retinoid x receptor alpha


Summary: A nuclear transcription factor. Heterodimerization with PPAR GAMMA is important in regulation of GLUCOSE metabolism and CELL GROWTH PROCESSES.

Top Publications

  1. Lengqvist J, Mata de Urquiza A, Bergman A, Willson T, Sjövall J, Perlmann T, et al. Polyunsaturated fatty acids including docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid bind to the retinoid X receptor alpha ligand-binding domain. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2004;3:692-703 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results show that RXR binds PUFAs in solution and that these compounds induce receptor activation, suggesting that RXR could function as a fatty acid receptor in vivo. ..
  2. Chorley B, Campbell M, Wang X, Karaca M, Sambandan D, Bangura F, et al. Identification of novel NRF2-regulated genes by ChIP-Seq: influence on retinoid X receptor alpha. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:7416-29 pubmed publisher
    ..the expression of about two-thirds of the candidates are likely to be directly NRF2-dependent including retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA). NRF2 regulation of RXRA has implications for response to retinoid treatments and adipogenesis...
  3. Zimmerman T, Thevananther S, Ghose R, Burns A, Karpen S. Nuclear export of retinoid X receptor alpha in response to interleukin-1beta-mediated cell signaling: roles for JNK and SER260. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15434-40 pubmed
    As the obligate heterodimer partner to class II nuclear receptors, the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) plays a vital physiological role in the regulation of multiple hepatic functions, including bile formation, intermediary ..
  4. Ando N, Shimizu M, Okuno M, Matsushima Nishiwaki R, Tsurumi H, Tanaka T, et al. Expression of retinoid X receptor alpha is decreased in 3'-methyl-4-dimethylaminoazobenzene-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:879-84 pubmed
  5. Lefebvre B, Benomar Y, Guédin A, Langlois A, Hennuyer N, Dumont J, et al. Proteasomal degradation of retinoid X receptor alpha reprograms transcriptional activity of PPARgamma in obese mice and humans. J Clin Invest. 2010;120:1454-68 pubmed publisher
    ..esterase L1 (UCH-L1) and with increased degradation of the PPARgamma heterodimerization partner retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha), but not RXRbeta, in visceral WAT from obese humans and mice...
  6. Yang X, Guo M, Wan Y. Deregulation of growth factor, circadian clock, and cell cycle signaling in regenerating hepatocyte RXRalpha-deficient mouse livers. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:733-43 pubmed publisher
    ..As many of these observed changes were not documented in the regenerating livers of other nuclear receptor knockout mice, these observed effects may be hepatocyte RXRalpha specific. ..
  7. Garcia Bates T, Baglole C, Bernard M, Murant T, Simpson Haidaris P, Phipps R. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands enhance human B cell antibody production and differentiation. J Immunol. 2009;183:6903-12 pubmed publisher
    ..These new findings indicate that low doses of PPARgamma/RXRalpha ligands could be used as a new type of adjuvant to stimulate Ab production. ..
  8. Zhou H, Liu W, Su Y, Wei Z, Liu J, Kolluri S, et al. NSAID sulindac and its analog bind RXRalpha and inhibit RXRalpha-dependent AKT signaling. Cancer Cell. 2010;17:560-73 pubmed publisher
    ..K-80003 displayed enhanced efficacy in inhibiting tRXRalpha-dependent AKT activation and tRXRalpha tumor growth in animals. ..
  9. Roszer T, Menéndez Gutiérrez M, Lefterova M, Alameda D, Núñez V, Lazar M, et al. Autoimmune kidney disease and impaired engulfment of apoptotic cells in mice with macrophage peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma or retinoid X receptor alpha deficiency. J Immunol. 2011;186:621-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that stimulation of PPAR? and RXR? in macrophages facilitates apoptotic cell engulfment, and they provide a potential strategy to avoid autoimmunity against dying cells and to attenuate SLE. ..

More Information


  1. Kanemura N, Tsurumi H, Okuno M, Matsushima Nishiwaki R, Shimizu M, Moriwaki H. Retinoid X receptor alpha is highly phosphorylated in retinoic acid-resistant HL-60R cells and the combination of 9-cis retinoic acid plus MEK inhibitor induces apoptosis in the cells. Leuk Res. 2008;32:884-92 pubmed
    We examined the effects of 9-cis retinoic acid (RA) on the expression levels of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR alpha) and its phosphorylated form (p-RXR alpha) in HL-60 and HL-60R cells...
  2. Yoshimura K, Muto Y, Shimizu M, Matsushima Nishiwaki R, Okuno M, Takano Y, et al. Phosphorylated retinoid X receptor alpha loses its heterodimeric activity with retinoic acid receptor beta. Cancer Sci. 2007;98:1868-74 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the inhibition of RXRalpha phosphorylation and the restoration of its original function as a master regulator of nuclear receptors might therefore be an effective strategy for controlling cancer cell growth. ..
  3. Yamazaki K, Shimizu M, Okuno M, Matsushima Nishiwaki R, Kanemura N, Araki H, et al. Synergistic effects of RXR alpha and PPAR gamma ligands to inhibit growth in human colon cancer cells--phosphorylated RXR alpha is a critical target for colon cancer management. Gut. 2007;56:1557-63 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the inhibition of phosphorylation of RX R alpha and the activation of the RXR-PPAR gamma heterodimer by their respective ligands may be useful in the chemoprevention and/or treatment of colorectal cancer. ..
  4. Kosters A, Tian F, Wan Y, Wan Y, Karpen S. Gene-specific alterations of hepatic gene expression by ligand activation or hepatocyte-selective inhibition of retinoid X receptor-? signalling during inflammation. Liver Int. 2012;32:321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Inflammation-mediated reduction of nuclear RXR? levels is a main factor in reduced nuclear receptor (NR)-regulated hepatic gene expression, eventually leading to cholestasis and liver damage...
  5. Singh R, Gururaj A, Vadlamudi R, Kumar R. 9-cis-retinoic acid up-regulates expression of transcriptional coregulator PELP1, a novel coactivator of the retinoid X receptor alpha pathway. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:15394-404 pubmed
    b>Retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha), functioning as either a homodimer or a heterodimer with peroxisome proliferator receptors, is known to be involved in manifesting antiproliferative effects in cells...
  6. Li G, Yin W, Chamberlain R, Hewett Emmett D, Roberts J, Yang X, et al. Identification and characterization of the human retinoid X receptor alpha gene promoter. Gene. 2006;372:118-27 pubmed
    ..In addition, the 5' untranslated region of RXRalpha is highly G+C rich, resulting in a potentially stable folding pattern, that would place RXRalpha amongst a group of genes that are subject to regulation at the translational level. ..
  7. Ribot J, Felipe F, Bonet M, Palou A. Retinoic acid administration and vitamin A status modulate retinoid X receptor alpha and retinoic acid receptor alpha levels in mouse brown adipose tissue. Mol Cell Biochem. 2004;266:25-30 pubmed
    ..previously shown to down-regulate the steady state levels of retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) in primary brown adipocytes differentiated in culture...
  8. Ravnskjaer K, Boergesen M, Rubi B, Larsen J, Nielsen T, Fridriksson J, et al. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) potentiates, whereas PPARgamma attenuates, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta-cells. Endocrinology. 2005;146:3266-76 pubmed
    ..In this study we show that adenoviral coexpression of PPARalpha and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) in INS-1E beta-cells synergistically and in a dose- and ligand-dependent manner increases the ..
  9. Cao X, Liu W, Lin F, Li H, Kolluri S, Lin B, et al. Retinoid X receptor regulates Nur77/TR3-dependent apoptosis [corrected] by modulating its nuclear export and mitochondrial targeting. Mol Cell Biol. 2004;24:9705-25 pubmed
    ..Together, our results reveal a novel nongenotropic function of RXRalpha and its involvement in the regulation of the Nur77-dependent apoptotic pathway [corrected] ..
  10. Gyamfi M, Tanaka Y, He L, Klaassen C, Wan Y. Hepatic effects of a methionine-choline-deficient diet in hepatocyte RXRalpha-null mice. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2009;234:166-78 pubmed publisher
    ..9-fold) only in the H-RXRalpha-null mice. In conclusion, these data suggest a critical role for RXRalpha in hepatic fatty acid homeostasis and protection against MCD-induced hepatocyte injury. ..
  11. Guo M, Gong L, He L, Lehman McKeeman L, Wan Y. Hepatocyte RXRalpha deficiency in matured and aged mice: impact on the expression of cancer-related hepatic genes in a gender-specific manner. BMC Genomics. 2008;9:403 pubmed publisher
    ..Signaling pathways regulated by retinoid x receptor alpha (RXRalpha) are involved in hepatocellular carcinogenesis...
  12. Otto T, Fandrey J. Thyroid hormone induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha gene expression through thyroid hormone receptor beta/retinoid x receptor alpha-dependent activation of hepatic leukemia factor. Endocrinology. 2008;149:2241-50 pubmed publisher
    ..subunit mRNA and protein within a few hours through activation of the thyroid hormone receptor beta retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimer because knockdown of each of the partners abrogated the stimulation by T(3)...
  13. Macoritto M, Nguyen Yamamoto L, Huang D, Samuel S, Yang X, Wang T, et al. Phosphorylation of the human retinoid X receptor alpha at serine 260 impairs coactivator(s) recruitment and induces hormone resistance to multiple ligands. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:4943-56 pubmed
    The retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that regulates transcription of target genes through heterodimerization with several partners, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, ..
  14. Gyamfi M, He L, French S, Damjanov I, Wan Y. Hepatocyte retinoid X receptor alpha-dependent regulation of lipid homeostasis and inflammatory cytokine expression contributes to alcohol-induced liver injury. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008;324:443-53 pubmed
    Hepatocyte retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha)-deficient mice are more sensitive to ethanol toxicity than wild-type mice...
  15. Wu C, Gilroy R, Taylor R, Olyaee M, Abdulkarim B, Forster J, et al. Alteration of hepatic nuclear receptor-mediated signaling pathways in hepatitis C virus patients with and without a history of alcohol drinking. Hepatology. 2011;54:1966-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that those genes and pathways that showed altered expression could potentially be therapeutic targets for HCV infection and/or alcohol drinking-induced liver injury. ..
  16. Ogura Y, Suruga K, Takase S, Goda T. Developmental changes of the expression of the genes regulated by retinoic acid in the small intestine of rats. Life Sci. 2005;77:2804-13 pubmed
    ..b>Retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) mRNA and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) mRNA levels in the small intestine showed ..
  17. Wakabayashi K, Okamura M, Tsutsumi S, Nishikawa N, Tanaka T, Sakakibara I, et al. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma/retinoid X receptor alpha heterodimer targets the histone modification enzyme PR-Set7/Setd8 gene and regulates adipogenesis through a positive feedback loop. Mol Cell Biol. 2009;29:3544-55 pubmed publisher genes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) and its partner protein retinoid X receptor alpha during adipogenesis...
  18. Dai G, Chou N, He L, Gyamfi M, Mendy A, Slitt A, et al. Retinoid X receptor alpha Regulates the expression of glutathione s-transferase genes and modulates acetaminophen-glutathione conjugation in mouse liver. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;68:1590-6 pubmed
    ..This report reveals a potential novel strategy to enhance the detoxification of APAP or other xenobiotics by manipulating Gst activity through RXRalpha-mediated pathways. ..
  19. Bukowski R, Hankins G, Saade G, Anderson G, Thornton S. Labor-associated gene expression in the human uterine fundus, lower segment, and cervix. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e169 pubmed
  20. Gyamfi M, Wan Y. Mechanisms of resistance of hepatocyte retinoid X receptor alpha-null mice to WY-14,643-induced hepatocyte proliferation and cholestasis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9321-30 pubmed publisher
    ..We have examined the role of hepatocyte retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha), an essential partner of PPARalpha, in modulating WY-14,643-induced hepatocyte proliferation ..
  21. Kosters A, White D, Sun H, Thevananther S, Karpen S. Redundant roles for cJun-N-terminal kinase 1 and 2 in interleukin-1beta-mediated reduction and modification of murine hepatic nuclear retinoid X receptor alpha. J Hepatol. 2009;51:898-908 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha), the heterodimeric partner for multiple nuclear receptors (NRs), was shown to be an essential target for inflammation-induced cJun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in vitro...
  22. Gillio Meina C, Phang S, Mather J, Knight B, Kennedy T. Expression patterns and role of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthases, prostaglandin E synthases, prostacyclin synthase, prostacyclin receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta and retinoid x receptor alpha in rat endometrium during ar. Reproduction. 2009;137:537-52 pubmed publisher
    ..synthase (PTGIS), prostacyclin receptor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) and retinoid x receptor alpha (RXRA) in endometrium was assessed by semiquantitative RT-PCR, western blot analyses and ..
  23. Ovsyannikova I, Dhiman N, Haralambieva I, Vierkant R, O Byrne M, Jacobson R, et al. Rubella vaccine-induced cellular immunity: evidence of associations with polymorphisms in the Toll-like, vitamin A and D receptors, and innate immune response genes. Hum Genet. 2010;127:207-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first paper to present evidence that polymorphisms in the TLR, vitamin A, vitamin D receptor, and innate immunity genes can influence adaptive cytokine responses to rubella vaccination. ..
  24. Gyamfi M, Kocsis M, He L, Dai G, Mendy A, Wan Y. The role of retinoid X receptor alpha in regulating alcohol metabolism. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2006;319:360-8 pubmed
    ..There is substantial overlap in retinol and alcohol metabolism. Mice that lack retinoic acid (RA) receptor retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) expression in the liver are more susceptible to alcoholic liver disease...
  25. Chandra V, Huang P, Hamuro Y, Raghuram S, Wang Y, Burris T, et al. Structure of the intact PPAR-gamma-RXR- nuclear receptor complex on DNA. Nature. 2008;456:350-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The PPAR-gamma LBD cooperates with both DNA-binding domains (DBDs) to enhance response-element binding. The A/B segments are highly dynamic, lacking folded substructures despite their gene-activation properties. ..
  26. Rochel N, Ciesielski F, Godet J, Moman E, Roessle M, Peluso Iltis C, et al. Common architecture of nuclear receptor heterodimers on DNA direct repeat elements with different spacings. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:564-70 pubmed publisher
    ..The results reveal two additional features: the conserved position of the ligand-binding domains at the 5' ends of the target DNAs and the binding of only one coactivator molecule per heterodimer, to RXR's partner. ..
  27. Shimizu M, Takai K, Moriwaki H. Strategy and mechanism for the prevention of hepatocellular carcinoma: phosphorylated retinoid X receptor alpha is a critical target for hepatocellular carcinoma chemoprevention. Cancer Sci. 2009;100:369-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Acyclic retinoid, which targets phosphorylated RXRalpha, may thus play a critical role in preventing the development of multicentric HCC. ..
  28. Volate S, Muga S, Issa A, Nitcheva D, Smith T, Wargovich M. Epigenetic modulation of the retinoid X receptor alpha by green tea in the azoxymethane-Apc Min/+ mouse model of intestinal cancer. Mol Carcinog. 2009;48:920-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that a low concentration of GT is sufficient to desilence RXR alpha and inhibit intestinal tumorigenesis in the Apc(Min/+) mouse...
  29. Tatebe H, Shimizu M, Shirakami Y, Tsurumi H, Moriwaki H. Synergistic growth inhibition by 9-cis-retinoic acid plus trastuzumab in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:2806-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This combination might therefore be effective for the chemoprevention and chemotherapy of HCC. ..
  30. Núñez V, Alameda D, Rico D, Mota R, Gonzalo P, Cedenilla M, et al. Retinoid X receptor alpha controls innate inflammatory responses through the up-regulation of chemokine expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:10626-31 pubmed publisher
    The retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) plays a central role in the regulation of many intracellular receptor signaling pathways and can mediate ligand-dependent transcription by forming homodimers or heterodimers with other nuclear ..
  31. Lu J, Dawson M, Hu Q, Xia Z, Dambacher J, Ye M, et al. The effect of antagonists on the conformational exchange of the retinoid X receptor alpha ligand-binding domain. Magn Reson Chem. 2009;47:1071-80 pubmed publisher
  32. Merki E, Zamora M, Raya A, Kawakami Y, Wang J, Zhang X, et al. Epicardial retinoid X receptor alpha is required for myocardial growth and coronary artery formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18455-60 pubmed
    ..In particular, heart morphogenesis depends on vitamin A signals mediated by the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha), as the systemic mutation of this receptor results in thinning of the myocardium and ..
  33. Folkertsma S, van Noort P, de Heer A, Carati P, Brandt R, Visser A, et al. The use of in vitro peptide binding profiles and in silico ligand-receptor interaction profiles to describe ligand-induced conformations of the retinoid X receptor alpha ligand-binding domain. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:30-48 pubmed
  34. Buentig N, Stoerkel S, Richter E, Dallmann I, Reitz M, Atzpodien J. Predictive impact of retinoid X receptor-alpha-expression in renal-cell carcinoma. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2004;19:331-42 pubmed
    ..However, the exact mechanisms underlying the aberrant compartmentalization and the functions of RXR-alpha in RCC remain to be determined. ..
  35. Zhang F, Meng F, Li H, Dong Y, Yang W, Han A. Suppression of retinoid X receptor alpha and aberrant ?-catenin expression significantly associates with progression of colorectal carcinoma. Eur J Cancer. 2011;47:2060-7 pubmed publisher
    To investigate retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR?) and ?-catenin expression and their relationship with the clinicopathological features of colorectal carcinoma (CRC)...
  36. Zeisig B, Kwok C, Zelent A, Shankaranarayanan P, Gronemeyer H, Dong S, et al. Recruitment of RXR by homotetrameric RARalpha fusion proteins is essential for transformation. Cancer Cell. 2007;12:36-51 pubmed
  37. Pidoux G, Gerbaud P, Laurendeau I, Guibourdenche J, Bertin G, Vidaud M, et al. Large variability of trophoblast gene expression within and between human normal term placentae. Placenta. 2004;25:469-73 pubmed
    ..This emphasizes the need to study large numbers of samples when looking for significant differences in gene expression. ..
  38. Chen Y, Hong I, Kuo K, Hsu H, Hsu C. Role of retinoid-X receptor-alpha in the suppression of rat bile acid coenzyme A-amino acid N-acyltransferase in liver during sepsis. Shock. 2007;28:65-70 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that suppression of rBAT occurs at the transcriptional level, and the decrease in RXR-alpha by septic insult may play a critical role in rBAT suppression at the early stage of polymicrobial sepsis. ..
  39. Zhang Y, Hu L, Xie W, Sun P, Zuo A, Zhang J. [The cloning, expression and the binding ability with TR?1 of retinoid X receptor-? gene]. Yi Chuan. 2011;33:246-50 pubmed
    ..This was confirmed by EMSA. In conclusion, the recombinant human retinoid X receptor-? was prepared successfully, which makes a basic for further study of its function. ..
  40. Schedlich L, Muthukaruppan A, O Han M, Baxter R. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5 interacts with the vitamin D receptor and modulates the vitamin D response in osteoblasts. Mol Endocrinol. 2007;21:2378-90 pubmed
  41. Videla L, Fernandez V, Vargas R, Cornejo P, Tapia G, Varela N, et al. Upregulation of rat liver PPAR?-FGF21 signaling by a docosahexaenoic acid and thyroid hormone combined protocol. Biofactors. 2016;42:638-646 pubmed publisher
    ..2016 BioFactors, 42(6):638-646, 2016. ..
  42. Morgan E, Chandler M, Young M, McElfresh T, Kung T, Rennison J, et al. Dissociation between gene and protein expression of metabolic enzymes in a rodent model of heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2006;8:687-93 pubmed
    ..of the nuclear transcription factors peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha)...
  43. Lakatos M, Hagymasi K, Lengyel G. [Fatty liver and hepatitis C virus infection]. Orv Hetil. 2011;152:1513-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Obesity and insulin resistance may allow the virus to resist antiviral treatment. This review discusses the relationship among steatosis, insulin resistance and the response to antiviral therapy. ..
  44. Mathisen G, Fallgren A, Strøm B, Boldingh Debernard K, Mohebi B, Paulsen R. Delayed translocation of NGFI-B/RXR in glutamate stimulated neurons allows late protection by 9-cis retinoic acid. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2011;414:90-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, late protection from glutamate induced death by addition of 9-cis retinoic acid is possible in a time-window after apoptosis induction. ..
  45. Shizu R, Min J, Sobhany M, Pedersen L, Mutoh S, Negishi M. Interaction of the phosphorylated DNA-binding domain in nuclear receptor CAR with its ligand-binding domain regulates CAR activation. J Biol Chem. 2018;293:333-344 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that the intramolecular interaction of phosphorylated DBD with the LBD enables CAR to adapt a transient monomer configuration that can be converted to either the inactive homodimer or the active heterodimer. ..
  46. Lin X, Zhao B, Chen H, Ye X, Yang C, Zhou H, et al. RXRalpha acts as a carrier for TR3 nuclear export in a 9-cis retinoic acid-dependent manner in gastric cancer cells. J Cell Sci. 2004;117:5609-21 pubmed
    ..These data reveal a novel aspect of RXRalpha function, in which it acts as a carrier for nucleocytoplasmic translocation of orphan receptors. ..
  47. Xu S, Sun A, Suchy F. A novel RAR?/CAR-mediated mechanism for regulation of human organic solute transporter-? gene expression. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2014;306:G154-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate a role for RAR? and CAR in controlling OST? expression levels. ..
  48. Pomatto V, Cottone E, Cocci P, Mozzicafreddo M, Mosconi G, Nelson E, et al. Plasticizers used in food-contact materials affect adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2018;178:322-332 pubmed publisher
  49. Taber L, Adams L, Teegarden D. Mechanisms of nuclear vitamin D receptor resistance in Harvey-ras-transfected cells. J Nutr Biochem. 2009;20:629-37 pubmed publisher
    ..D (1,25(OH)(2)D) binds to the nuclear vitamin D receptor (nVDR), which heterodimerizes with retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha), and this complex interacts with specific response elements [vitamin D response elements (..
  50. Akanuma S, Hori S, Ohtsuki S, Fujiyoshi M, Terasaki T. Expression of nuclear receptor mRNA and liver X receptor-mediated regulation of ABC transporter A1 at rat blood-brain barrier. Neurochem Int. 2008;52:669-74 pubmed
    ..RT-PCR analysis revealed that liver X receptor alpha and beta, retinoid X receptor alpha and beta and peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor alpha and beta mRNAs were expressed in the rat ..
  51. Giaginis C, Klonaris C, Katsargyris A, Kouraklis G, Spiliopoulou C, Theocharis S. Correlation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) and Retinoid X Receptor-alpha (RXR-alpha) expression with clinical risk factors in patients with advanced carotid atherosclerosis. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17:CR381-91 pubmed
    ..015). PPAR-gamma and RXR-alpha expression down-regulation in macrophages and smooth muscle cells was associated with a more pronounced disease progression in patients with advanced carotid atherosclerotic lesions. ..
  52. Suchy F, Ananthanarayanan M. Bile salt excretory pump: biology and pathobiology. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006;43 Suppl 1:S10-6 pubmed
    ..This defect leads to enhanced ileal bile salt uptake and impaired canalicular bile salt secretion by BSEP. In PFIC1, an increased load of bile acids is retained in the liver leading to cholestasis and progressive liver injury. ..
  53. Chen X, Zhang J, Baker S, Chen G. Human constitutive androstane receptor mediated methotrexate induction of human dehydroepiandrosterone sulfotransferase (hSULT2A1). Toxicology. 2007;231:224-33 pubmed
    ..receptor co-transfection results indicated that human constitutive androstane receptor (hCAR) and human retinoid X receptor alpha (hRXRalpha) were involved in the transcriptional regulation of hSULT2A1...
  54. Kwon H, Huang B, Ho Jeoung N, Wu P, Steussy C, Harris R. Retinoic acids and trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, induce human pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) gene expression. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1759:141-51 pubmed
    ..Two retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) to which retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) and retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARalpha) bind and activate transcription are present in ..
  55. Qin S, Okawa Y, Atangan L, Brown G, Chandraratna R, Zhao Y. Integrities of A/B and C domains of RXR are required for rexinoid-induced caspase activations and apoptosis. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2008;112:25-31 pubmed publisher
    Here we have delineated regions of the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha) that are required for rexinoid (RXR agonist)-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis...
  56. Lu N, Liu J, Liu J, Zhang C, Jiang F, Wu H, et al. Antagonist effect of triptolide on AKT activation by truncated retinoid X receptor-alpha. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35722 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings will offer new strategies to develop improved triptolide analogs for cancer therapy. ..
  57. Christoffolete M, Doleschall M, Egri P, Liposits Z, Zavacki A, Bianco A, et al. Regulation of thyroid hormone activation via the liver X-receptor/retinoid X-receptor pathway. J Endocrinol. 2010;205:179-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In vivo, the inhibition of D2-mediated tri-iodothyronine (T(3)) production by cholesterol/9-cis RA could function as a feedback loop, given that T(3) decreases hepatic cholesterol levels. ..
  58. Lu J, Cistola D, Li E. Analysis of ligand binding and protein dynamics of human retinoid X receptor alpha ligand-binding domain by nuclear magnetic resonance. Biochemistry. 2006;45:1629-39 pubmed
    ..Taken together these results suggest that the RXRalpha LBD exists as a dynamic ensemble of conformations, even after binding its cognate ligand. Such dynamic characteristics may allow RXRalpha to partner with multiple nuclear receptors. ..
  59. Coyle A, Kinsella B. Synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists rosiglitazone and troglitazone suppress transcription by promoter 3 of the human thromboxane A2 receptor gene in human erythroleukemia cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006;71:1308-23 pubmed
  60. Jonsson Schmunk K, Wonganan P, Choi J, Callahan S, Croyle M. Integrin Receptors Play a Key Role in the Regulation of Hepatic CYP3A. Drug Metab Dispos. 2016;44:758-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding has several implications owing to the important role of integrins in normal physiologic process and in many disease states. ..
  61. Kosters A, Sun D, Wu H, Tian F, Felix J, Li W, et al. Sexually dimorphic genome-wide binding of retinoid X receptor alpha (RXR?) determines male-female differences in the expression of hepatic lipid processing genes in mice. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71538 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulation for the majority of these genes is under control of Nuclear Receptors (NRs). Retinoid X Receptor alpha (RXR?) is an obligate partner for multiple NRs and considered a master regulator of hepatic gene ..
  62. Sanz M, Albertos F, Otero E, Juez M, Morcillo E, Piqueras L. Retinoid X receptor agonists impair arterial mononuclear cell recruitment through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? activation. J Immunol. 2012;189:411-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, RXR agonists may constitute a new therapeutic tool in the control of the inflammatory process associated with cardiovascular disease. ..
  63. Matsukuma K, Bennett M, Huang J, Wang L, Gil G, Osborne T. Coordinated control of bile acids and lipogenesis through FXR-dependent regulation of fatty acid synthase. J Lipid Res. 2006;47:2754-61 pubmed
    ..These findings provide the first evidence for direct regulation of lipogenesis by bile acids and also provide a mechanistic rationale for previously unexplained observations regarding bile acid control of FAS expression. ..
  64. Chen B, Kuo K, Chen K, Liu C, Tsai L, Hsu H, et al. Retinoid X receptor alpha participation in dexamethasone-induced rat bile acid coenzyme A-amino acid N-acyltransferase expression in septic liver. Shock. 2009;32:164-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In an experiment to confirm our findings, RXR[alpha] siRNA was found to significantly block Dex-induced increases in expression of rBAT in hepatocytes taken from septic rats (P < 0.01)...
  65. Xu L, Song C, Ni M, Meng F, Xie H, Li G. Cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP-1) regulates osteogenenesis and adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells through inhibiting RXR?-induced ?-catenin degradation. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2012;44:612-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal a potential role of CRBP1 in the regulation of ?-catenin turnover which can greatly affect the process of osteogenesis and adipogenesis of MSCs. ..
  66. Moraes L, Swales K, Wray J, Damazo A, Gibbins J, Warner T, et al. Nongenomic signaling of the retinoid X receptor through binding and inhibiting Gq in human platelets. Blood. 2007;109:3741-4 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, our results demonstrate a novel nongenomic mode for nuclear receptor action and a functional cross-talk between G-protein and nuclear receptor signaling families. ..
  67. Park S, Choi H, Kim S, Kim O, Chae K, Kim E. FXRalpha down-regulates LXRalpha signaling at the CETP promoter via a common element. Mol Cells. 2008;26:409-14 pubmed
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