basic leucine zipper transcription factors


Summary: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.

Top Publications

  1. Saito A, Hino S, Murakami T, Kanemoto S, Kondo S, Saitoh M, et al. Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress response by a BBF2H7-mediated Sec23a pathway is essential for chondrogenesis. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide a new link by which ER stress is converted to signalling for the activation of ER-to-Golgi trafficking. ..
  2. Gascoyne D, Long E, Veiga Fernandes H, de Boer J, Williams O, Seddon B, et al. The basic leucine zipper transcription factor E4BP4 is essential for natural killer cell development. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:1118-24 pubmed publisher
    ..E4bp4(-/-) mice may provide a model for definitive analysis of the contribution of NK cells to immune responses and pathologies...
  3. Wu C, Roje S, Sandoval F, Bird A, Winge D, Eide D. Repression of sulfate assimilation is an adaptive response of yeast to the oxidative stress of zinc deficiency. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:27544-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies have led to new insights into how cells adapt to nutrient-limiting growth conditions. ..
  4. Saito M, Matsuzaki T, Satou Y, Yasunaga J, Saito K, Arimura K, et al. In vivo expression of the HBZ gene of HTLV-1 correlates with proviral load, inflammatory markers and disease severity in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Retrovirology. 2009;6:19 pubmed publisher
    ..However, there have been no reports on the role of HBZ in patients with HTLV-1 associated inflammatory diseases...
  5. Roy B, Vaughn J, Kim B, Zhou F, Gilchrist M, von Arnim A. The h subunit of eIF3 promotes reinitiation competence during translation of mRNAs harboring upstream open reading frames. RNA. 2010;16:748-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results attribute a specific molecular function in translation initiation to an individual eIF3 subunit in a multicellular eukaryote. ..
  6. Schraml B, Hildner K, Ise W, Lee W, Smith W, Solomon B, et al. The AP-1 transcription factor Batf controls T(H)17 differentiation. Nature. 2009;460:405-9 pubmed publisher
    ..18) promoters. These results demonstrate that the AP-1 protein BATF has a critical role in T(H)17 differentiation. ..
  7. Zhao T, Yasunaga J, Satou Y, Nakao M, Takahashi M, Fujii M, et al. Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 bZIP factor selectively suppresses the classical pathway of NF-kappaB. Blood. 2009;113:2755-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Selective suppression of the classical NF-kappaB pathway by HBZ renders the alternative NF-kappaB pathway predominant after activation of NF-kappaB by Tax or other stimuli, which might be critical for oncogenesis...
  8. Martinez G, Dong C. BATF: bringing (in) another Th17-regulating factor. J Mol Cell Biol. 2009;1:66-8 pubmed publisher
  9. Kang S, Price J, Lin P, Hong J, Jang J. The arabidopsis bZIP1 transcription factor is involved in sugar signaling, protein networking, and DNA binding. Mol Plant. 2010;3:361-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that AtbZIP1 can bind ACGT-based motifs in vitro and that the binding characteristics appear to be affected by the heterodimerization between AtbZIP1 and the C-group AtbZIPs, including AtbZIP10 and AtbZIP63. ..

More Information


  1. Matsuoka M, Green P. The HBZ gene, a key player in HTLV-1 pathogenesis. Retrovirology. 2009;6:71 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we summarize recent findings about HBZ and discuss its roles and functions not only in the virus life cycle, but also in HTLV-1 disease pathogenesis. ..
  2. Meskauskiene R, Würsch M, Laloi C, Vidi P, Coll N, Kessler F, et al. A mutation in the Arabidopsis mTERF-related plastid protein SOLDAT10 activates retrograde signaling and suppresses (1)O(2)-induced cell death. Plant J. 2009;60:399-410 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this work reveal the unexpected complexity of what is commonly referred to as 'plastid signaling'. ..
  3. Reinke A, Grigoryan G, Keating A. Identification of bZIP interaction partners of viral proteins HBZ, MEQ, BZLF1, and K-bZIP using coiled-coil arrays. Biochemistry. 2010;49:1985-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Anti-MEQ also inhibited MEQ binding to DNA. These studies can guide further investigation of the function of viral and human bZIP complexes. ..
  4. Rahmani F, Hummel M, Schuurmans J, Wiese Klinkenberg A, Smeekens S, Hanson J. Sucrose control of translation mediated by an upstream open reading frame-encoded peptide. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:1356-67 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented show that Suc-dependent signaling mediates differential translation of mRNAs containing SC-peptides encoding uORFs. ..
  5. Roberti M, Polosa P, Bruni F, Manzari C, Deceglie S, Gadaleta M, et al. The MTERF family proteins: mitochondrial transcription regulators and beyond. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1787:303-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The complete elucidation of the role of the MTERF family members will contribute to the unraveling of the molecular mechanisms of mtDNA transcription and replication. ..
  6. Pellegrini M, Asin Cayuela J, Erdjument Bromage H, Tempst P, Larsson N, Gustafsson C. MTERF2 is a nucleoid component in mammalian mitochondria. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1787:296-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our work provides a basic biochemical characterization of MTERF2, paving the way for future functional studies. ..
  7. Iwata Y, Yoneda M, Yanagawa Y, Koizumi N. Characteristics of the nuclear form of the Arabidopsis transcription factor AtbZIP60 during the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2009;73:865-9 pubmed
    ..On the basis of the present study combined with observations described in the literature, possible mechanisms of AtbZIP60's action in the nucleus are discussed. ..
  8. Yamamoto A, Kagaya Y, Toyoshima R, Kagaya M, Takeda S, Hattori T. Arabidopsis NF-YB subunits LEC1 and LEC1-LIKE activate transcription by interacting with seed-specific ABRE-binding factors. Plant J. 2009;58:843-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate a novel plant-specific mechanism for NF-Y subunit function that enables LEC1 and L1L to regulate a defined developmental network. ..
  9. Suemori K, Fujiwara H, Ochi T, Ogawa T, Matsuoka M, Matsumoto T, et al. HBZ is an immunogenic protein, but not a target antigen for human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. J Gen Virol. 2009;90:1806-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Although HBZ plays an important role in the proliferation of HTLV-1-infected cells, it may also provide a novel mechanism that allows them to evade immune recognition. ..
  10. Bu Q, Li H, Zhao Q, Jiang H, Zhai Q, Zhang J, et al. The Arabidopsis RING finger E3 ligase RHA2a is a novel positive regulator of abscisic acid signaling during seed germination and early seedling development. Plant Physiol. 2009;150:463-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results suggest that the E3 ligase RHA2a is an important regulator of ABA signaling during seed germination and early seedling development. ..
  11. Streckfuss Bömeke K, Schulze F, Herzog B, Scholz E, Braus G. Degradation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae transcription factor Gcn4 requires a C-terminal nuclear localization signal in the cyclin Pcl5. Eukaryot Cell. 2009;8:496-510 pubmed publisher
    ..This hybrid is still able to fulfill Pcl5 function, whereas Pho80, which is another Pho85 interacting cyclin, does not mediate Gcn4 degradation. ..
  12. Polakowski N, Gregory H, Mesnard J, Lemasson I. Expression of a protein involved in bone resorption, Dkk1, is activated by HTLV-1 bZIP factor through its activation domain. Retrovirology. 2010;7:61 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, the ability of HBZ to regulate expression of Dkk1 and possibly other cellular genes may only be significant during late stages of ATL, when Tax expression is repressed. ..
  13. Estes K, Dunbar T, Powell J, Ausubel F, Troemel E. bZIP transcription factor zip-2 mediates an early response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2153-8 pubmed publisher
    ..aeruginosa. These data indicate that zip-2 is part of a specialized pathogen response pathway that is induced by virulent strains of P. aeruginosa and provides defense against this pathogen. ..
  14. Qin Z, Freitas E, Sullivan R, Mohan S, Bacelieri R, Branch D, et al. Upregulation of xCT by KSHV-encoded microRNAs facilitates KSHV dissemination and persistence in an environment of oxidative stress. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000742 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data support a role for KSHV itself in promoting de novo KSHV infection and the survival of KSHV-infected, RNS-secreting cells in the tumor microenvironment through the induction of xCT. ..
  15. Duffield D, Cai L, Kim S. Simultaneous determination of multiple mRNA levels utilizing MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and biotinylated dideoxynucleotides. RNA. 2010;16:1285-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the approach enhances the parallel analysis of multiple gene transcripts by MS. Utilizing the method we have simultaneously measured mRNA levels of four genes (Rho, Nrl, Hprt, and Lhx2) in mouse retinal tissue. ..
  16. Jonassen E, Sandsmark B, Lillo C. Unique status of NIA2 in nitrate assimilation: NIA2 expression is promoted by HY5/HYH and inhibited by PIF4. Plant Signal Behav. 2009;4:1084-6 pubmed
  17. Ciani B, Bjelic S, Honnappa S, Jawhari H, Jaussi R, Payapilly A, et al. Molecular basis of coiled-coil oligomerization-state specificity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:19850-5 pubmed publisher
    ..They therefore should have major implications for the rational design of coiled coils and consequently many applications using these popular oligomerization domains. ..
  18. Kamizono S, Duncan G, Seidel M, Morimoto A, Hamada K, Grosveld G, et al. Nfil3/E4bp4 is required for the development and maturation of NK cells in vivo. J Exp Med. 2009;206:2977-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results confirm the specific and essential requirement of Nfil3 for the development of cells of the NK lineage. ..
  19. Ruckle M, Larkin R. Plastid signals that affect photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis thaliana are dependent on GENOMES UNCOUPLED 1 and cryptochrome 1. New Phytol. 2009;182:367-79 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that GUN1 and cry 1 help to integrate chloroplast function with photomorphogenesis...
  20. Alvers A, Fishwick L, Wood M, Hu D, Chung H, Dunn W, et al. Autophagy and amino acid homeostasis are required for chronological longevity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aging Cell. 2009;8:353-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In general, this indicates that activation of GAAC reduces CLS whereas suppression of GAAC extends CLS in minimal medium. These findings demonstrate important roles for autophagy and amino acid homeostasis in determining CLS in yeast. ..
  21. Guan Y, Ren H, Xie H, Ma Z, Chen F. Identification and characterization of bZIP-type transcription factors involved in carrot (Daucus carota L.) somatic embryogenesis. Plant J. 2009;60:207-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that CAREB1 functions as an important trans-acting factor in the ABA signal transduction pathway during carrot somatic embryogenesis. ..
  22. Goven D, Boutten A, Lecon Malas V, Boczkowski J, Bonay M. Prolonged cigarette smoke exposure decreases heme oxygenase-1 and alters Nrf2 and Bach1 expression in human macrophages: roles of the MAP kinases ERK(1/2) and JNK. FEBS Lett. 2009;583:3508-18 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ERK(1/2) and JNK are involved in CS-induced biphasic HO-1 expression by a specific regulation of Nrf2/Keap1-Bach1. ..
  23. Cao A, Huang J, Hu Z, Li W, Ma Z, Tang L, et al. Mutation analysis of BRIP1/BACH1 in BRCA1/BRCA2 negative Chinese women with early onset breast cancer or affected relatives. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2009;115:51-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, the results of our study indicated that germline mutations in BRIP1/BACH were extremely rare in Chinese population and there was no evidence for the recommendation of BRIP1/BACH1 for genetic testing in Chinese. ..
  24. Romero Santacreu L, Orozco H, Garre E, Alepuz P. The bidirectional cytomegalovirus immediate/early promoter is regulated by Hog1 and the stress transcription factors Sko1 and Hot1 in yeast. Mol Genet Genomics. 2010;283:511-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our results also suggest that CMV could be regulated by the intracellular glucose concentration in human cells. ..
  25. Hsieh T, Li C, Su R, Cheng C, Tsai Y, Chan M. A tomato bZIP transcription factor, SlAREB, is involved in water deficit and salt stress response. Planta. 2010;231:1459-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results show that SlAREB functions to regulate some stress-responsive genes and that its overproduction improves plant tolerance to water deficit and salt stress...
  26. Ron D. Targeting of mRNAs to their sites of unconventional splicing in the unfolded protein response. Mol Cell. 2009;34:133-4 pubmed publisher
    ..2009) are reports on the importance of mRNA localization for unconventional splicing in the unfolded protein response, but the two papers suggest very different mechanisms in mammals and yeast. ..
  27. Nixdorf M, Hoecker U. SPA1 and DET1 act together to control photomorphogenesis throughout plant development. Planta. 2010;231:825-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, this suggests that COP1/SPA complexes and the CDD complex co-act in controlling the protein stability of COP1/SPA target proteins. ..
  28. Kanda A, Swaroop A. A comprehensive analysis of sequence variants and putative disease-causing mutations in photoreceptor-specific nuclear receptor NR2E3. Mol Vis. 2009;15:2174-84 pubmed
    ..These studies contribute to molecular mechanisms underlying retinal phenotypes caused by NR2E3 mutations. ..
  29. Tanegashima K, Zhao H, Rebbert M, Dawid I. Coordinated activation of the secretory pathway during notochord formation in the Xenopus embryo. Development. 2009;136:3543-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that coordinated activation of a battery of secretory pathway genes mediated by Xbp1 and Creb/ATF factors is a characteristic and necessary feature of notochord formation. ..
  30. Fischer M, Huber G, Beck S, Tanimoto N, Muehlfriedel R, Fahl E, et al. Noninvasive, in vivo assessment of mouse retinal structure using optical coherence tomography. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e7507 pubmed publisher
    ..The results clearly indicate that OCT has the potential to revolutionize the future design of respective short- and long-term studies, as well as the preclinical assessment of therapeutic strategies. ..
  31. Kaspar J, Jaiswal A. Antioxidant-induced phosphorylation of tyrosine 486 leads to rapid nuclear export of Bach1 that allows Nrf2 to bind to the antioxidant response element and activate defensive gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:153-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, antioxidant-induced tyrosine 486 phosphorylation leads to nuclear exit of Bach1, thus allowing Nrf2 access to the ARE. ..
  32. Durgan D, Pulinilkunnil T, Villegas Montoya C, Garvey M, Frangogiannis N, Michael L, et al. Short communication: ischemia/reperfusion tolerance is time-of-day-dependent: mediation by the cardiomyocyte circadian clock. Circ Res. 2010;106:546-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Further understanding of I/R tolerance rhythms will potentially provide novel insight regarding the etiology and treatment of ischemia-induced cardiac dysfunction. ..
  33. Hou W, Rossi L, Shan Y, Zheng J, Lambrecht R, Bonkovsky H. Iron increases HMOX1 and decreases hepatitis C viral expression in HCV-expressing cells. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:4499-510 pubmed
    ..Excess iron up-regulates HMOX1 and down-regulates HCV gene expression in hepatoma cells. This probably mitigates liver injury caused by combined iron overload and HCV infection. ..
  34. Hanson J, Smeekens S. Sugar perception and signaling--an update. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2009;12:562-7 pubmed publisher
    ..bZIP transcription factors were found to mediate effects of sugar signaling on gene expression and metabolite content. ..
  35. Matthes M, Bruce T, Ton J, Verrier P, Pickett J, Napier J. The transcriptome of cis-jasmone-induced resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana and its role in indirect defence. Planta. 2010;232:1163-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results identify CJ as a member of the jasmonates that controls indirect plant defence through a distinct signalling pathway. ..
  36. Cuchalová L, Kouba T, Herrmannová A, Dányi I, Chiu W, Valásek L. The RNA recognition motif of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3g (eIF3g) is required for resumption of scanning of posttermination ribosomes for reinitiation on GCN4 and together with eIF3i stimulates linear scanning. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4671-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Together these results implicate g/Tif35 and i/Tif34 in stimulation of linear scanning and, specifically in the case of g/Tif35, also in proper regulation of the GCN4 reinitiation mechanism. ..
  37. Jennings M, Pavitt G. eIF5 has GDI activity necessary for translational control by eIF2 phosphorylation. Nature. 2010;465:378-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Together our studies define a new step in the translation initiation pathway, one that is critical for normal translational controls. ..
  38. Ritchie A, Gutierrez O, Fernandez Luna J. PAR bZIP-bik is a novel transcriptional pathway that mediates oxidative stress-induced apoptosis in fibroblasts. Cell Death Differ. 2009;16:838-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a novel transcriptional pathway relevant in transducing the apoptotic response to oxidative stress. ..
  39. Iven T, Strathmann A, Böttner S, Zwafink T, Heinekamp T, Guivarc h A, et al. Homo- and heterodimers of tobacco bZIP proteins counteract as positive or negative regulators of transcription during pollen development. Plant J. 2010;63:155-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, these data support a regulatory model in which BZI-4 homodimers and BZI-1/BZI-2 heterodimers perform opposing functions as negative or positive transcriptional regulators during pollen development. ..
  40. Harusato A, Naito Y, Takagi T, Yamada S, Mizushima K, Hirai Y, et al. Inhibition of Bach1 ameliorates indomethacin-induced intestinal injury in mice. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;60 Suppl 7:149-54 pubmed
    ..Disruption of the Bach1 gene thus caused inhibition of mucosal injury, indicating that inhibition of Bach1 may be a novel therapeutic strategy for treating indomethacin-induced intestinal injury. ..
  41. Yamasaki N, Miyazaki K, Nagamachi A, Koller R, Oda H, Miyazaki M, et al. Identification of Zfp521/ZNF521 as a cooperative gene for E2A-HLF to develop acute B-lineage leukemia. Oncogene. 2010;29:1963-75 pubmed publisher
  42. Weng Y, Hsieh D, Kuo W, Lai T, Hsu H, Tsai C, et al. E4BP4 is a cardiac survival factor and essential for embryonic heart development. Mol Cell Biochem. 2010;340:187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these results, we conclude that E4BP4 plays as a survival factor in heart and E4BP4 is essential for proper embryonic heart development. ..
  43. Smeekens S, Ma J, Hanson J, Rolland F. Sugar signals and molecular networks controlling plant growth. Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2010;13:274-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It is crucial that these systems interact closely in regulating growth and in several cases crosstalk has been demonstrated. Importantly, these nutrient controlled systems must interact with other growth regulatory pathways. ..
  44. Hartl M, Mitterstiller A, Valovka T, Breuker K, Hobmayer B, Bister K. Stem cell-specific activation of an ancestral myc protooncogene with conserved basic functions in the early metazoan Hydra. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:4051-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the principal functions of the Myc master regulator arose very early in metazoan evolution, allowing their dissection in a simple model organism showing regenerative ability but no senescence...
  45. Sellaro R, Hoecker U, Yanovsky M, Chory J, Casal J. Synergism of red and blue light in the control of Arabidopsis gene expression and development. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1216-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The persistence of the light-derived signal into the night commits the seedling to a morphogenetic and physiological program consistent with a photosynthetic lifestyle. ..
  46. Stracke R, Favory J, Gruber H, Bartelniewoehner L, Bartels S, Binkert M, et al. The Arabidopsis bZIP transcription factor HY5 regulates expression of the PFG1/MYB12 gene in response to light and ultraviolet-B radiation. Plant Cell Environ. 2010;33:88-103 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data suggest that HY5-dependent regulation of PFG gene expression contributes to the establishment of UV-B tolerance. ..
  47. Chen L, Lai T, Tam P, Chiang S, Zhang X, Lam S, et al. Compound heterozygosity of two novel truncation mutations in RP1 causing autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:2236-42 pubmed publisher
    ..5_6delGT provided further genetic evidence that haploinsufficiency of RP1 is not responsible for RP. The authors propose four classes of truncation mutations in the RP1 gene with different effects on the etiology of RP. ..
  48. Jin X, Xiong A, Peng R, Liu J, Gao F, Chen J, et al. OsAREB1, an ABRE-binding protein responding to ABA and glucose, has multiple functions in Arabidopsis. BMB Rep. 2010;43:34-9 pubmed
    ..Due to the dates, OsAREB1 may function as a positive regulator in drought/heat stresses response, but a negative regulator in flowering time in Arabidopsis. [BMB reports 2010; 43(1): 34-39]. ..
  49. Yoshida T, Fujita Y, Sayama H, Kidokoro S, Maruyama K, Mizoi J, et al. AREB1, AREB2, and ABF3 are master transcription factors that cooperatively regulate ABRE-dependent ABA signaling involved in drought stress tolerance and require ABA for full activation. Plant J. 2010;61:672-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these results indicate that AREB1, AREB2, and ABF3 are master transcription factors that cooperatively regulate ABRE-dependent gene expression for ABA signaling under conditions of water stress. ..
  50. Gualdoni S, Baron M, Lakowski J, Decembrini S, Smith A, Pearson R, et al. Adult ciliary epithelial cells, previously identified as retinal stem cells with potential for retinal repair, fail to differentiate into new rod photoreceptors. Stem Cells. 2010;28:1048-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we conclude that CE cells lack potential for photoreceptor differentiation and would require reprogramming to be useful as a source of new photoreceptors. ..
  51. Nordquist K, Dimitrova Y, Brzovic P, Ridenour W, Munro K, Soss S, et al. Structural and functional characterization of the monomeric U-box domain from E4B. Biochemistry. 2010;49:347-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure of E4BU and its ability to function as a monomer are discussed in light of the ubiquitous observation of U-box and RING domain oligomerization. ..
  52. Norrbom J, Wallman S, Gustafsson T, Rundqvist H, Jansson E, Sundberg C. Training response of mitochondrial transcription factors in human skeletal muscle. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2010;198:71-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The mRNA levels of TFB1M and TFB2M are influenced by endurance training, possibly suggesting a role for these factors in the regulation of exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis. ..
  53. Kashiwada M, Levy D, McKeag L, Murray K, Schroder A, CANFIELD S, et al. IL-4-induced transcription factor NFIL3/E4BP4 controls IgE class switching. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:821-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, NFIL3 binds to Iepsilon promoter in vivo. Together, these results identify NFIL3 as a key regulator of IL-4-induced GLepsilon transcription in response to IL-4 and subsequent IgE class switching. ..