activating transcription factor 1


Summary: An activating transcription factor that regulates expression of a variety of genes including C-JUN GENES and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA2.

Top Publications

  1. Pongubala J, Atchison M. Activating transcription factor 1 and cyclic AMP response element modulator can modulate the activity of the immunoglobulin kappa 3' enhancer. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:10304-13 pubmed
    ..1. The isolation of activator and repressor proteins that bind to the kappa E3'-CRE may relate to previous conflicting results concerning the role of the cAMP signal transduction pathway in kappa gene transcription. ..
  2. Steiner W, Schreckhise R, Smith G. Meiotic DNA breaks at the S. pombe recombination hot spot M26. Mol Cell. 2002;9:847-55 pubmed
    ..Break frequency is strongly correlated with recombination frequency for these alleles. The occurrence of breaks at M26 suggests mechanistic similarities to hot spots in the distantly related yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ..
  3. Shanware N, Zhan L, Hutchinson J, Kim S, Williams L, Tibbetts R. Conserved and distinct modes of CREB/ATF transcription factor regulation by PP2A/B56gamma and genotoxic stress. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e12173 pubmed publisher
    b>Activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) and the closely related proteins CREB (cyclic AMP resonse element binding protein) and CREM (cyclic AMP response element modulator) constitute a subfamily of bZIP transcription factors that play ..
  4. Davidson M, Shandilya H, Hirota K, Ohta K, Wahls W. Atf1-Pcr1-M26 complex links stress-activated MAPK and cAMP-dependent protein kinase pathways via chromatin remodeling of cgs2+. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:50857-63 pubmed
    ..We also show that the Atf1-Pcr1-M26 complex functions as both an inducer and repressor of chromatin remodeling, which provides a way for various chromatin remodeling-dependent effector functions to be regulated. ..
  5. Ohmiya R, Kato C, Yamada H, Aiba H, Mizuno T. Isolation of multicopy suppressors of the calcium sensitivity of a mutant lacking the bZIP transcription factor Atf1 in fission yeast. Mol Gen Genet. 1999;261:297-306 pubmed
    ..These factors were characterized further, in comparison to Atf1, with special reference to the Sty1 MAPK signaling pathway. ..
  6. Gao J, Davidson M, Wahls W. Distinct regions of ATF/CREB proteins Atf1 and Pcr1 control recombination hotspot ade6-M26 and the osmotic stress response. Nucleic Acids Res. 2008;36:2838-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal the functional organization of Atf1 and Pcr1, and illustrate several mechanisms by which bZIP proteins can regulate multiple, seemingly disparate activities...
  7. Takeda T, Toda T, Kominami K, Kohnosu A, Yanagida M, Jones N. Schizosaccharomyces pombe atf1+ encodes a transcription factor required for sexual development and entry into stationary phase. EMBO J. 1995;14:6193-208 pubmed
    ..Thus Atf1 is a transcription factor that plays an important role in the response of cells to adverse environmental conditions, which is to exit the mitotic cell cycle and either sexually differentiate or enter a resting state. ..
  8. Shimomura A, Ogawa Y, Kitani T, Fujisawa H, Hagiwara M. Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II potentiates transcriptional activation through activating transcription factor 1 but not cAMP response element-binding protein. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:17957-60 pubmed
    b>Activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) and the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) are members of the CREB/ATF family implicated in cAMP- and calcium-induced transcriptional activation...
  9. Shiozaki K, Russell P. Conjugation, meiosis, and the osmotic stress response are regulated by Spc1 kinase through Atf1 transcription factor in fission yeast. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2276-88 pubmed
    ..However, unlike spc1- mutants, atf1- cells have no mitotic cell-cycle defect, indicating that the stress response pathway bifurcates at Spc1 to regulate independently meiosis and mitosis. ..

More Information


  1. Quinn J, Findlay V, Dawson K, Millar J, Jones N, Morgan B, et al. Distinct regulatory proteins control the graded transcriptional response to increasing H(2)O(2) levels in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Biol Cell. 2002;13:805-16 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that S. pombe uses a combination of stress-responsive regulatory proteins to gauge and effect the appropriate transcriptional response to increasing concentrations of H(2)O(2). ..
  2. Soto T, Beltrán F, Paredes V, Madrid M, Millar J, Vicente Soler J, et al. Cold induces stress-activated protein kinase-mediated response in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:5056-65 pubmed
  3. Buck V, Quinn J, Soto Pino T, Martin H, Saldanha J, Makino K, et al. Peroxide sensors for the fission yeast stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Mol Biol Cell. 2001;12:407-19 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the transcriptional response to free radical attack is initiated by at least two distinct phospho-relay pathways in fission yeast. ..
  4. Gaits F, Degols G, Shiozaki K, Russell P. Phosphorylation and association with the transcription factor Atf1 regulate localization of Spc1/Sty1 stress-activated kinase in fission yeast. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1464-73 pubmed
    ..Nuclear localization of Atf1 requires Pcr1, a heterodimerization partner of Atf1. These studies show that phosphorylation and association with Atf1 are required for nuclear localization of Spc1. ..
  5. Kon N, Krawchuk M, Warren B, Smith G, Wahls W. Transcription factor Mts1/Mts2 (Atf1/Pcr1, Gad7/Pcr1) activates the M26 meiotic recombination hotspot in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:13765-70 pubmed
    ..pombe genome, suggesting that these factors help regulate the timing and distribution of homologous recombination. ..
  6. Kanoh J, Watanabe Y, Ohsugi M, Iino Y, Yamamoto M. Schizosaccharomyces pombe gad7+ encodes a phosphoprotein with a bZIP domain, which is required for proper G1 arrest and gene expression under nitrogen starvation. Genes Cells. 1996;1:391-408 pubmed
    ..Gad7 is a phosphoprotein, whose activity may be regulated by protein kinases including the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Pka1) and Wis1 osmosensory MAP kinase kinase. ..
  7. Eshaghi M, Lee J, Zhu L, Poon S, Li J, Cho K, et al. Genomic binding profiling of the fission yeast stress-activated MAPK Sty1 and the bZIP transcriptional activator Atf1 in response to H2O2. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e11620 pubmed publisher
  8. Lim C, Cho Y, Hong S, Lim H, Park E. The thioltransferase (glutaredoxin) 1 gene of fission yeast is regulated by Atf1 and Pap1. Mol Cells. 2003;16:123-7 pubmed
    ..Atf1 is required for basal expression of TTase1, and Pap1 is required for its inducible expression by mercuric chloride, diamide and SNAP. The -469 approximately -339 bp region is also responsible for mediating the inducible expression. ..
  9. Yamada T, Mizuno K, Hirota K, Kon N, Wahls W, Hartsuiker E, et al. Roles of histone acetylation and chromatin remodeling factor in a meiotic recombination hotspot. EMBO J. 2004;23:1792-803 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that HATs and ADCRs cooperatively alter local chromatin structure, as in selective transcription activation, to activate meiotic recombination at M26 in a site-specific manner. ..
  10. Jia S, Noma K, Grewal S. RNAi-independent heterochromatin nucleation by the stress-activated ATF/CREB family proteins. Science. 2004;304:1971-6 pubmed
    ..These analyses link ATF/CREB family proteins, involved in cellular response to environmental stresses, to nucleation of constitutive heterochromatin. ..
  11. Sansó M, Gogol M, Ayte J, Seidel C, Hidalgo E. Transcription factors Pcr1 and Atf1 have distinct roles in stress- and Sty1-dependent gene regulation. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:826-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, these analyses show that both proteins have a global repressive effect on stress-dependent and stress-independent genes. ..
  12. Iwasaki K, Hailemariam K, Tsuji Y. PIAS3 interacts with ATF1 and regulates the human ferritin H gene through an antioxidant-responsive element. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:22335-43 pubmed
    ..Here we found that ATF1 (activating transcription factor 1) is a transcriptional repressor of the ferritin H ARE...
  13. Kim H, Choi E, Shin J, Jang Y, Park S. Regulation of Swi6/HP1-dependent heterochromatin assembly by cooperation of components of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and a histone deacetylase Clr6. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:42850-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest a role for the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and histone deacetylase in Swi6-based heterochromatin assembly. ..
  14. Gao J, Davidson M, Wahls W. Phosphorylation-independent regulation of Atf1-promoted meiotic recombination by stress-activated, p38 kinase Spc1 of fission yeast. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5533 pubmed publisher
    ..We also propose new hypotheses on regulatory mechanisms for shared (e.g., DNA binding) and distinct (e.g., osmoregulatory vs. recombinogenic) activities of multifunctional, stress-activated protein Atf1. ..
  15. Nemoto N, Udagawa T, Ohira T, Jiang L, Hirota K, Wilkinson C, et al. The roles of stress-activated Sty1 and Gcn2 kinases and of the protooncoprotein homologue Int6/eIF3e in responses to endogenous oxidative stress during histidine starvation. J Mol Biol. 2010;404:183-201 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Gcn2, Sty1, and Int6/eIF3e are functionally integrated and cooperate to respond to oxidative stress generated during histidine starvation. ..
  16. Huang G, Guo H, Yang F, Liu O, Li B, Liu X, et al. Activating transcription factor 1 is a prognostic marker of colorectal cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2012;13:1053-7 pubmed
    ..This study was to investigate the clinicopathological and prognostic value of activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1) in CRC. Protein expression of ATF1 was detected using immunohistochemistry in 66 CRC tissues...
  17. Al Huseini L, Aw Yeang H, Sethu S, Alhumeed N, Hamdam J, Tingle Y, et al. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2) p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) modulates dendritic cell immune function through regulation of p38 MAPK-cAMP-responsive element binding protein/activating transcription factor 1 signaling. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:22281-8 pubmed publisher
    ..provide evidence for increased phosphorylation of cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1), transcription factors that are downstream of p38 MAPK...
  18. Toone W, Kuge S, Samuels M, Morgan B, Toda T, Jones N. Regulation of the fission yeast transcription factor Pap1 by oxidative stress: requirement for the nuclear export factor Crm1 (Exportin) and the stress-activated MAP kinase Sty1/Spc1. Genes Dev. 1998;12:1453-63 pubmed
    ..This relocalization is the result of regulated protein export, rather than import, and involves the Crm1 (exportin) nuclear export factor and the dcd1+/pim1+ gene that encodes an Ran nucleotide exchange factor. ..
  19. Kon N, Schroeder S, Krawchuk M, Wahls W. Regulation of the Mts1-Mts2-dependent ade6-M26 meiotic recombination hot spot and developmental decisions by the Spc1 mitogen-activated protein kinase of fission yeast. Mol Cell Biol. 1998;18:7575-83 pubmed
    ..Meiotic recombination hot spot function is likely the result of DNA conformational changes imparted by binding of the Mts1-Mts2 meiotic transcription factor. ..
  20. Lawrence C, Jones N, Wilkinson C. Stress-induced phosphorylation of S. pombe Atf1 abrogates its interaction with F box protein Fbh1. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1907-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings represent a novel means of regulating the interaction between an F box protein and its substrate. Moreover, Atf1 is the first target described in any organism for the Fbh1 F box protein. ..
  21. Jin X, O NEILL C. The presence and activation of two essential transcription factors (cAMP response element-binding protein and cAMP-dependent transcription factor ATF1) in the two-cell mouse embryo. Biol Reprod. 2010;82:459-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The study demonstrates a role for trophic signaling and constitutive activation of two essential transcription factors at the time of zygotic genome activation. ..
  22. Degols G, Russell P. Discrete roles of the Spc1 kinase and the Atf1 transcription factor in the UV response of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Cell Biol. 1997;17:3356-63 pubmed
    ..iii) Induction of gene expression by activation of Atf1 may not be the most important mechanism by which stress-activated kinases function in the UV response. ..
  23. Reiter W, Watt S, Dawson K, Lawrence C, Bahler J, Jones N, et al. Fission yeast MAP kinase Sty1 is recruited to stress-induced genes. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:9945-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Consistent with this delay, Sty1 and Atf1 cannot be detected at these promoters in this condition, suggesting that their association with chromatin is weak or transient in the absence of Pcr1. ..
  24. Takada H, Nishimura M, Asayama Y, Mannse Y, Ishiwata S, Kita A, et al. Atf1 is a target of the mitogen-activated protein kinase Pmk1 and regulates cell integrity in fission yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4794-802 pubmed
    ..Together, our results suggest that PP2C is involved in a negative feedback loop of the Pmk1 signaling, and results also demonstrate that Atf1 is a key component of the cell integrity signaling downstream of Pmk1 MAPK. ..
  25. Wahls W, Smith G. A heteromeric protein that binds to a meiotic homologous recombination hot spot: correlation of binding and hot spot activity. Genes Dev. 1994;8:1693-702 pubmed
    ..These and other data suggest that homologous recombination may be regulated primarily by discrete DNA sites and proteins that interact with those sites. ..
  26. Ghoneim C, Soula Rothhut M, Blanchevoye C, Martiny L, Antonicelli F, Rothhut B. Activating transcription factor-1-mediated hepatocyte growth factor-induced down-regulation of thrombospondin-1 expression leads to thyroid cancer cell invasion. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:15490-7 pubmed
  27. Liu K, Cho Y, Yao K, Nadas J, Kim D, Cho E, et al. Eriodictyol inhibits RSK2-ATF1 signaling and suppresses EGF-induced neoplastic cell transformation. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:2057-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results indicate that RSK2-ATF1 signaling plays an important role in neoplastic cell transformation and that eriodictyol is a novel natural compound for suppressing RSK2 kinase activity. ..
  28. Mayr B, Montminy M. Transcriptional regulation by the phosphorylation-dependent factor CREB. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2001;2:599-609 pubmed
    ..CREB is phosphorylated in response to various signals, but how is specificity achieved in these signalling pathways? ..
  29. Madrid M, Soto T, Franco A, Paredes V, Vicente J, Hidalgo E, et al. A cooperative role for Atf1 and Pap1 in the detoxification of the oxidative stress induced by glucose deprivation in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:41594-602 pubmed
    ..Congruent with this interpretation, glucose-depleted cells show higher adaptive response to exogenous oxidative stress than those maintained in the presence of glucose. ..
  30. Bleckmann S, Blendy J, Rudolph D, Monaghan A, Schmid W, Schutz G. Activating transcription factor 1 and CREB are important for cell survival during early mouse development. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:1919-25 pubmed
    b>Activating transcription factor 1 (ATF1), CREB, and the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element modulatory protein (CREM), which constitute a subfamily of the basic leucine zipper transcription factors, activate gene expression by binding as ..
  31. Paredes V, Franco A, Madrid M, Soto T, Vicente Soler J, Gacto M, et al. Transcriptional and post-translational regulation of neutral trehalase in Schizosaccharomyces pombe during thermal stress. Yeast. 2004;21:593-603 pubmed
    ..Unlike what happens under osmostress or oxidative treatments, Sty1p has no role in the post-translational activation of neutral trehalase induced by heat shock in the fission yeast. ..
  32. Boyle J, Johns M, Kampfer T, Nguyen A, Game L, Schaer D, et al. Activating transcription factor 1 directs Mhem atheroprotective macrophages through coordinated iron handling and foam cell protection. Circ Res. 2012;110:20-33 pubmed publisher
    ..When clearing tissue hemorrhage, macrophages are typically seen storing either iron or lipid. We have recently defined hemorrhage-associated macrophages (HA-mac) as a plaque macrophage population that responds adaptively to IPH...
  33. Hirota K, Miyoshi T, Kugou K, Hoffman C, Shibata T, Ohta K. Stepwise chromatin remodelling by a cascade of transcription initiation of non-coding RNAs. Nature. 2008;456:130-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that transcription through the promoter region is required to make DNA sequences accessible to transcriptional activators and to RNAPII. ..
  34. Wilkinson M, Samuels M, Takeda T, Toone W, Shieh J, Toda T, et al. The Atf1 transcription factor is a target for the Sty1 stress-activated MAP kinase pathway in fission yeast. Genes Dev. 1996;10:2289-301 pubmed
    ..These findings highlight a remarkable level of conservation in transcriptional control by stress-activated MAP kinase pathways between fission yeast and mammalian cells. ..
  35. Ciani B, Bjelic S, Honnappa S, Jawhari H, Jaussi R, Payapilly A, et al. Molecular basis of coiled-coil oligomerization-state specificity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19850-5 pubmed publisher
    ..They therefore should have major implications for the rational design of coiled coils and consequently many applications using these popular oligomerization domains. ..
  36. Cox J, Sloan L, Schepartz A. Conformation of Tax-response elements in the human T-cell leukemia virus type I promoter. Chem Biol. 1995;2:819-26 pubmed
    ..Here we employ non-denaturing gel electrophoresis to evaluate TRE conformation in the presence and absence of bZIP proteins, and to explore the role of DNA conformation in viral transactivation...
  37. Woolcock K, Stunnenberg R, Gaidatzis D, Hotz H, Emmerth S, Barraud P, et al. RNAi keeps Atf1-bound stress response genes in check at nuclear pores. Genes Dev. 2012;26:683-92 pubmed publisher
    ..pombe genome and uncovers a novel mode of RNAi regulation in response to an environmental cue. ..
  38. Wiggin G, Soloaga A, Foster J, Murray Tait V, Cohen P, Arthur J. MSK1 and MSK2 are required for the mitogen- and stress-induced phosphorylation of CREB and ATF1 in fibroblasts. Mol Cell Biol. 2002;22:2871-81 pubmed
    ..The transcription of egr1 in response to both mitogenic and stress stimuli, as well as stress-induced apoptosis, was unaffected in the MSK1/MSK2 double knockout. ..
  39. Song S, Kim B, Lim C, Song Y, Park E. Expression of the atf1+ gene is upregulated in fission yeast under nitrosative and nutritional stresses. Can J Microbiol. 2009;55:1323-7 pubmed publisher
    ..pombe Pap1-positive cells. Taken together, the S. pombe atf1+ gene is upregulated by nitrosative and nutritional stresses on a transcriptional level, possibly via the mediation of Pap1. ..
  40. Goldstein B, Scalia R, Ma X, Mahadev K, Wu X, Ouedraogo R. Comment on: Hattori et al. (2007) Globular adiponectin activates nuclear factor-kappaB and activating protein-1 and enhances angiotensin II-induced proliferation in cardiac fibroblasts: Diabetes 56:804-808. Diabetes. 2007;56:e7-8; author reply e9-10 pubmed
  41. Leslie M, Bar Eli M. Regulation of gene expression in melanoma: new approaches for treatment. J Cell Biochem. 2005;94:25-38 pubmed
  42. Sandvej K, Andresen B, Zhou X, Gregersen N, Hamilton Dutoit S. Analysis of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) gene and promoter in Hodgkin's disease isolates: selection against EBV variants with mutations in the LMP-1 promoter ATF-1/CREB-1 binding site. Mol Pathol. 2000;53:280-8 pubmed
    ..Many EBV isolates contain functionally important mutations in the LMP-1 gene. Loss of the Xho-I restriction site should not be used as a marker of specific LMP-1 variants. ..
  43. Dietze R, Konrad L, Shihan M, Kirch U, Scheiner Bobis G. Cardiac glycoside ouabain induces activation of ATF-1 and StAR expression by interacting with the ?4 isoform of the sodium pump in Sertoli cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1833:511-9 pubmed publisher that the ouabain-induced signaling cascade also leads to the activation of the CREB-related activating transcription factor 1 (ATF-1) in the Sertoli cell line 93RS2 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, as ..
  44. Gao J, Wagnon J, Protacio R, Glazko G, Beggs M, Raj V, et al. A stress-activated, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase-ATF/CREB pathway regulates posttranscriptional, sequence-dependent decay of target RNAs. Mol Cell Biol. 2013;33:3026-35 pubmed publisher
  45. Sassone Corsi P. Editorial: Never enough--on the multiplicity and uniqueness of transcriptional regulators in postmeiotic male germ cells. Endocrinology. 2002;143:1575-7 pubmed
  46. Liang X, Zhou D, Wei C, Luo H, Liu J, Fu R, et al. MicroRNA-34c enhances murine male germ cell apoptosis through targeting ATF1. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33861 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows for the first time that miR-34c functions, at least partially, by targeting the ATF1 gene in germ cell apoptosis, providing a novel mechanism with involvement of miRNA in the regulation of germ cell apoptosis. ..
  47. Hsueh Y, Lai M. Overexpression of activation transcriptional factor 1 in lymphomas and in activated lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1995;154:5675-83 pubmed
    ..The regulation of ATF-1 expression through RNA stability in cells of different states suggests that ATF-1 may play an active role in cell growth and differentiation. ..
  48. Cherkasova V, Maury L, Bacikova D, Pridham K, Bahler J, Maraia R. Altered nuclear tRNA metabolism in La-deleted Schizosaccharomyces pombe is accompanied by a nutritional stress response involving Atf1p and Pcr1p that is suppressible by Xpo-t/Los1p. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:480-91 pubmed publisher
    ..pombe through its effects on nuclear tRNA processing and probably nuclear export. Finally, the results are discussed in the context of stress response programs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ..
  49. Sansó M, Vargas Pérez I, Garcia P, Ayte J, Hidalgo E. Nuclear roles and regulation of chromatin structure by the stress-dependent MAP kinase Sty1 of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Mol Microbiol. 2011;82:542-54 pubmed publisher
  50. Hirano F, Tanada H, Makino Y, Okamoto K, Hiramoto M, Handa H, et al. Induction of the transcription factor AP-1 in cultured human colon adenocarcinoma cells following exposure to bile acids. Carcinogenesis. 1996;17:427-33 pubmed
    ..Thus, we may indicate that bile acids exclusively induce nuclear AP-1 activity in colon adenocarcinoma cells. ..
  51. Shimomura A, Okamoto Y, Hirata Y, Kobayashi M, Kawakami K, Kiuchi K, et al. Dominant negative ATF1 blocks cyclic AMP-induced neurite outgrowth in PC12D cells. J Neurochem. 1998;70:1029-34 pubmed
    ..These data provide us the first evidence that links CREB/ATF1 to the cAMP-induced differentiation of PC12 cells. ..
  52. Antonescu C, Nafa K, Segal N, Dal Cin P, Ladanyi M. EWS-CREB1: a recurrent variant fusion in clear cell sarcoma--association with gastrointestinal location and absence of melanocytic differentiation. Clin Cancer Res. 2006;12:5356-62 pubmed
    ..CCS arising in the gastrointestinal tract is rare and its pathologic and molecular features are not well defined...
  53. Feliciano D, Edelman A. Repression of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV signaling accelerates retinoic acid-induced differentiation of human neuroblastoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:26466-81 pubmed publisher
    ..RA-induced repression of the CaMKIV signaling pathway may represent an early event in retinoid-dependent neuronal differentiation. ..