dental enamel proteins


Summary: The proteins that are part of the dental enamel matrix.

Top Publications

  1. Beyeler M, Schild C, Lutz R, Chiquet M, Trueb B. Identification of a fibronectin interaction site in the extracellular matrix protein ameloblastin. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:1202-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The recruited fibronectin should then promote cell adhesion on the implant surface, thereby accelerating osseointegration of the implant. ..
  2. Sire J, Delgado S, Girondot M. Hen's teeth with enamel cap: from dream to impossibility. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:246 pubmed publisher
  3. Johnson D, Carnes D, Steffensen B, Cochran D. Cellular effects of enamel matrix derivative are associated with different molecular weight fractions following separation by size-exclusion chromatography. J Periodontol. 2009;80:648-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The masses of these activities were consistent with those reported for latent and active matrix metalloproteinase-20. ..
  4. Huang Y, Tanimoto K, Tanne Y, Kamiya T, Kunimatsu R, Michida M, et al. Effects of human full-length amelogenin on the proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow. Cell Tissue Res. 2010;342:205-12 pubmed publisher
  5. Tamburstuen M, Reppe S, Spahr A, Sabetrasekh R, Kvalheim G, Slaby I, et al. Ameloblastin promotes bone growth by enhancing proliferation of progenitor cells and by stimulating immunoregulators. Eur J Oral Sci. 2010;118:451-9 pubmed publisher
    ..A receptor has not yet been identified, but we found rAmbn to induce, directly and indirectly, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and 2 and downstream factors in the interferon pathway. ..
  6. Hatakeyama J, Fukumoto S, Nakamura T, Haruyama N, Suzuki S, Hatakeyama Y, et al. Synergistic roles of amelogenin and ameloblastin. J Dent Res. 2009;88:318-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Ameloblastin-regulated expression of RhoGDI suggests that Rho-mediated signaling pathway might play a role in enamel formation. ..
  7. Ruspita I, Miyoshi K, Muto T, Abe K, Horiguchi T, Noma T. Sp6 downregulation of follistatin gene expression in ameloblasts. J Med Invest. 2008;55:87-98 pubmed
    ..Our findings demonstrate that the follistatin gene is one of the Sp6 target genes in ameloblasts and suggest that Sp6 promotes amelogenesis through inhibition of follistatin gene expression...
  8. Miron R, Bosshardt D, Hedbom E, Zhang Y, Haenni B, Buser D, et al. Adsorption of enamel matrix proteins to a bovine-derived bone grafting material and its regulation of cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation. J Periodontol. 2012;83:936-47 pubmed publisher
  9. Amin H, Olsen I, Knowles J, Donos N. Differential effect of amelogenin peptides on osteogenic differentiation in vitro: identification of possible new drugs for bone repair and regeneration. Tissue Eng Part A. 2012;18:1193-202 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Potijanyakul P, Sattayasansakul W, Pongpanich S, Leepong N, Kintarak S. Effects of enamel matrix derivative on bioactive glass in rat calvarium defects. J Oral Implantol. 2010;36:195-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Bioactive glass particles, used with or without EMD, maintained the volume and contour of the area grafted in CSD. However, they did not lead to a significant difference in bone formation when compared with CSD 8 weeks postoperatively. ..
  2. Hu Y, Hu J, Smith C, Bartlett J, Simmer J. Kallikrein-related peptidase 4, matrix metalloproteinase 20, and the maturation of murine and porcine enamel. Eur J Oral Sci. 2011;119 Suppl 1:217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that enamel breaks in the deep enamel of Klk4 null mice because of decreasing enamel maturation with depth, and at the DEJ in Mmp20 null mice because of hypomineralization at the DEJ...
  3. Simmer J, Papagerakis P, Smith C, Fisher D, Rountrey A, Zheng L, et al. Regulation of dental enamel shape and hardness. J Dent Res. 2010;89:1024-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we review the growth parameters that determine the shape of the enamel crown as well as the mechanisms of enamel appositional growth and maturation...
  4. Barron M, Brookes S, Draper C, Garrod D, Kirkham J, Shore R, et al. The cell adhesion molecule nectin-1 is critical for normal enamel formation in mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:3509-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, our results show that integrity of the SI-ameloblast interface is essential for normal enamel mineralization. ..
  5. Vymetal J, Slaby I, Spahr A, Vondrasek J, Lyngstadaas S. Bioinformatic analysis and molecular modelling of human ameloblastin suggest a two-domain intrinsically unstructured calcium-binding protein. Eur J Oral Sci. 2008;116:124-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The model provides information useful for further studies on the function of AMBN. ..
  6. Zhang F, Meng H, Han J, Liu K. [Effects of emdogain on human periodontal ligament cells in vitro]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2012;44:6-10 pubmed
    ..To investigate the effects of emdogain, enamel matrix derivative (EMD), on the proliferation, cell cycle, mineralization and ultrastructure of human periodontal ligament (PDL) cells in vitro...
  7. Henriques P, Pelegrine A, Nogueira A, Borghi M. Application of subepithelial connective tissue graft with or without enamel matrix derivative for root coverage: a split-mouth randomized study. J Oral Sci. 2010;52:463-71 pubmed
    ..708) and (P = 0.570), respectively. The present study demonstrated the benefit of adding EMD to SCTG for root coverage in Miller's class III buccal gingival recession defects after 12 months. (J Oral Sci 52, 463-471, 2010). ..
  8. Sculean A, Schwarz F, Chiantella G, Arweiler N, Becker J. Nine-year results following treatment of intrabony periodontal defects with an enamel matrix derivative: report of 26 cases. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2007;27:221-9 pubmed
    ..8 +/- 2.3 mm at 1 year and to 7.0 +/- 1.9 mm at 9 years. No treated teeth were lost during the observation period. The clinical improvements obtained following treatment with EMD can be maintained over a period of 9 years. ..
  9. Hu J, Chun Y, Al Hazzazzi T, Simmer J. Enamel formation and amelogenesis imperfecta. Cells Tissues Organs. 2007;186:78-85 pubmed
    ..In addition, we provide a fresh perspective on the roles matrix proteins play in catalyzing the biomineralization of dental enamel. ..
  10. Sire J, Davit Beal T, Delgado S, Gu X. The origin and evolution of enamel mineralization genes. Cells Tissues Organs. 2007;186:25-48 pubmed
    ..The evolutionary analysis of AMEL led to propose a dataset that will be useful to validate AMEL mutations leading to X- linked AI. ..
  11. Nokhbehsaim M, Winter J, Rath B, Jager A, Jepsen S, Deschner J. Effects of enamel matrix derivative on periodontal wound healing in an inflammatory environment in vitro. J Clin Periodontol. 2011;38:479-90 pubmed publisher
    ..IL-1? also inhibited significantly the wound fill rate induced by TGF-?1 and IGF-1. Critical PDL cell functions that are associated with periodontal regeneration are reduced in an inflammatory environment. ..
  12. O Sullivan J, Bitu C, Daly S, Urquhart J, Barron M, Bhaskar S, et al. Whole-Exome sequencing identifies FAM20A mutations as a cause of amelogenesis imperfecta and gingival hyperplasia syndrome. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;88:616-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Expression analyses indicated that Fam20a is expressed in ameloblasts and gingivae, providing biological plausibility for mutations in FAM20A underlying the pathogenesis of this syndrome. ..
  13. Jue S, Lee W, Kwon Y, Kim Y, Pae A, Lee B. The effects of enamel matrix derivative on the proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. Clin Oral Implants Res. 2010;21:741-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Because most of the organic matrix of bone is type I collagen, which acts as the mineralization site, bone or bone-like mineralized mass might have been formed in spite of the different components of the non-collagenous proteins. ..
  14. Sculean A, Kiss A, Miliauskaite A, Schwarz F, Arweiler N, Hannig M. Ten-year results following treatment of intra-bony defects with enamel matrix proteins and guided tissue regeneration. J Clin Periodontol. 2008;35:817-24 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results indicate that the clinical outcomes obtained with all four approaches can be maintained over a period of 10 years. ..
  15. Goda S, Inoue H, Kaneshita Y, Nagano Y, Ikeo T, Ikeo Y, et al. Emdogain stimulates matrix degradation by osteoblasts. J Dent Res. 2008;87:782-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that Emdogain facilitates tissue regeneration through the activation of the collagenase, MMP-1, that degrades matrix proteins in bone tissue microenvironments. ..
  16. Moffatt P, Smith C, St Arnaud R, Nanci A. Characterization of Apin, a secreted protein highly expressed in tooth-associated epithelia. J Cell Biochem. 2008;103:941-56 pubmed
    ..The presence of Apin at cell-tooth interfaces suggests involvement in adhesive mechanisms active at these sites, but its presence among other epithelial tissues indicates Apin likely possesses broader physiological roles...
  17. Rodrigues T, Marchesan J, Coletta R, Novaes A, Grisi M, Souza S, et al. Effects of enamel matrix derivative and transforming growth factor-beta1 on human periodontal ligament fibroblasts. J Clin Periodontol. 2007;34:514-22 pubmed
    ..However, the combination of both factors did not positively alter PDL fibroblast behaviour. ..
  18. Wright J, Hart T, Hart P, Simmons D, Suggs C, Daley B, et al. Human and mouse enamel phenotypes resulting from mutation or altered expression of AMEL, ENAM, MMP20 and KLK4. Cells Tissues Organs. 2009;189:224-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Mice lacking expression of the currently known genes associated with the human AI conditions provide useful models for understanding the pathogenesis of these conditions. ..
  19. Saito K, Konishi I, Nishiguchi M, Hoshino T, Fujiwara T. Amelogenin binds to both heparan sulfate and bone morphogenetic protein 2 and pharmacologically suppresses the effect of noggin. Bone. 2008;43:371-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Together with the above findings, our findings suggest that the BMP2/4 contaminated during the purification process of EMD because of the avidity of amelogenin plays an important role in signaling pathway of calcification. ..
  20. Miron R, Bosshardt D, Laugisch O, Katsaros C, Buser D, Sculean A. Enamel matrix protein adsorption to root surfaces in the presence or absence of human blood. J Periodontol. 2012;83:885-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on these findings, it is advised to minimize blood interactions during periodontal surgeries to allow better adsorption of EMD to root surfaces. ..
  21. Kawasaki K, Weiss K. SCPP gene evolution and the dental mineralization continuum. J Dent Res. 2008;87:520-31 pubmed
    ..These tissues thus form a mineralized-tissue continuum. Contemporary dental tissues have evolved from an ancestral continuum through lineage-specific modifications. ..
  22. Sonoda A, Iwamoto T, Nakamura T, Fukumoto E, Yoshizaki K, Yamada A, et al. Critical role of heparin binding domains of ameloblastin for dental epithelium cell adhesion and ameloblastoma proliferation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:27176-84 pubmed publisher
  23. Nakamura T, de Vega S, Fukumoto S, Jimenez L, Unda F, Yamada Y. Transcription factor epiprofin is essential for tooth morphogenesis by regulating epithelial cell fate and tooth number. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:4825-33 pubmed
    ..Thus, Epfn has multiple functions for cell fate determination of the dental epithelium by regulating both proliferation and differentiation, preventing continuous tooth budding and generation. ..
  24. Aroca S, Keglevich T, Nikolidakis D, Gera I, Nagy K, Azzi R, et al. Treatment of class III multiple gingival recessions: a randomized-clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2010;37:88-97 pubmed publisher
    ..One-year results indicate that the modified tunnel/CTG technique is predictable for the treatment of multiple class III recession-type defects. The addition of EMD does not enhance the mean clinical outcomes. ..
  25. Miron R, Hedbom E, Ruggiero S, Bosshardt D, Zhang Y, Mauth C, et al. Premature osteoblast clustering by enamel matrix proteins induces osteoblast differentiation through up-regulation of connexin 43 and N-cadherin. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23375 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide further support for the clinical evidence that EMD increases the speed and quality of new bone formation in vivo. ..
  26. Siciliano V, Andreuccetti G, Siciliano A, Blasi A, Sculean A, Salvi G. Clinical outcomes after treatment of non-contained intrabony defects with enamel matrix derivative or guided tissue regeneration: a 12-month randomized controlled clinical trial. J Periodontol. 2011;82:62-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Although the outcomes of open-flap debridement alone were not investigated, the application of EMD alone appeared to yield less PD reduction and CAL gain compared to GTR therapy in the treatment of deep, non-contained intrabony defects. ..
  27. Kapferer I, Schmidt S, Gstir R, Durstberger G, Huber L, Vietor I. Gene-expression profiles of epithelial cells treated with EMD in vitro: analysis using complementary DNA arrays. J Periodontal Res. 2011;46:118-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Reduced epithelial repopulation of the dental root upon periodontal surgery may be the consequence of reduced migration and cell growth, as well as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. ..
  28. Iizuka S, Kudo Y, Yoshida M, Tsunematsu T, Yoshiko Y, Uchida T, et al. Ameloblastin regulates osteogenic differentiation by inhibiting Src kinase via cross talk between integrin beta1 and CD63. Mol Cell Biol. 2011;31:783-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our results suggest that ameloblastin is expressed in osteoblasts and functions as a promoting factor for osteogenic differentiation via a novel pathway through the interaction between CD63 and integrin ?1. ..
  29. Rasperini G, Roccuzzo M, Francetti L, Acunzo R, Consonni D, Silvestri M. Subepithelial connective tissue graft for treatment of gingival recessions with and without enamel matrix derivative: a multicenter, randomized controlled clinical trial. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2011;31:133-9 pubmed
    ..27). Both procedures provided good soft tissue coverage. The better results of the test group did not achieve a statistically significant level...
  30. Rauth R, Potter K, Ngan A, Saad D, Mehr R, Luong V, et al. Dental enamel: genes define biomechanics. J Calif Dent Assoc. 2009;37:863-8 pubmed
  31. Meredith R, Gatesy J, Murphy W, Ryder O, Springer M. Molecular decay of the tooth gene Enamelin (ENAM) mirrors the loss of enamel in the fossil record of placental mammals. PLoS Genet. 2009;5:e1000634 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular decay of ENAM parallels the morphological degeneration of enamel in the fossil record of placental mammals and provides manifest evidence for the predictive power of Darwin's theory. ..
  32. Kang H, Seymen F, Lee S, Yildirim M, Tuna E, Patir A, et al. Candidate gene strategy reveals ENAM mutations. J Dent Res. 2009;88:266-9 pubmed publisher
    ..14917delT, c.2991delT), which is predicted to result in a frameshift with a premature termination codon (p.L998fsX1062). This result supports the use of a candidate-gene-based strategy to study the genetic basis for AI. ..
  33. Trombelli L, Farina R. Clinical outcomes with bioactive agents alone or in combination with grafting or guided tissue regeneration. J Clin Periodontol. 2008;35:117-35 pubmed publisher
  34. Bosshardt D. Biological mediators and periodontal regeneration: a review of enamel matrix proteins at the cellular and molecular levels. J Clin Periodontol. 2008;35:87-105 pubmed publisher
    ..All together, the data analysis provides strong evidence for EMPs to support wound healing and new periodontal tissue formation. ..
  35. Hu J, Hu Y, Smith C, McKee M, Wright J, Yamakoshi Y, et al. Enamel defects and ameloblast-specific expression in Enam knock-out/lacz knock-in mice. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:10858-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate ameloblast-specific expression of enamelin and reveal that enamelin is essential for proper enamel matrix organization and mineralization...
  36. Shirakata Y, Yoshimoto T, Goto H, Yonamine Y, Kadomatsu H, Miyamoto M, et al. Favorable periodontal healing of 1-wall infrabony defects after application of calcium phosphate cement wall alone or in combination with enamel matrix derivative: a pilot study with canine mandibles. J Periodontol. 2007;78:889-98 pubmed
    ..CPC walls with and without EMD promoted regeneration of alveolar bone and cementum in 1-wall infrabony defects. Space and stable wound healing are believed to be crucial for periodontal regeneration in non-contained infrabony defects. ..
  37. Cho S, Seymen F, Lee K, Lee S, Kweon Y, Kim K, et al. Novel FAM20A mutations in hypoplastic amelogenesis imperfecta. Hum Mutat. 2012;33:91-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This study confirms the importance of the FAM20A protein in enamel biomineralization as well as tooth eruption. ..
  38. Fuchs H, Sabrautzki S, Seedorf H, Rathkolb B, Rozman J, Hans W, et al. Does enamelin have pleiotropic effects on organs other than the teeth? Lessons from a phenotyping screen of two enamelin-mutant mouse lines. Eur J Oral Sci. 2012;120:269-77 pubmed publisher
    ..These data raise the hypothesis that enamelin defects have pleiotropic effects on organs other than the teeth. ..
  39. Wada Y, Mizuno M, Nodasaka Y, Tamura M. The effect of enamel matrix derivative on spreading, proliferation, and differentiation of osteoblasts cultured on zirconia. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2012;27:849-58 pubmed
    ..EMD may contribute to treatment with zirconia implants via its promotion of osteoblastic proliferation and activity. However, the procedure for application of EMD may be a crucial factor for the outcome of implants. ..
  40. Kitagawa M, Kitagawa S, Nagasaki A, Miyauchi M, Uchida T, Takata T. Synthetic ameloblastin peptide stimulates differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells. Arch Oral Biol. 2011;56:374-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the ameloblastin peptide upregulate ALP and BSP levels and can enhance calcification of PDLC. Thus, we suggest that the N-terminal synthetic ameloblastin peptide promotes the differentiation activity of PDLC. ..
  41. Chun Y, Yamakoshi Y, Yamakoshi F, Fukae M, Hu J, Bartlett J, et al. Cleavage site specificity of MMP-20 for secretory-stage ameloblastin. J Dent Res. 2010;89:785-90 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that MMP-20 is the enzyme that processes ameloblastin during the secretory stage of amelogenesis, and we present a hypothesis about the sequence of ameloblastin cleavages...
  42. Zalzal S, Smith C, Nanci A. Ameloblastin and amelogenin share a common secretory pathway and are co-secreted during enamel formation. Matrix Biol. 2008;27:352-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The subpopulation of granules containing only AMBN could be responsible for augmenting its local concentration along secretory surfaces against which hydroxyapatite crystals actively elongate. ..
  43. Heng N, N Guessan P, Kleber B, Bernimoulin J, Pischon N. Enamel matrix derivative induces connective tissue growth factor expression in human osteoblastic cells. J Periodontol. 2007;78:2369-79 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, these results provide novel insight into EMD-CTGF interaction, two biomodifiers that have therapeutic relevance to tissue engineering and regeneration. ..
  44. Yamamoto S, Masuda H, Shibukawa Y, Yamada S. Combination of bovine-derived xenografts and enamel matrix derivative in the treatment of intrabony periodontal defects in dogs. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent. 2007;27:471-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the use of BDX with EMD is effective in enhancing new bone and cementum formation and that this combination is effective in the treatment of intrabony defects. ..
  45. Guida L, Annunziata M, Carinci F, Di Feo A, Passaro I, Oliva A. In vitro biologic response of human bone marrow stromal cells to enamel matrix derivative. J Periodontol. 2007;78:2190-6 pubmed
    ..The clinical efficacy of EMD in regenerating periodontal tissues can be attributed, in part, to the biologic effects exerted on the bone marrow stromal component of resident cells. ..
  46. Seedorf H, Klaften M, Eke F, Fuchs H, Seedorf U, Hrabe de Angelis M. A mutation in the enamelin gene in a mouse model. J Dent Res. 2007;86:764-8 pubmed
    ..These results define the ATE1 mice as a model for local hypoplastic autosomal-dominant amelogenesis imperfecta (AIH2), which is caused by enamelin truncation mutations in humans. ..
  47. Chan H, Mai L, Oikonomopoulou A, Chan H, Richardson A, Wang S, et al. Altered enamelin phosphorylation site causes amelogenesis imperfecta. J Dent Res. 2010;89:695-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Ser(216) is one of two serines on the 32-kDa enamelin that is phosphorylated by Golgi casein kinase and is thought to mediate calcium binding. We propose that phosphorylation of enamelin is critical for its function. ..
  48. Lindemeyer R, Gibson C, Wright T. Amelogenesis imperfecta due to a mutation of the enamelin gene: clinical case with genotype-phenotype correlations. Pediatr Dent. 2010;32:56-60 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this article was to report the genotype-phenotype correlations for a 9-year, 11-month-old boy with a homozygous ENAM mutation (c.1258_1259insAG). ..
  49. Lacruz R, Smith C, Smith S, Hu P, Bringas P, Sahin Toth M, et al. Chymotrypsin C (caldecrin) is associated with enamel development. J Dent Res. 2011;90:1228-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The discovery of a new serine protease possibly involved in enamel development has important implications for our understanding of the factors that regulate enamel biomineralization. ..
  50. Al Hashimi N, Sire J, Delgado S. Evolutionary analysis of mammalian enamelin, the largest enamel protein, supports a crucial role for the 32-kDa peptide and reveals selective adaptation in rodents and primates. J Mol Evol. 2009;69:635-56 pubmed publisher
  51. Miron R, Oates C, Molenberg A, Dard M, Hamilton D. The effect of enamel matrix proteins on the spreading, proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts cultured on titanium surfaces. Biomaterials. 2010;31:449-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that coating of titanium with EMD enhances the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts irrespective of the titanium substratum topography. ..
  52. Wazen R, Moffatt P, Zalzal S, Yamada Y, Nanci A. A mouse model expressing a truncated form of ameloblastin exhibits dental and junctional epithelium defects. Matrix Biol. 2009;28:292-303 pubmed publisher
  53. Hama H, Azuma H, Seto H, Kido J, Nagata T. Inhibitory effect of enamel matrix derivative on osteoblastic differentiation of rat calvaria cells in culture. J Periodontal Res. 2008;43:179-85 pubmed publisher