Summary: Globulins of milk obtained from the WHEY.

Top Publications

  1. Savilahti E, Karinen S, Salo H, Klemetti P, Saarinen K, Klemola T, et al. Combined T regulatory cell and Th2 expression profile identifies children with cow's milk allergy. Clin Immunol. 2010;136:16-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression profile of both Th2- and T regulatory cell-related genes thus reflects the clinical activity of CMA. Tolerance, in contrast, is not characterized by activation of circulating T regulatory cells...
  2. Buetler T, Latado H, Leclerc E, Weigle B, Baumeyer A, Heizmann C, et al. Glycolaldehyde-modified ?-lactoglobulin AGEs are unable to stimulate inflammatory signaling pathways in RAGE-expressing human cell lines. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2011;55:291-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The observed cell-activating activity can be ascribed to an endotoxin-like lipophilic contamination present in AGE preparations and affinity column purification was insufficient to remove this contamination. ..
  3. He W, Tan Y, Tian Z, Chen L, Hu F, Wu W. Food protein-stabilized nanoemulsions as potential delivery systems for poorly water-soluble drugs: preparation, in vitro characterization, and pharmacokinetics in rats. Int J Nanomedicine. 2011;6:521-33 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that an oil/water nanoemulsion system with good biocompatibility can be prepared by using food proteins as emulsifiers, allowing better and more rapid absorption of lipophilic drugs. ..
  4. He W, Lu Y, Qi J, Chen L, Hu F, Wu W. Food proteins as novel nanosuspension stabilizers for poorly water-soluble drugs. Int J Pharm. 2013;441:269-78 pubmed publisher
    ..It is concluded that the three denatured proteins perform as efficient stabilizers for indomethacin nanosuspensions. ..
  5. He W, Lu Y, Qi J, Chen L, Hu F, Wu W. Nanoemulsion-templated shell-crosslinked nanocapsules as drug delivery systems. Int J Pharm. 2013;445:69-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the presence of surface food proteins introduces carboxyl and amine moieties, which enables the nanocapsules to anchor ligands, suggesting its potential application in targeting drug delivery, bioimaging and therapeutics. ..
  6. Bu G, Luo Y, Zhang Y, Chen F. Effects of fermentation by lactic acid bacteria on the antigenicity of bovine whey proteins. J Sci Food Agric. 2010;90:2015-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The fermentation with lactic acid bacteria is an effective way to reduce whey proteins antigenicity. ..
  7. Bello M, Portillo Téllez M, García Hernández E. Energetics of ligand recognition and self-association of bovine ?-lactoglobulin: differences between variants A and B. Biochemistry. 2011;50:151-61 pubmed
    ..MD simulations revealed that the subunits of both variants become more flexible upon dimer formation. It is hypothesized that a larger increase of ?lgA mobility could account for the dimerization energetic differences observed. ..
  8. Szepfalusi Z, Loibichler C, Hänel Dekan S, Dehlink E, Gerstmayr M, Pichler J, et al. Most of diaplacentally transferred allergen is retained in the placenta. Clin Exp Allergy. 2006;36:1130-7 pubmed
  9. Riihimäki Lampén L, Vainio M, Vahermo M, Pohjala L, Heikura J, Valkonen K, et al. The binding of synthetic retinoids to lipocalin beta-lactoglobulins. J Med Chem. 2010;53:514-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, betaLG may show benefits in improving the bioavailability of retinoid derivatives. ..

More Information


  1. Fluckinger M, Merschak P, Hermann M, Haertle T, Redl B. Lipocalin-interacting-membrane-receptor (LIMR) mediates cellular internalization of beta-lactoglobulin. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1778:342-7 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, heterologous expression of human LIMR in insect cells mediates cellular internalization of FITC-BLG. Since LIMR is highly expressed in the human intestine, it might also function in the uptake of food-borne BLG. ..
  2. Brix S, Bovetto L, Fritsché R, Barkholt V, Frøkiaer H. Immunostimulatory potential of beta-lactoglobulin preparations: effects caused by endotoxin contamination. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2003;112:1216-22 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the present study makes it evident that immunomodulatory effects attributed to beta-lactoglobulin need to be reassessed. ..
  3. Brix S, Kjaer T, Barkholt V, Frøkiaer H. Lipopolysaccharide contamination of beta-lactoglobulin affects the immune response against intraperitoneally and orally administered antigen. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2004;135:216-20 pubmed
    ..LPS contamination of an aqueous protein solution does not affect oral tolerance induction, whereas LPS present in emulsion prevents oral tolerance induction towards the food protein. ..
  4. Arnaudov L, de Vries R. Strong impact of ionic strength on the kinetics of fibrilar aggregation of bovine beta-lactoglobulin. Biomacromolecules. 2006;7:3490-8 pubmed
    ..The fibril length distribution changes non-monotonically with increasing ionic strength. At all ionic strengths studied, the fibrils had similar thicknesses of about 3.5 nm and a periodic structure with a period of about 25 nm. ..
  5. Fraser R, Keszenman Pereyra D, Simmen M, Allan J. High-resolution mapping of sequence-directed nucleosome positioning on genomic DNA. J Mol Biol. 2009;390:292-305 pubmed publisher
  6. Chatel J, Pothelune L, Ah Leung S, Corthier G, Wal J, Langella P. In vivo transfer of plasmid from food-grade transiting lactococci to murine epithelial cells. Gene Ther. 2008;15:1184-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrated for the first time the transfer of a functional plasmid to the epithelial membrane of the small intestine in mice by noninvasive food-grade lactococci. ..
  7. Guimarães V, Innocentin S, Lefèvre F, Azevedo V, Wal J, Langella P, et al. Use of native lactococci as vehicles for delivery of DNA into mammalian epithelial cells. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2006;72:7091-7 pubmed
    ..BLG secretion by Caco-2 cells started 48 h after coincubation with MG1363(pLIG:BLG1). We conclude that lactococci can deliver BLG cDNA into mammalian epithelial cells, demonstrating their potential to deliver in vivo a DNA vaccine. ..
  8. Gencheva M, Boa S, Fraser R, Simmen M, A Whitelaw C, Allan J. In Vitro and in Vivo nucleosome positioning on the ovine beta-lactoglobulin gene are related. J Mol Biol. 2006;361:216-30 pubmed
  9. Pescuma M, Hébert E, Dalgalarrondo M, Haertle T, Mozzi F, Chobert J, et al. Effect of exopolysaccharides on the hydrolysis of beta-lactoglobulin by Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 636 in an in vitro gastric/pancreatic system. J Agric Food Chem. 2009;57:5571-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Lb. acidophilus CRL 636 was able to hydrolyze the main epitopes (41-60, 102-124, and 149-162) of BLG, reducing its allergenic content...
  10. Loibichler C, Pichler J, Gerstmayr M, Bohle B, Kisst H, Urbanek R, et al. Materno-fetal passage of nutritive and inhalant allergens across placentas of term and pre-term deliveries perfused in vitro. Clin Exp Allergy. 2002;32:1546-51 pubmed
    ..87 +/- 5.25 ng/mL at 150 min, respectively. Allergen-specific cord blood reactivity may be attributed to low levels of allergens crossing the human placenta and providing the fetus with the necessary stimulus for T cell priming. ..
  11. Julkunen M, Seppala M, Janne O. Complete amino acid sequence of human placental protein 14: a progesterone-regulated uterine protein homologous to beta-lactoglobulins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988;85:8845-9 pubmed
    ..The 162-residue-long sequence of PP14 is highly homologous to beta-lactoglobulins, with a 53.4% identity with the amino acid sequence of horse beta-lactoglobulin I...
  12. Eiwegger T, Mayer E, Brix S, Schabussova I, Dehlink E, Bohle B, et al. Allergen specific responses in cord and adult blood are differentially modulated in the presence of endotoxins. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38:1627-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Endotoxins in allergen preparations confound allergen-specific cellular responses. The impact of these contaminations varies with the blood source (CB vs. PB), the type of allergen and is time- and dose-dependent. ..
  13. Ragona L, Colombo G, Catalano M, Molinari H. Determinants of protein stability and folding: comparative analysis of beta-lactoglobulins and liver basic fatty acid binding protein. Proteins. 2005;61:366-76 pubmed to three homologous proteins, belonging to the calycin superfamily, namely bovine and porcine beta-lactoglobulins and Liver basic fatty acid binding protein, sharing the same beta-barrel fold and different degree of sequence ..
  14. Chen L, Subirade M. Chitosan/beta-lactoglobulin core-shell nanoparticles as nutraceutical carriers. Biomaterials. 2005;26:6041-53 pubmed
    ..When transferred to simulated intestinal conditions, the (beta)lg shells of the nanoparticles were degraded by pancreatin. ..
  15. Ehn B, Allmere T, Telemo E, Bengtsson U, Ekstrand B. Modification of IgE binding to beta-lactoglobulin by fermentation and proteolysis of cow's milk. J Agric Food Chem. 2005;53:3743-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, we measured the inhibition pattern of beta-lactoglobulin in various selected commercially available fermented milk products. These showed an IgE binding capacity similar to that of nonfermented high pasteurized milk...
  16. Brownlow S, Morais Cabral J, Cooper R, Flower D, Yewdall S, Polikarpov I, et al. Bovine beta-lactoglobulin at 1.8 A resolution--still an enigmatic lipocalin. Structure. 1997;5:481-95 pubmed
    ..It is not yet clear, however, why the stability of the structure should depend so heavily upon the external loop around residue 64 or the beta strand with the free thiol, each of which shows genetic variation. ..
  17. McKenzie H, Ralston G, Shaw D. Location of sulfhydryl and disulfide groups in bovine -lactoglobulins and effects of urea. Biochemistry. 1972;11:4539-47 pubmed
  18. Cerecedo I, Zamora J, Shreffler W, Lin J, Bardina L, Dieguez M, et al. Mapping of the IgE and IgG4 sequential epitopes of milk allergens with a peptide microarray-based immunoassay. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008;122:589-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Peptide microarray analysis is a novel method that can provide useful information on the nature of specific allergies...
  19. Krebs M, Devlin G, Donald A. Amyloid fibril-like structure underlies the aggregate structure across the pH range for beta-lactoglobulin. Biophys J. 2009;96:5013-9 pubmed publisher
  20. Adams J, Anderson B, Norris G, Creamer L, Jameson G. Structure of bovine beta-lactoglobulin (variant A) at very low ionic strength. J Struct Biol. 2006;154:246-54 pubmed
    ..The dimer interface and the hydrophobic pocket (calyx) are preserved. However, the orientation of the subunits in the dimer varies considerably with crystal form. Structure is deposited with PDB ID 2akq. ..
  21. Tcholakova S, Denkov N, Sidzhakova D, Ivanov I, Campbell B. Effects of electrolyte concentration and pH on the coalescence stability of beta-lactoglobulin emulsions: experiment and interpretation. Langmuir. 2005;21:4842-55 pubmed
    ..A simple theoretical model is shown to describe emulsion stability in these systems. (3) Sterically stabilized emulsions with a monolayer adsorption on drop surface. ..
  22. Ragona L, Fogolari F, Catalano M, Ugolini R, Zetta L, Molinari H. EF loop conformational change triggers ligand binding in beta-lactoglobulins. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:38840-6 pubmed
    Beta-lactoglobulins, belonging to the lipocalin family, are a widely studied group of proteins, characterized by the ability to solubilize and transport hydrophobic ligands, especially fatty acids...
  23. Bonomi F, Fiocchi A, Frøkiaer H, Gaiaschi A, Iametti S, Poiesi C, et al. Reduction of immunoreactivity of bovine beta-lactoglobulin upon combined physical and proteolytic treatment. J Dairy Res. 2003;70:51-9 pubmed
  24. Robitaille G, Britten M, Morisset J, Petitclerc D. Quantitative analysis of beta-lactoglobulin A and B genetic variants in milk of cows beta-lactoglobulin AB throughout lactation. J Dairy Res. 2002;69:651-4 pubmed
  25. Zhang G, Keiderling T. Equilibrium and dynamic spectroscopic studies of the interaction of monomeric ?-lactoglobulin with lipid vesicles at low pH. Biochemistry. 2014;53:3079-87 pubmed publisher
    ..These thermal and kinetic behaviors suggest a mechanism for the interaction of monomeric ?LG with zwitterionic lipids different from that seen previously for the dimeric form. ..
  26. Loch J, Polit A, Gorecki A, Bonarek P, Kurpiewska K, Dziedzicka Wasylewska M, et al. Two modes of fatty acid binding to bovine ?-lactoglobulin--crystallographic and spectroscopic studies. J Mol Recognit. 2011;24:341-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Different location of ligands in the binding site indicates that competition between polar and hydrophobic interactions is an important factor determining position of the ligand in ?-barrel. ..
  27. Anema S. Pressure-induced denaturation of ?-lactoglobulin in skim milk: effect of milk concentration. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:6565-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This was attributed to the increased lactose concentration at higher milk concentrations. This would promote ?-LG dimerization at this pressure and this would stabilize the ?-LG to denaturation. ..
  28. Jordens S, Schwenke K, Usov I, Del Gado E, Mezzenga R. Nematic field transfer in a two-dimensional protein fibril assembly. Soft Matter. 2016;12:1830-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings contribute to the understanding of how anisotropic interactions are transferred in two-dimensional bimodal nematic fields of biopolymers at liquid interfaces. ..
  29. Ge N, Zhang X, Keiderling T. Kinetic studies of the interaction of ?-lactoglobulin with model membranes: stopped-flow CD and fluorescence studies. Biochemistry. 2010;49:8831-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These were fit to either single- or double-exponential functions, and a multistep model, with at least two intermediate states, has been proposed to explain the major states seen in the kinetic interaction of ?LG with lipid vesicles. ..
  30. Mehraban M, Yousefi R, Taheri Kafrani A, Panahi F, Khalafi Nezhad A. Binding study of novel anti-diabetic pyrimidine fused heterocycles to ?-lactoglobulin as a carrier protein. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2013;112:374-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, this protein might be useful for delivery of PFH compounds to small intestine where representing their potential ability to inhibit ?-Gls and to reduce the postprandial hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. ..
  31. Karchemsky F, Drug E, Mashiach Farkash E, Fadeev L, Wolfson H, Gozin M, et al. Diameter-selective dispersion of carbon nanotubes by ?-lactoglobulin whey protein. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2013;112:16-22 pubmed publisher
  32. Savilahti E, Viljanen M, Kuitunen M, Savilahti E. Cow's milk and ovalbumin-specific IgG and IgA in children with eczema: low ?-lactoglobulin-specific IgG4 levels are associated with cow's milk allergy. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012;23:590-6 pubmed publisher
    ..04). Our study thus shows that low ?-lactoglobulin-specific serum IgG4 levels may differentiate eczematous infants with CMA from infants who have eczema with only suspected association with CM. ..
  33. Firooz M, Mohammadifar M, Haratian P. Self-assembly of ?-lactoglobulin and the soluble fraction of gum tragacanth in aqueous medium. Int J Biol Macromol. 2012;50:925-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Morphological changes in the assemblies and the subsequent formation of some flocculant substances during the late stage of process were clearly visualised using microscopy. ..
  34. Arroyo Maya I, Campos Terán J, Hernández Arana A, McClements D. Characterization of flavonoid-protein interactions using fluorescence spectroscopy: Binding of pelargonidin to dairy proteins. Food Chem. 2016;213:431-439 pubmed publisher
    ..0°C). To investigate the underlying thermodynamics, binding constants were determined at 25.0, 35.0, and 45.0°C. These results pointed to binding processes that depend on the structural conformation of the milk proteins. ..
  35. Kanjarawi R, Dercamp C, Etchart N, Adel Patient K, Nicolas J, Dubois B, et al. Regulatory T cells control type I food allergy to Beta-lactoglobulin in mice. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2011;156:387-96 pubmed publisher
  36. Savilahti E, Ilonen J, Kiviniemi M, Saarinen K, Vaarala O, Savilahti E. Human leukocyte antigen (DR1)-DQB1*0501 and (DR15)-DQB1*0602 haplotypes are associated with humoral responses to early food allergens in children. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2010;152:169-77 pubmed publisher
    ..PTPN22 was not associated with specific antibody responses or CMA. The HLA II, but not PTPN22 or filaggrin, genotype modulates humoral responses to early food allergens, whereas none of these genes was associated with CMA. ..
  37. Heidari M, Azari M, Hasani S, Khanahmadi A, Zerehdaran S. Effect of polymorphic variants of GH, Pit-1, and beta-LG genes on milk production of Holstein cows. Genetika. 2012;48:503-7 pubmed
    ..01). Therefore, it might be concluded that homozygote genotypes of GH (LL) and beta-LG (AA) were superior compared to heterozygote genotypes, whereas, the heterozygote genotype of Pit-1 gene (AB) was desirable...
  38. Stanic Vucinic D, Prodic I, Apostolovic D, Nikolic M, Velickovic T. Structure and antioxidant activity of ?-lactoglobulin-glycoconjugates obtained by high-intensity-ultrasound-induced Maillard reaction in aqueous model systems under neutral conditions. Food Chem. 2013;138:590-9 pubmed publisher
    ..High-intensity ultrasound efficiently promotes BLG-glycoconjugates formation by MR in aqueous solutions under non-denaturing conditions. ..
  39. Li B, Du W, Jin J, Du Q. Preservation of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate antioxidant properties loaded in heat treated ?-lactoglobulin nanoparticles. J Agric Food Chem. 2012;60:3477-84 pubmed publisher
    ..4-7.0. The highest protection of EGCG antioxidant activity was obtained with ?-Lg heated at 85 °C and the molar ratio of 1:2 (?-Lg: EGCG). ?-Lg-EGCG complexes were found to have the same secondary structure as native ?-Lg. ..
  40. Sperber B, Cohen Stuart M, Schols H, Voragen A, Norde W. Overall charge and local charge density of pectin determines the enthalpic and entropic contributions to complexation with ?-lactoglobulin. Biomacromolecules. 2010;11:3578-83 pubmed publisher
  41. Mamillapalli R, VanHouten J, Dann P, Bikle D, Chang W, Brown E, et al. Mammary-specific ablation of the calcium-sensing receptor during lactation alters maternal calcium metabolism, milk calcium transport, and neonatal calcium accrual. Endocrinology. 2013;154:3031-42 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the mammary gland CaSR coordinates maternal bone and calcium metabolism, calcium transport into milk, and neonatal calcium accrual during lactation. ..
  42. Lu L, Yang X, Li Y, Jiang S. Chemically modified bovine beta-lactoglobulin inhibits human papillomavirus infection. Microbes Infect. 2013;15:506-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that JB01 has good potential to be developed as an effective, safe and inexpensive antiviral agent for treatment and prevention of HPV infection. ..
  43. Rodriguez B, Prioult G, Bibiloni R, Nicolis I, Mercenier A, Butel M, et al. Germ-free status and altered caecal subdominant microbiota are associated with a high susceptibility to cow's milk allergy in mice. FEMS Microbiol Ecol. 2011;76:133-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first study to show a relationship between alterations within the subdominant microbiota and severity of food allergy. ..
  44. Zhong J, Liu W, Liu C, Wang Q, Li T, Tu Z, et al. Aggregation and conformational changes of bovine ?-lactoglobulin subjected to dynamic high-pressure microfluidization in relation to antigenicity. J Dairy Sci. 2012;95:4237-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Aggregation and conformational changes of ?-LG under DHPM was related to its antigenicity. ..
  45. Güler G, Džafić E, Vorob ev M, Vogel V, Mäntele W. Real time observation of proteolysis with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-circular dichroism spectroscopy: watching a protease eat a protein. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc. 2011;79:104-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This model study in a closed reaction system may serve as a basis for the much more complex digestion processes in an open reaction system such as the stomach. ..
  46. Allan J, Fraser R, Owen Hughes T, Keszenman Pereyra D. Micrococcal nuclease does not substantially bias nucleosome mapping. J Mol Biol. 2012;417:152-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that biases in nucleosome positioning data collected using MNase are, under our conditions, not significant. ..
  47. Bøgh K, Barkholt V, Madsen C. The sensitising capacity of intact ?-lactoglobulin is reduced by co-administration with digested ?-lactoglobulin. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. 2013;161:21-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-immunisation of intact BLG with digested BLG reduces the sensitising capacity of intact BLG, which could result from tolerogenic mechanisms induced by the digestion products. ..
  48. Wu S, Sun L, Ma J, Yang K, Liang Z, Zhang L, et al. High throughput tryptic digestion via poly (acrylamide-co-methylenebisacrylamide) monolith based immobilized enzyme reactor. Talanta. 2011;83:1748-53 pubmed publisher
  49. Yoshida K, Hosokawa S, Baron A, Yamaguchi T. Collective dynamics of hydrated ?-lactoglobulin by inelastic x-ray scattering. J Chem Phys. 2010;133:134501 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are consistent with those reported from Brillouin neutron spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulation studies of hydrated ribonuclease A. ..
  50. Knowles T, Waudby C, Devlin G, Cohen S, Aguzzi A, Vendruscolo M, et al. An analytical solution to the kinetics of breakable filament assembly. Science. 2009;326:1533-7 pubmed publisher
  51. Carnovale V, Pilon G, Britten M, Bazinet L, Couillard C. Effect of the consumption of ?-lactoglobulin and epigallocatechin-3-gallate with or without calcium on glucose tolerance in C57BL/6 mice. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2016;67:298-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results support the beneficial impact of ?-lg on glycemic control and suggest that concomitant EGCG or calcium consumption does not improve this effect. ..
  52. Mohammed Geba K, Arrutia F, Do Huu H, Borrell Y, Galal Khallaf A, Ardura A, et al. VY6, a ?-lactoglobulin-derived peptide, altered metabolic lipid pathways in the zebra fish liver. Food Funct. 2016;7:1968-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The complete results suggest significant anti-obesity activity of the ?-lg-derived VY6 peptide. Its use as a nutraceutical has been discussed. ..
  53. Kaspersen J, Søndergaard A, Madsen D, Otzen D, Pedersen J. Refolding of SDS-Unfolded Proteins by Nonionic Surfactants. Biophys J. 2017;112:1609-1620 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that NIS competes with globular proteins for association with SDS, making it possible to release and refold SDS-denatured proteins by adding sufficient amounts of NIS, unless the protein also interacts with NIS alone. ..