alpha catenin


Summary: A catenin that binds F-ACTIN and links the CYTOSKELETON with BETA CATENIN and GAMMA CATENIN.

Top Publications

  1. Borghi N, Sorokina M, Shcherbakova O, Weis W, PRUITT B, Nelson W, et al. E-cadherin is under constitutive actomyosin-generated tension that is increased at cell-cell contacts upon externally applied stretch. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:12568-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings thus point to a constitutive role of E-cadherin in transducing mechanical forces between the actomyosin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane, not only at cell-cell junctions but throughout the cell surface. ..
  2. Pokutta S, Drees F, Yamada S, Nelson W, Weis W. Biochemical and structural analysis of alpha-catenin in cell-cell contacts. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008;36:141-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus alpha-catenin appears to play a central role in cell-cell contact formation. ..
  3. Lien W, Klezovitch O, Fernandez T, Delrow J, Vasioukhin V. alphaE-catenin controls cerebral cortical size by regulating the hedgehog signaling pathway. Science. 2006;311:1609-12 pubmed
    ..We propose that alphaE-catenin connects cell-density-dependent adherens junctions with the developmental hedgehog pathway and that this connection may provide a negative feedback loop controlling the size of developing cerebral cortex. ..
  4. Lien W, Gelfand V, Vasioukhin V. Alpha-E-catenin binds to dynamitin and regulates dynactin-mediated intracellular traffic. J Cell Biol. 2008;183:989-97 pubmed publisher
  5. Kask M, Pruunsild P, Timmusk T. Bidirectional transcription from human LRRTM2/CTNNA1 and LRRTM1/CTNNA2 gene loci leads to expression of N-terminally truncated CTNNA1 and CTNNA2 isoforms. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;411:56-61 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our results indicate that the haplotype that affects LRRTM1 expression and is associated with schizophrenia and handedness, could also influence the expression of brain-enriched alternative transcripts of CTNNA2. ..
  6. Kim Y, Choi E, Kim J, Kim D, Kim S, Yang W. Expression of E-cadherin and alpha-, beta-, gamma-catenin proteins in endometrial carcinoma. Yonsei Med J. 2002;43:701-11 pubmed
    ..The expression of E-cadherin might be a possible prognostic factor for endometrial cancer while the expression of catenins may help predict patient's survival. ..
  7. Kobielak A, Fuchs E. Alpha-catenin: at the junction of intercellular adhesion and actin dynamics. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2004;5:614-25 pubmed
    ..As the number of alpha-catenin-interacting partners increases, intriguing new connections imply even more complex regulatory functions for this protein. ..
  8. Scott J, Yap A. Cinderella no longer: alpha-catenin steps out of cadherin's shadow. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4599-605 pubmed
    ..alpha-catenin has a role in regulating cell proliferation and cadherin-independent pools of alpha-catenin may contribute to its functional impact. ..
  9. Lechler T, Fuchs E. Desmoplakin: an unexpected regulator of microtubule organization in the epidermis. J Cell Biol. 2007;176:147-54 pubmed
    ..Loss of DP prevents accumulation of cortical microtubules in vivo and in vitro. Our work uncovers a differentiation-specific rearrangement of the microtubule cytoskeleton in epidermis, and defines an essential role for DP in the process...

More Information


  1. Plumb C, Adamcic U, Shahrzad S, Minhas K, Adham S, Coomber B. Modulation of the tumor suppressor protein alpha-catenin by ischemic microenvironment. Am J Pathol. 2009;175:1662-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings illustrate that the tumor microenvironment is a potent modulator of tumor suppressor expression, which has implications for localized nutrient deficiency and ischemia-induced cancer progression. ..
  2. Taguchi K, Ishiuchi T, Takeichi M. Mechanosensitive EPLIN-dependent remodeling of adherens junctions regulates epithelial reshaping. J Cell Biol. 2011;194:643-56 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that epithelial cells remodel their junctional architecture by responding to mechanical forces, and the ?E-catenin-bound EPLIN acts as a mechanosensitive regulator for this process. ..
  3. Matsubara S, Ozawa M. Expression of alpha-catenin in alpha-catenin-deficient cells results in a reduced proliferation in three-dimensional multicellular spheroids but not in two-dimensional monolayer cultures. Oncogene. 2004;23:2694-702 pubmed
    ..Therefore, both the homophilic interaction of the cadherin extracellular domain and the linkage of the cadherin cytoplasmic domain to the actin cytoskeleton by alpha-catenin are necessary for growth control in three-dimensional culture. ..
  4. Pettitt J, Cox E, Broadbent I, Flett A, Hardin J. The Caenorhabditis elegans p120 catenin homologue, JAC-1, modulates cadherin-catenin function during epidermal morphogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2003;162:15-22 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that JAC-1 acts as a positive modulator of cadherin function in C. elegans. ..
  5. Setoyama T, Natsugoe S, Okumura H, Matsumoto M, Uchikado Y, Yokomakura N, et al. alpha-catenin is a significant prognostic factor than E-cadherin in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. J Surg Oncol. 2007;95:148-55 pubmed
    ..The examination of expression of E-cadherin and especially alpha-catenin is useful for predicting lymph node metastasis and clinical outcome of ESCC. ..
  6. Dejana E, Orsenigo F, Lampugnani M. The role of adherens junctions and VE-cadherin in the control of vascular permeability. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:2115-22 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss the possible use of inhibitors of SRC and other kinases, of agents that increase cAMP levels, and of inhibitors of lytic enzymes as pharmacological tools for decreasing endothelial permeability. ..
  7. Cavey M, Rauzi M, Lenne P, Lecuit T. A two-tiered mechanism for stabilization and immobilization of E-cadherin. Nature. 2008;453:751-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Uncoupling stability and mobility of E-cadherin complexes suggests that stable epithelia may remodel through the regulated mobility of very stable adhesive foci. ..
  8. Miller P, Pokutta S, Ghosh A, Almo S, Weis W, Nelson W, et al. Danio rerio ?E-catenin is a monomeric F-actin binding protein with distinct properties from Mus musculus ?E-catenin. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:22324-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, core properties of ?-catenin function, F-actin and ?-catenin binding, are conserved between mouse and zebrafish. We speculate that unique regulatory properties have evolved to match specific developmental requirements...
  9. Shtutman M, Chausovsky A, Prager Khoutorsky M, Schiefermeier N, Boguslavsky S, Kam Z, et al. Signaling function of alpha-catenin in microtubule regulation. Cell Cycle. 2008;7:2377-83 pubmed
    ..Together, these findings suggest that alpha-catenin is able to regulate microtubule dynamics in a centrosome-independent manner. ..
  10. Hamaguchi M, Hamada D, Suzuki K, Sakata I, Yanagihara I. Molecular basis of actin reorganization promoted by binding of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli EspB to alpha-catenin. FEBS J. 2008;275:6260-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results clarified the molecular basis of reorganization of actin filaments during infection with enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli. ..
  11. Perez Moreno M, Fuchs E. Catenins: keeping cells from getting their signals crossed. Dev Cell. 2006;11:601-12 pubmed
    ..These findings reveal novel aspects of AJ function in normal tissues and offer insights into how changes in AJs and their associated proteins and cytoskeletal dynamics impact wound-repair and cancer. ..
  12. Benjamin J, Nelson W. Bench to bedside and back again: molecular mechanisms of alpha-catenin function and roles in tumorigenesis. Semin Cancer Biol. 2008;18:53-64 pubmed
    ..This analysis identifies alpha-catenin as a prognostic factor in cancer progression. ..
  13. Kobielak A, Fuchs E. Links between alpha-catenin, NF-kappaB, and squamous cell carcinoma in skin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:2322-7 pubmed
    ..We show that reductions in alpha-catenin, activation of NF-kappaB, and inflammation are common features of human squamous cell carcinomas of the skin. ..
  14. Chu T, Liu Y. An integrated genomic analysis of gene-function correlation on schizophrenia susceptibility genes. J Hum Genet. 2010;55:285-92 pubmed publisher
    ..It is interesting to note that four of the nine genes are located on chromosome 6, suggesting a special chromosomal vulnerability in schizophrenia. ..
  15. Benjamin J, Kwiatkowski A, Yang C, Korobova F, Pokutta S, Svitkina T, et al. AlphaE-catenin regulates actin dynamics independently of cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:339-52 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, sequestration of cytosolic alphaE-catenin to the plasma membrane reduces membrane dynamics. These results demonstrate that the cytosolic pool of alphaE-catenin regulates actin dynamics independently of cell-cell adhesion. ..
  16. Kwiatkowski A, Maiden S, Pokutta S, Choi H, Benjamin J, Lynch A, et al. In vitro and in vivo reconstitution of the cadherin-catenin-actin complex from Caenorhabditis elegans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:14591-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study defines evolutionarily conserved properties of alpha-catenin and suggests that multiple mechanisms regulate alpha-catenin binding to F-actin. ..
  17. Choi H, Pokutta S, Cadwell G, Bobkov A, Bankston L, Liddington R, et al. ?E-catenin is an autoinhibited molecule that coactivates vinculin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:8576-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The data also imply that ?E-catenin must be activated in order to bind to vinculin...
  18. Bek S, Kemler R. Protein kinase CKII regulates the interaction of beta-catenin with alpha-catenin and its protein stability. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:4743-53 pubmed
    ..From these results we conclude that CKII regulates the function of beta-catenin in the cadherin adhesion complex as well as its cytoplasmic stability. ..
  19. Park B, Nguyen N, Dutt P, Merdek K, Bashar M, Sterpetti P, et al. Association of Lbc Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor with alpha-catenin-related protein, alpha-catulin/CTNNAL1, supports serum response factor activation. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:45361-70 pubmed
    ..These results support the concept that the recently identified alpha-catulin protein may modulate Rho pathway signaling in vivo by providing a scaffold for the Lbc Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor. ..
  20. Park C, Falls W, Finger J, Longo Guess C, Ackerman S. Deletion in Catna2, encoding alpha N-catenin, causes cerebellar and hippocampal lamination defects and impaired startle modulation. Nat Genet. 2002;31:279-84 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that catenin cadherin cell-adhesion complexes are important in cerebellar and hippocampal lamination and in the control of startle modulation. ..
  21. Nakopoulou L, Gakiopoulou Givalou H, Karayiannakis A, Giannopoulou I, Keramopoulos A, Davaris P, et al. Abnormal alpha-catenin expression in invasive breast cancer correlates with poor patient survival. Histopathology. 2002;40:536-46 pubmed
    ..006 and P=0.04, respectively). alpha-Catenin, especially its cytoplasmic expression, seems to be a more sensitive prognostic marker than the other members of the E-cadherin complex in invasive breast cancer. ..
  22. Bajpai S, Feng Y, Krishnamurthy R, Longmore G, Wirtz D. Loss of alpha-catenin decreases the strength of single E-cadherin bonds between human cancer cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:18252-9 pubmed publisher
  23. Ding L, Ellis M, Li S, Larson D, Chen K, Wallis J, et al. Genome remodelling in a basal-like breast cancer metastasis and xenograft. Nature. 2010;464:999-1005 pubmed publisher
    ..The differential mutation frequencies and structural variation patterns in metastasis and xenograft compared with the primary tumour indicate that secondary tumours may arise from a minority of cells within the primary tumour. ..
  24. Maiden S, Hardin J. The secret life of ?-catenin: moonlighting in morphogenesis. J Cell Biol. 2011;195:543-52 pubmed publisher
    ..These multiple functions for ?-catenin converge on the regulation of adhesion and may help to explain its stable yet dynamic nature. ..
  25. Lockwood C, Zaidel Bar R, Hardin J. The C. elegans zonula occludens ortholog cooperates with the cadherin complex to recruit actin during morphogenesis. Curr Biol. 2008;18:1333-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that ZOO-1 cooperates with the cadherin-catenin complex to dynamically regulate strong junctional anchorage to the actin cytoskeleton during morphogenesis. ..
  26. Desai R, Sarpal R, Ishiyama N, Pellikka M, Ikura M, Tepass U. Monomeric ?-catenin links cadherin to the actin cytoskeleton. Nat Cell Biol. 2013;15:261-73 pubmed publisher
  27. Xiang Y, Tan Y, Zhang J, Qin X, Hu B, Wang Y, et al. Wound repair and proliferation of bronchial epithelial cells regulated by CTNNAL1. J Cell Biochem. 2008;103:920-30 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, it may serve to Fn mediated cell-extracellular adhesion and its signal transduction. ..
  28. Wiesner C, Winsauer G, Resch U, Hoeth M, Schmid J, van Hengel J, et al. Alpha-catulin, a Rho signalling component, can regulate NF-kappaB through binding to IKK-beta, and confers resistance to apoptosis. Oncogene. 2008;27:2159-69 pubmed
    ..Together, these features suggest that alpha-catulin has tumorigenic potential. ..
  29. Capaldo C, Macara I. Depletion of E-cadherin disrupts establishment but not maintenance of cell junctions in Madin-Darby canine kidney epithelial cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:189-200 pubmed
  30. Pacquelet A, Rørth P. Regulatory mechanisms required for DE-cadherin function in cell migration and other types of adhesion. J Cell Biol. 2005;170:803-12 pubmed
    ..The nature of this additional function is discussed. ..
  31. Gates J, Peifer M. Can 1000 reviews be wrong? Actin, alpha-Catenin, and adherens junctions. Cell. 2005;123:769-72 pubmed
    ..In this issue of Cell, the Weis and Nelson groups call this static model into question, showing that alpha-catenin can directly regulate actin dynamics (Drees et al., 2005 and Yamada et al., 2005). ..
  32. Fukunaga Y, Liu H, Shimizu M, Komiya S, Kawasuji M, Nagafuchi A. Defining the roles of beta-catenin and plakoglobin in cell-cell adhesion: isolation of beta-catenin/plakoglobin-deficient F9 cells. Cell Struct Funct. 2005;30:25-34 pubmed
    ..Moreover it was suggested that beta-catenin or plakoglobin is required not only for the cell adhesion activity but also for the stable expression and cell surface localization of E-cadherin. ..
  33. Yamada S, Pokutta S, Drees F, Weis W, Nelson W. Deconstructing the cadherin-catenin-actin complex. Cell. 2005;123:889-901 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the linkage between the cadherin-catenin complex and actin filaments is more dynamic than previously appreciated. ..
  34. Pokutta S, Drees F, Takai Y, Nelson W, Weis W. Biochemical and structural definition of the l-afadin- and actin-binding sites of alpha-catenin. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:18868-74 pubmed
    ..alpha-Catenin and the actin-binding protein vinculin share sequence and most likely structural similarity within their actin-binding domains. Despite this homology, actin binding requires additional sequences adjacent to this region. ..
  35. Kofron M, Heasman J, Lang S, Wylie C. Plakoglobin is required for maintenance of the cortical actin skeleton in early Xenopus embryos and for cdc42-mediated wound healing. J Cell Biol. 2002;158:695-708 pubmed
  36. Straub B, Boda J, Kuhn C, Schnoelzer M, Korf U, Kempf T, et al. A novel cell-cell junction system: the cortex adhaerens mosaic of lens fiber cells. J Cell Sci. 2003;116:4985-95 pubmed
    ..We here discuss its possible functional importance for the maintenance of lens structure and functions, notably clear and sharp vision. ..
  37. Navarro C, Nola S, Audebert S, Santoni M, Arsanto J, Ginestier C, et al. Junctional recruitment of mammalian Scribble relies on E-cadherin engagement. Oncogene. 2005;24:4330-9 pubmed
    ..Our data provide additional insights on the modalities of recruitment of hScrib at the cell-cell junctions, and establish a potential link between the E-cadherin and hScrib tumor suppressors. ..
  38. Aaltomaa S, Kärjä V, Lipponen P, Isotalo T, Kankkunen J, Talja M, et al. Reduced alpha- and beta-catenin expression predicts shortened survival in local prostate cancer. Anticancer Res. 2005;25:4707-12 pubmed
    ..016) and low alpha-catenin expression (p = 0.049). Reduced alpha- or beta-catenin expressions are related to malignant phenotype in local prostate cancer and predict PSA failure as well as shortened survival. ..
  39. Sato T, Fujita N, Yamada A, Ooshio T, Okamoto R, Irie K, et al. Regulation of the assembly and adhesion activity of E-cadherin by nectin and afadin for the formation of adherens junctions in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:5288-99 pubmed
    ..Thus, nectin regulates the assembly and cell-cell adhesion activity of E-cadherin through afadin, nectin signaling, and p120(ctn) for the formation of AJs in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells. ..
  40. Kametani Y, Takeichi M. Basal-to-apical cadherin flow at cell junctions. Nat Cell Biol. 2007;9:92-8 pubmed
    ..We propose that cadherin flow may provide a mechanism for facilitating the sliding of the two contacting cell membranes in morphogenetically active cell sheets. ..
  41. Borghi N, Lowndes M, Maruthamuthu V, Gardel M, Nelson W. Regulation of cell motile behavior by crosstalk between cadherin- and integrin-mediated adhesions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:13324-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that there is crosstalk between E-cadherin- and integrin-based adhesion complexes and that E-cadherin regulates lamellipodia activity and cell migration directionality, but not cell migration rate...
  42. Schlegelmilch K, Mohseni M, Kirak O, Pruszak J, Rodriguez J, Zhou D, et al. Yap1 acts downstream of ?-catenin to control epidermal proliferation. Cell. 2011;144:782-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data identify Yap1 as a determinant of the proliferative capacity of epidermal stem cells and as an important effector of a "crowd control" molecular circuitry in mammalian skin. ..
  43. Silvis M, Kreger B, Lien W, Klezovitch O, Rudakova G, Camargo F, et al. ?-catenin is a tumor suppressor that controls cell accumulation by regulating the localization and activity of the transcriptional coactivator Yap1. Sci Signal. 2011;4:ra33 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify ?E-catenin as a tumor suppressor that inhibits Yap1 activity and sequesters it in the cytoplasm. ..
  44. Sawyer J, Harris N, Slep K, Gaul U, Peifer M. The Drosophila afadin homologue Canoe regulates linkage of the actin cytoskeleton to adherens junctions during apical constriction. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:57-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Instead, Cno localizes to AJs by a Rap1- and actin-dependent mechanism. These data suggest that Cno regulates linkage between AJs and the actin cytoskeleton during morphogenesis. ..
  45. Uemura M, Takeichi M. Alpha N-catenin deficiency causes defects in axon migration and nuclear organization in restricted regions of the mouse brain. Dev Dyn. 2006;235:2559-66 pubmed
    ..The ventricular structures were also deformed. These results indicate that alpha N-catenin has diverse roles in the organization of the central nervous system, but only in limited portions of the brain. ..
  46. Abe K, Chisaka O, van Roy F, Takeichi M. Stability of dendritic spines and synaptic contacts is controlled by alpha N-catenin. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:357-63 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, excess alpha N-catenin rendered spines resistant to the TTX treatment. These results suggest that alpha N-catenin is a key regulator for the stability of synaptic contacts. ..
  47. Magie C, Pinto Santini D, Parkhurst S. Rho1 interacts with p120ctn and alpha-catenin, and regulates cadherin-based adherens junction components in Drosophila. Development. 2002;129:3771-82 pubmed
    ..Our observations suggest that alpha-catenin and p120(ctn) are key players in a mechanism of recruiting Rho1 to its sites of action. ..
  48. Yonemura S, Wada Y, Watanabe T, Nagafuchi A, Shibata M. alpha-Catenin as a tension transducer that induces adherens junction development. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:533-42 pubmed publisher
  49. Ji H, Wang J, Fang B, Fang X, Lu Z. ?-Catenin inhibits glioma cell migration, invasion, and proliferation by suppression of ?-catenin transactivation. J Neurooncol. 2011;103:445-51 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal the importance of ?-catenin regulation by ?-catenin in cellular activities of glioblastoma cells. ..
  50. Peng X, Maiers J, Choudhury D, Craig S, DeMali K. ?-Catenin uses a novel mechanism to activate vinculin. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:7728-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data suggest that ?-catenin employs a novel mechanism to activate vinculin and may explain how vinculin is differentially recruited and/or activated in cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesions. ..
  51. Sarpal R, Pellikka M, Patel R, Hui F, Godt D, Tepass U. Mutational analysis supports a core role for Drosophila ?-catenin in adherens junction function. J Cell Sci. 2012;125:233-45 pubmed publisher
    ..We also show that the ?-Cat mutant phenotype can be rescued by the expression of a DE-cadherin::?-Catenin fusion protein, which argues against an essential cytosolic, cadherin-independent role of Drosophila ?-Catenin. ..
  52. Scholten A, Aliredjo R, Creutzberg C, Smit V. Combined E-cadherin, alpha-catenin, and beta-catenin expression is a favorable prognostic factor in endometrial carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer. 2006;16:1379-85 pubmed
    ..02). Negative E-cadherin expression was found to be associated with histologic grade 3 and with NEEC. Combined positive E-cadherin, alpha-catenin, and beta-catenin expression was a significant prognostic factor. ..
  53. Knox A, Brown N. Rap1 GTPase regulation of adherens junction positioning and cell adhesion. Science. 2002;295:1285-8 pubmed
    ..The regulation of adherens junction positioning could play a role in cell mobility and cell division. ..