retinoid x receptor gamma


Summary: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with PPAR ALPHA is important to metabolism of LIPIDS.

Top Publications

  1. Kamei Y, Miura S, Suganami T, Akaike F, Kanai S, Sugita S, et al. Regulation of SREBP1c gene expression in skeletal muscle: role of retinoid X receptor/liver X receptor and forkhead-O1 transcription factor. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2293-305 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide in vivo and in vitro evidence that RXR/LXR up-regulates SREBP1c gene expression and that FOXO1 antagonizes this effect of RXR/LXR in skeletal muscle. ..
  2. Papi A, Rocchi P, Ferreri A, Orlandi M. RXRgamma and PPARgamma ligands in combination to inhibit proliferation and invasiveness in colon cancer cells. Cancer Lett. 2010;297:65-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, IIF potentiated PPAR transcriptional activity by enhancement of peroxisome proliferator response elements transactivation. ..
  3. Wietrzych M, Meziane H, Sutter A, Ghyselinck N, Chapman P, Chambon P, et al. Working memory deficits in retinoid X receptor gamma-deficient mice. Learn Mem. 2005;12:318-26 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of this modulation is potentially related to functions of RXRgamma in frontal and perirhinal cortex, structures in which we detected RXRgamma expression and which are functionally implicated in working memory processes. ..
  4. Nohara A, Kawashiri M, Claudel T, Mizuno M, Tsuchida M, Takata M, et al. High frequency of a retinoid X receptor gamma gene variant in familial combined hyperlipidemia that associates with atherogenic dyslipidemia. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2007;27:923-8 pubmed
    ..01). In vitro, RXRgamma Ser14 showed significantly stronger repression of the lipoprotein lipase promoter than RXRgamma Gly14. These findings suggest that RXRgamma contributes to the genetic background of FCHL. ..
  5. Cossette S, Drysdale T. Early expression of thyroid hormone receptor beta and retinoid X receptor gamma in the Xenopus embryo. Differentiation. 2004;72:239-49 pubmed
    ..b>Retinoid X receptor gamma (RXR gamma), a potential dimerization partner for XTR beta, was also found to be expressed in the retina ..
  6. Iwamuro S, Yamada M, Kato M, Kikuyama S. Effects of bisphenol A on thyroid hormone-dependent up-regulation of thyroid hormone receptor alpha and beta and down-regulation of retinoid X receptor gamma in Xenopus tail culture. Life Sci. 2006;79:2165-71 pubmed
  7. Krzyzosiak A, Szyszka Niagolov M, Wietrzych M, Gobaille S, Muramatsu S, Krezel W. Retinoid x receptor gamma control of affective behaviors involves dopaminergic signaling in mice. Neuron. 2010;66:908-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined, our data argue that control of NAc D2r expression is critical for Rxrgamma-mediated modulation of affective behaviors. ..
  8. Roberts M, Hendrickson A, McGuire C, Reh T. Retinoid X receptor (gamma) is necessary to establish the S-opsin gradient in cone photoreceptors of the developing mouse retina. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005;46:2897-904 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate a critical role for RXRs in regulating cell differentiation in the CNS and highlight a remarkable conservation of opsin regulation from Drosophila to mammals. ..
  9. Grave N, Tovo Rodrigues L, da Silveira J, Rovaris D, Dal Bosco S, Contini V, et al. A vitamin D pathway gene-gene interaction affects low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. J Nutr Biochem. 2016;38:12-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We analyzed the rs2228570 polymorphism in the vitamin D receptor gene (VDR), rs2134095 in the retinoid X receptor gamma gene (RXRG) and rs7041 in the vitamin D-binding protein gene (GC)...

More Information


  1. Passoni M, De Conti L, Baralle M, Buratti E. UG repeats/TDP-43 interactions near 5' splice sites exert unpredictable effects on splicing modulation. J Mol Biol. 2012;415:46-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The general rule that can be drawn at the moment is that the importance of UG repeats near 5' splice sites should always be experimentally validated on a case-by-case basis. ..
  2. Cras A, Politis B, Balitrand N, Darsin Bettinger D, Boelle P, Cassinat B, et al. Bexarotene via CBP/p300 induces suppression of NF-?B-dependent cell growth and invasion in thyroid cancer. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:442-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights dual mechanisms by which retinoids and rexinoids may target cell tumorigenicity, not only via RARs and RXRs, as expected, but also via NF-?B pathway. ..
  3. Kalra R, Bapat S. Expression proteomics predicts loss of RXR-? during progression of epithelial ovarian cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70398 pubmed publisher
  4. Huang M, Xu S, Zan L, Zhang L, Gao X, Chen J. [Genetic variation in RXRG gene and its relationship with twinning trait in cattle]. Yi Chuan. 2008;30:190-4 pubmed
    ..05). The chi(2) test of associational analysis between genotypic distribution and twinning or monotocous trait in Luxi cows showed that the difference was very significant (Plt;0.01). ..
  5. Klopper J, Hays W, Sharma V, Baumbusch M, Hershman J, Haugen B. Retinoid X receptor-gamma and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma expression predicts thyroid carcinoma cell response to retinoid and thiazolidinedione treatment. Mol Cancer Ther. 2004;3:1011-20 pubmed
    ..Additionally, expression of both RXRgamma and PPARgamma may be necessary for maximal growth inhibition by ligands and may be required for the increased apoptosis. ..
  6. Sugita S, Kamei Y, Akaike F, Suganami T, Kanai S, Hattori M, et al. Increased systemic glucose tolerance with increased muscle glucose uptake in transgenic mice overexpressing RXR? in skeletal muscle. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e20467 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show the importance of skeletal muscle gene regulation in systemic glucose metabolism. Increasing RXR? expression may be a novel therapeutic strategy against type 2 diabetes. ..
  7. Zhao P, Liao Q, Ren C, Wei J. Identification of ligand binding site on RXR? using molecular docking and dynamics methods. J Mol Model. 2011;17:1259-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Consequently, the ligand in RXR? undergoes a "standing" posing which is distinct from the other two RXRs. ..
  8. Leung W, Vong Q, Lin W, Janke L, Chen T, Leung W. Modulation of NKG2D ligand expression and metastasis in tumors by spironolactone via RXR? activation. J Exp Med. 2013;210:2675-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results strongly support the use of SPIR or other RXR? agonists with minimal side effects for colon cancer prevention and therapy. ..
  9. Papi A, Tatenhorst L, Terwel D, Hermes M, Kummer M, Orlandi M, et al. PPARgamma and RXRgamma ligands act synergistically as potent antineoplastic agents in vitro and in vivo glioma models. J Neurochem. 2009;109:1779-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate the effectiveness of a combined treatment of ligands of proliferator-activated receptor and retinoid X receptor against glioblastoma. ..
  10. Dong A, Wei J, Gao Q. 3D-pharmacophore model for RXR(gamma) agonists. Neurochem Int. 2009;54:286-91 pubmed publisher
    ..It could predict agonist activity and identify highly potent molecules. The present results are valuable to discover and develop specific RXR(gamma) agonists with desired biological activities. ..
  11. Papi A, Govoni M, Ciavarella C, Spisni E, Orlandi M, Farabegoli F. Epigallocatechin-3-gallate Increases RXRγ-mediated Pro-apoptotic and Anti-invasive Effects in Gastrointestinal Cancer Cell Lines. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2016;16:373-85 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the use of specific RXR ligands in combination with catechins could open a new perspective in gastrointestinal tumor chemoprevention. ..
  12. Romeo S, Menzaghi C, Bruno R, Sentinelli F, Fallarino M, Fioretti F, et al. Search for genetic variants in the retinoid X receptor-gamma-gene by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone without mutations in thyroid hormone receptor beta gene. Thyroid. 2004;14:355-8 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, in patients with RTH we have found two SNPs in the RXR-gamma gene; these SNPS are common in the general population, thus excluding a role for the RXR-gamma gene in these patients. ..
  13. Koda T, Imai H, Morita M. Antiestrogenic activity of vitamin A in in vivo uterotrophic assay. Life Sci. 2007;80:945-9 pubmed
    ..mRNA expression levels of estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha), retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR beta), retinoid X receptor gamma (RXR gamma) and cellular retinol-binding protein I (CRBP I) were found to have significantly increased ..
  14. Mamo S, Ponsuksili S, Wimmers K, Gilles M, Schellander K. Expression of retinoid X receptor transcripts and their significance for developmental competence in in vitro-produced pre-implantation-stage bovine embryos. Reprod Domest Anim. 2005;40:177-83 pubmed
    ..Primers were also designed to amplify products with PCR. Based on analysis, except retinoid X receptor gamma (RXRG) transcripts, the remaining two types (alpha and beta forms) were expressed in all samples with ..
  15. Metzger D, Imai T, Jiang M, Takukawa R, Desvergne B, Wahli W, et al. Functional role of RXRs and PPARgamma in mature adipocytes. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2005;73:51-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, in adipocytes, RXRalpha is essential for lipogenesis, but RXRgamma can functionally replace RXRalpha for the adipocyte vital functions exerted by PPARgamma/RXR heterodimers. ..
  16. Chiba H, Sakai N, Murata M, Osanai M, Ninomiya T, Kojima T, et al. The nuclear receptor hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha acts as a morphogen to induce the formation of microvilli. J Cell Biol. 2006;175:971-80 pubmed
    ..We conclude that HNF4alpha acts as a morphogen to trigger microvillus formation. ..
  17. Gernert D, Neel D, Boehm M, Leibowitz M, Mais D, Michellys P, et al. Design and synthesis of benzofused heterocyclic RXR modulators. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004;14:2759-63 pubmed
    ..Potency and efficacy were observed to be dependent upon the choice of heterocycle as well as the sidechain employed. ..
  18. Mumcuoglu M, Gurkan Alp A, Buyukbingol E, Cetin Atalay R. Retinoid N-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalene-2-carboxamide induces p21-dependent senescence in breast cancer cells. Steroids. 2016;108:31-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, siRNA knockdown studies with RXRγ induced decrease in cell proliferation. Therefore, we suggest that retinoid derivatives that target RXRγ, can be considered for breast cancer therapies. ..
  19. Lee S, Privalsky M. Heterodimers of retinoic acid receptors and thyroid hormone receptors display unique combinatorial regulatory properties. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:863-78 pubmed
    ..Our studies indicate that RXRs are not unique in their ability to partner with TRs, and that RARs can also serve as robust heterodimer partners and combinatorial regulators of T3-modulated gene expression. ..
  20. Cimini A, Benedetti E, Cristiano L, Sebastiani P, D Amico M, D Angelo B, et al. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and retinoic acid receptors (RXRs) in rat cortical neurons. Neuroscience. 2005;130:325-37 pubmed
    ..In particular, we point toward the PPARbeta/delta isotype as a key factor in neuronal differentiation. ..
  21. Latasa M, Cosgaya J. Regulation of retinoid receptors by retinoic acid and axonal contact in Schwann cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17023 pubmed publisher
    ..All together, our results show that retinoid receptors are regulated in a complex manner in Schwann cells, suggesting that they could have a prominent role as regulators of Schwann cell physiology. ..
  22. Bergman B, Perreault L, Hunerdosse D, Koehler M, Samek A, Eckel R. Intramuscular lipid metabolism in the insulin resistance of smoking. Diabetes. 2009;58:2220-7 pubmed publisher
  23. Goikoetxea M, Beaumont J, Gonzalez A, López B, Querejeta R, Larman M, et al. Altered cardiac expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-isoforms in patients with hypertensive heart disease. Cardiovasc Res. 2006;69:899-907 pubmed
    ..An excess of the truncated inhibitory isoform may be involved in hypertensive left ventricular failure and remodeling. ..
  24. Kameue C, Tsukahara T, Ushida K. Alteration of gene expression in the colon of colorectal cancer model rat by dietary sodium gluconate. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006;70:606-14 pubmed
    ..In other words, the antitumorigenic effect of GNA may involve the regulation of the retinoid signaling pathway by butyrate in a retinoid-independent manner. ..
  25. Fleet J. Renal cell cancer and nuclear receptor levels--biomarkers or functionally relevant?. J Urol. 2007;178:1144-5 pubmed
  26. Obara W, Konda R, Akasaka S, Nakamura S, Sugawara A, Fujioka T. Prognostic significance of vitamin D receptor and retinoid X receptor expression in renal cell carcinoma. J Urol. 2007;178:1497-503 pubmed
    ..In contrast, retinoid X receptor gamma expression correlated significantly with tumor stage (p = 0.009) and distant metastasis (p = 0.005)...
  27. Krätzner R, Fröhlich F, Lepler K, Schröder M, Röher K, Dickel C, et al. A peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-retinoid X receptor heterodimer physically interacts with the transcriptional activator PAX6 to inhibit glucagon gene transcription. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;73:509-17 pubmed
    ..These data define PAX6 as a novel physical target of PPARgamma-RXR. ..
  28. Vernet N, Dennefeld C, Guillou F, Chambon P, Ghyselinck N, Mark M. Prepubertal testis development relies on retinoic acid but not rexinoid receptors in Sertoli cells. EMBO J. 2006;25:5816-25 pubmed
  29. Bremner R. Retinoblastoma, an inside job. Cell. 2009;137:992-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Why are some cell types more prone to transformation than others? In this issue, Xu et al. (2009) show that retinoblastoma cells co-opt several intrinsic features of cone photoreceptors for their survival and growth. ..
  30. Peng X, Yun D, Christov K. Breast cancer progression in MCF10A series of cell lines is associated with alterations in retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors and with differential response to retinoids. Int J Oncol. 2004;25:961-71 pubmed
  31. Sun D, Yang Y, Jiang H, Wu H, Ojaimi C, Kaley G, et al. Roles of CYP2C29 and RXR gamma in vascular EET synthesis of female mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2010;298:R862-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Microarray analysis indicated a significant upregulation of CYP2C29 and retinoid X receptor gamma (RXRgamma) in isolated mesenteric arteries/arterioles of female endothelial nitric oxide synthase-..
  32. Papi A, Ferreri A, Guerra F, Orlandi M. Anti-invasive effects and proapoptotic activity induction by the rexinoid IIF and valproic acid in combination on colon cancer cell lines. Anticancer Res. 2012;32:2855-62 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, VPA and IIF have strong proapoptotic and anti-invasive effects in the HT-29 colon cancer cell line and their effects are enhanced when used together. ..
  33. Hsieh C, Pei D, Hung Y, Hsiao F. Association between retinoid-X receptor-gamma genetic polymorphisms and diabetic retinopathy. Genet Mol Res. 2011;10:3545-51 pubmed publisher
    ..388; 95% confidence interval = 1.17-4.875). We conclude that the RXR-gamma rs3818569 SNP is associated with diabetic retinopathy development in the Taiwanese population. ..
  34. Wietrzych Schindler M, Szyszka Niagolov M, Ohta K, Endo Y, Pérez E, de Lera A, et al. Retinoid x receptor gamma is implicated in docosahexaenoic acid modulation of despair behaviors and working memory in mice. Biol Psychiatry. 2011;69:788-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that RXRs are a converging point in mediating DHA and RA modulations of despair behavior and working memory and that RXR? is the predominant RXR isotype in these regulations. ..
  35. Hu C, Jia W, Wang C, Zhang R, Ma X, Fang Q, et al. [An analysis method to apply linkage disequilibrium maps to association study]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi. 2007;24:495-8 pubmed
    ..This method may be applied to analyze the data from association studies with high throughput SNPs genotype information. ..
  36. Takamatsu K, Takano A, Yakushiji N, Morishita K, Matsuura N, Makishima M, et al. Reduction of lipophilicity at the lipophilic domain of RXR agonists enables production of subtype preference: RXRalpha-preferential agonist possessing a sulfonamide moiety. ChemMedChem. 2008;3:454-60 pubmed
    ..Our finding will be useful for the creation of more potent and less-lipophilic subtype-selective RXR agonists aimed at the reduction of undesirable side effects. ..
  37. Shen O, Wu W, Du G, Liu R, Yu L, Sun H, et al. Thyroid disruption by Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and mono-n-butyl phthalate (MBP) in Xenopus laevis. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19159 pubmed publisher
    ..changes of expression of selected thyroid hormone response genes: thyroid hormone receptor-beta (TR?), retinoid X receptor gamma (RXR?), alpha and beta subunits of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH? and TSH?) were detected by qPCR at ..
  38. Macejova D, Galbavy S, Podoba J, Bialešová L, Brtko J. mRNA expression pattern of retinoic acid and retinoid X nuclear receptor subtypes in human thyroid papillary carcinoma. Oncol Rep. 2013;30:2371-8 pubmed publisher
  39. Pushpakom S, Owen A, Back D, Pirmohamed M. RXR? gene variants are associated with HIV lipodystrophy. Pharmacogenet Genomics. 2013;23:438-41 pubmed publisher
    ..These results need replication in other cohorts. ..
  40. Hsieh C, Liang K, Hung Y, Huang L, Pei D, Liao Y, et al. Analysis of epistasis for diabetic nephropathy among type 2 diabetic patients. Hum Mol Genet. 2006;15:2701-8 pubmed
    ..A two-locus epistatic effect of EGFR and RXRG was identified, with a cross-validation consistency of 91.7%. ..
  41. Liu Z, Zhou G, Nakamura M, Bai Y, Li Y, Ozaki T, et al. Retinoid X receptor ? up-regulation is correlated with dedifferentiation of tumor cells and lymph node metastasis in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Pathol Int. 2011;61:109-15 pubmed publisher
    ..545; 95% confidence interval: 1.575-27.208) of LNM using multivariate analysis. These results suggest that RXR? may play a role in the dedifferentiation and metastasis of PTC. ..
  42. Feart C, Vallortigara J, Higueret D, Gatta B, Tabarin A, Enderlin V, et al. Decreased expression of retinoid nuclear receptor (RAR alpha and RAR gamma) mRNA determined by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of hypothyroid patients. J Mol Endocrinol. 2005;34:849-58 pubmed
    ..Further investigations will be necessary to evaluate these parameters in very small changes in thyroid hormone production such as mild (subclinical) hypothyroidism. ..
  43. Ricaud S, Vernus B, Bonnieu A. Response of human rhabdomyosarcoma cell lines to retinoic acid: relationship with induction of differentiation and retinoic acid sensitivity. Exp Cell Res. 2005;311:192-204 pubmed
    ..These studies demonstrate that RA-resistance of RD cells is linked to their lack of differentiation and suggest that the differentiation-promoting activity of RA requires factors other than RAR-RXR heterodimers. ..
  44. Bi Y, Gong M, Zhang X, Zhang X, Jiang W, Zhang Y, et al. Pre-activation of retinoid signaling facilitates neuronal differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. Dev Growth Differ. 2010;52:419-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our results demonstrate that pre-activation of retinoid signaling by ATRA facilitates neuronal differentiation of MSCs. ..
  45. Xu X, Fang Y, Lee T, Forrest D, Gregory Evans C, Almeida D, et al. Retinoblastoma has properties of a cone precursor tumor and depends upon cone-specific MDM2 signaling. Cell. 2009;137:1018-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide support for a cone precursor origin of retinoblastoma and suggest that human cone-specific signaling circuitry sensitizes to the oncogenic effects of RB1 mutations. ..
  46. Hasstedt S, Chu W, Das S, Wang H, Elbein S. Type 2 diabetes susceptibility genes on chromosome 1q21-24. Ann Hum Genet. 2008;72:163-9 pubmed publisher
    ..with calsequestrin 1 (CASQ1) rs617698, dual specificity phosphatase 12 (DUSP12) rs1503814, and retinoid X receptor gamma (RXRG) rs10918169, a poly-T insertion-deletion polymorphism in liver pyruvate kinase (PKLR) interacting ..
  47. Kobayashi T, Kodani Y, Nozawa A, Endo Y, Sawasaki T. DNA-binding profiling of human hormone nuclear receptors via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy in a cell-free system. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:2737-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study provides a novel biochemical classification of the human NHRs, as well as describing a novel approach to the large-scale analysis of DNA-protein interactions...
  48. Stevens C, Cameron D, Stenkamp D. Plasticity of photoreceptor-generating retinal progenitors revealed by prolonged retinoic acid exposure. BMC Dev Biol. 2011;11:51 pubmed publisher
    ..In zebrafish RA may influence the rod vs. cone cell fate decision. The RAR?b receptor mediates the effects of endogenous, as well as exogenous RA, on rod development. ..
  49. Sakuta T, Kanayama T. Comedolytic effect of a novel RARgamma-specific retinoid, ER36009: comparison with retinoic acid in the rhino mouse model. Eur J Dermatol. 2005;15:459-64 pubmed
    ..It also eliminated apoptosis of the follicular epidermis and restored normal apoptosis at the granular layer. These data indicate that ER36009 is a potent comedolytic agent compared with other currently available retinoids. ..
  50. Amengual J, Ribot J, Bonet M, Palou A. Retinoic acid treatment increases lipid oxidation capacity in skeletal muscle of mice. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008;16:585-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Skeletal muscle protein levels of PPARdelta and retinoid X receptor gamma, a partner for many nuclear receptors involved in lipid metabolism, were increased after ATRA treatment...
  51. Ross A, Bell L, Littlewood P, Mercer J, Barrett P, Morgan P. Temporal changes in gene expression in the arcuate nucleus precede seasonal responses in adiposity and reproduction. Endocrinology. 2005;146:1940-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, genes described here are related to photoperiodic programming of the neuroendocrine hypothalamus through expression responses within a subdivision of the arcuate nucleus. ..
  52. Ricote M, Snyder C, Leung H, Chen J, Chien K, Glass C. Normal hematopoiesis after conditional targeting of RXRalpha in murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;80:850-61 pubmed