells to cope with a variety of stress signals, and our ..
  41. Pan Y, Chen H, Siu F, Kilberg M. Amino acid deprivation and endoplasmic reticulum stress induce expression of multiple activating transcription factor-3 mRNA species that, when overexpressed in HepG2 cells, modulate transcription by the human asparagine synthetase promoter. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:38402-12 pubmed
    ..Collectively, the results provide evidence for a potential role of multiple predicted ATF3 isoforms in the transcriptional regulation of the ASNS gene in response to nutrient deprivation. ..
  42. Nobori K, Ito H, Tamamori Adachi M, Adachi S, Ono Y, Kawauchi J, et al. ATF3 inhibits doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in cardiac myocytes: a novel cardioprotective role of ATF3. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2002;34:1387-97 pubmed
    ..ATF3 may be a novel therapeutic target that protects cardiac myocytes from DOX-induced apoptosis. ..
  43. Lee S, Yamaguchi K, Kim J, Eling T, Safe S, Park Y, et al. Conjugated linoleic acid stimulates an anti-tumorigenic protein NAG-1 in an isomer specific manner. Carcinogenesis. 2006;27:972-81 pubmed
    ..Microarray analysis using t10,c12-CLA-treated HCT-116 cells revealed that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) was induced and its expression was confirmed by western analysis...
  44. Okamoto A, Iwamoto Y, Maru Y. Oxidative stress-responsive transcription factor ATF3 potentially mediates diabetic angiopathy. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:1087-97 pubmed
    ..Given the proposed hypothesis of the close linkage between diabetic angiopathy and ROS, those data suggest that ROS-associated diabetic complication may involve ATF3-mediated pathological angiogenesis. ..
  45. Wang A, Arantes S, Conti C, McArthur M, Aldaz C, MacLeod M. Epidermal hyperplasia and oral carcinoma in mice overexpressing the transcription factor ATF3 in basal epithelial cells. Mol Carcinog. 2007;46:476-87 pubmed
    ..This represents the first indication that ATF3 may have oncogenic properties in epithelial cells. ..
  46. Pearson A, Gray C, Pearson J, Greenwood J, During M, Dragunow M. ATF3 enhances c-Jun-mediated neurite sprouting. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;120:38-45 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that a program of axonal regeneration is initiated when both c-Jun and ATF3 are upregulated in neurons in response to axotomy. ..
  47. Rynes J, Donohoe C, Frommolt P, Brodesser S, Jindra M, Uhlirova M. Activating transcription factor 3 regulates immune and metabolic homeostasis. Mol Cell Biol. 2012;32:3949-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we show that the Drosophila melanogaster activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) safeguards metabolic and immune system homeostasis...
  48. Seimon T, Kim M, Blumenthal A, Koo J, Ehrt S, Wainwright H, et al. Induction of ER stress in macrophages of tuberculosis granulomas. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12772 pubmed publisher
    ..inositol-requiring enzyme 1 alpha (Ire1?) and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2?), and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) are expressed in macrophage-rich areas of granulomas in lungs of mice infected with virulent ..
  49. Zmuda E, Viapiano M, Grey S, Hadley G, Garcia Ocana A, Hai T. Deficiency of Atf3, an adaptive-response gene, protects islets and ameliorates inflammation in a syngeneic mouse transplantation model. Diabetologia. 2010;53:1438-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The goal of this study was to test whether the gene encoding activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), a stress-inducible pro-apoptotic gene, plays a role in graft rejection in islet ..
  50. Wang A, Arantes S, Yan L, Kiguchi K, McArthur M, Sahin A, et al. The transcription factor ATF3 acts as an oncogene in mouse mammary tumorigenesis. BMC Cancer. 2008;8:268 pubmed publisher
    ..A subset of human breast tumors expresses high levels of ATF3, suggesting that ATF3 may play an oncogenic role in human breast tumorigenesis, and therefore may be useful as either a biomarker or therapeutic target. ..
  51. Yan C, Wang H, Boyd D. ATF3 represses 72-kDa type IV collagenase (MMP-2) expression by antagonizing p53-dependent trans-activation of the collagenase promoter. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:10804-12 pubmed
    ..Thus, ATF3 represses MMP-2 expression by decreasing the trans-activation of this gene by p53. ..
  52. Hackl C, Lang S, Moser C, Mori A, Fichtner Feigl S, Hellerbrand C, et al. Activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) functions as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer and is up-regulated upon heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibition. BMC Cancer. 2010;10:668 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering that blocking Hsp90 induces ATF3 expression, Hsp90 inhibition may represent a valid strategy to treat metastatic colon cancer by up-regulating this anti-metastatic transcription factor. ..
  53. Kamioka M, Imamura J, Komatsu N, Daibata M, Sugiura T. Testican 3 expression in adult T-cell leukemia. Leuk Res. 2009;33:913-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, Testican 3 is a novel regulator to reduce the activity of MMP in ATL. ..