retinoid x receptors


Summary: A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.

Top Publications

  1. Papi A, Rocchi P, Ferreri A, Guerra F, Orlandi M. Enhanced effects of PPARgamma ligands and RXR selective retinoids in combination to inhibit migration and invasiveness in cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2009;21:1083-9 pubmed
    ..reported a remarkable antitumor effect of the retinoid 6-OH-11-O-hydroxyphenantrene (IIF), synthetic retinoid X receptors (RXRs) agonist, on many cancer cell lines...
  2. Sternberg R, Hotchkiss A, LeBlanc G. Synchronized expression of retinoid X receptor mRNA with reproductive tract recrudescence in an imposex-susceptible mollusc. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42:1345-51 pubmed
    ..Retinoid signaling initiated by TBT during an inappropriate time in females may result in imposex. ..
  3. Berbis P. [Retinoids: mechanisms of action]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2010;137 Suppl 3:S97-103 pubmed publisher
    ..families of Retinoid Nuclear Receptors (RNR), the RA receptors (RAR), which natural ligand is RA, and the Retinoid X Receptors (RXR), which natural ligand is 9-cis-retinoic acid...
  4. Urushitani H, Katsu Y, Ohta Y, Shiraishi H, Iguchi T, Horiguchi T. Cloning and characterization of retinoid X receptor (RXR) isoforms in the rock shell, Thais clavigera. Aquat Toxicol. 2011;103:101-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings could contribute to a better understanding of the role of interactions between RXR and retinoids and organotins, not only in the induction mechanism of imposex in gastropods but also in the endocrinology of mollusks. ..
  5. Takeuchi H, Yokota A, Ohoka Y, Kagechika H, Kato C, Song S, et al. Efficient induction of CCR9 on T cells requires coactivation of retinoic acid receptors and retinoid X receptors (RXRs): exaggerated T Cell homing to the intestine by RXR activation with organotins. J Immunol. 2010;185:5289-99 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that RXR activation enhances the RAR-dependent expression of CCR9 on T cells and their homing capacity to the small intestine...
  6. Tocchini Valentini G, Rochel N, Escriva H, Germain P, Peluso Iltis C, Paris M, et al. Structural and functional insights into the ligand-binding domain of a nonduplicated retinoid X nuclear receptor from the invertebrate chordate amphioxus. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1938-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that amphioxus RXR is, functionally, an intermediate between arthropods RXR/USPs and vertebrate RXRs. ..
  7. le Maire A, Grimaldi M, Roecklin D, Dagnino S, Vivat Hannah V, Balaguer P, et al. Activation of RXR-PPAR heterodimers by organotin environmental endocrine disruptors. EMBO Rep. 2009;10:367-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data allow an understanding of the binding and activation properties of the various organotins and suggest a mechanism by which these tin compounds could affect other nuclear receptor signalling pathways. ..
  8. Pérez Santín E, Germain P, Quillard F, Khanwalkar H, Rodríguez Barrios F, Gronemeyer H, et al. Modulating retinoid X receptor with a series of (E)-3-[4-hydroxy-3-(3-alkoxy-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-2-yl)phenyl]acrylic acids and their 4-alkoxy isomers. J Med Chem. 2009;52:3150-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We also report on the 2.0 A resolution structure of RXR in complex with the parent compound 9, which helps understanding of the impact of the alkyl side chain location on ligand activity. ..
  9. Alvarez S, Alvarez R, Khanwalkar H, Germain P, Lemaire G, Rodríguez Barrios F, et al. Retinoid receptor subtype-selective modulators through synthetic modifications of RARgamma agonists. Bioorg Med Chem. 2009;17:4345-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Compounds 24b and 24c display weak RXR antagonist activity. In addition several pan-antagonists and partial agonist/antagonists have been defined. ..

More Information


  1. Li J, Ma M, Wang Z. A two-hybrid yeast assay to quantify the effects of xenobiotics on retinoid X receptor-mediated gene expression. Toxicol Lett. 2008;176:198-206 pubmed publisher
  2. Cramer P, Cirrito J, Wesson D, Lee C, Karlo J, Zinn A, et al. ApoE-directed therapeutics rapidly clear ?-amyloid and reverse deficits in AD mouse models. Science. 2012;335:1503-6 pubmed publisher
    ..receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and liver X receptors in coordination with retinoid X receptors (RXRs)...
  3. Tanaka T, De Luca L. Therapeutic potential of "rexinoids" in cancer prevention and treatment. Cancer Res. 2009;69:4945-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, clinical trials in RXR-targeted molecular therapy with the RXR ligand (rexinoid) have yielded disappointing outcomes. In this review, we discuss a possible mechanism underlying the loss of sensitivity to rexinoid therapy. ..
  4. Dawson M, Xia Z. The retinoid X receptors and their ligands. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1821:21-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in High Density Lipoprotein Formation and Metabolism: A Tribute to John F. Oram (1945-2010). ..
  5. Bruck R, Weiss S, Aeed H, Pines M, Halpern Z, Zvibel I. Additive inhibitory effect of experimentally induced hepatic cirrhosis by agonists of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor gamma and retinoic acid receptor. Dig Dis Sci. 2009;54:292-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Cho Y, Noshiro M, Choi M, Morita K, Kawamoto T, Fujimoto K, et al. The basic helix-loop-helix proteins differentiated embryo chondrocyte (DEC) 1 and DEC2 function as corepressors of retinoid X receptors. Mol Pharmacol. 2009;76:1360-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the repressor function of DEC1 and DEC2 may be extended to other RXR heterodimer nuclear receptors. ..
  7. Nielsen R, Pedersen T, Hagenbeek D, Moulos P, Siersbaek R, Megens E, et al. Genome-wide profiling of PPARgamma:RXR and RNA polymerase II occupancy reveals temporal activation of distinct metabolic pathways and changes in RXR dimer composition during adipogenesis. Genes Dev. 2008;22:2953-67 pubmed publisher
  8. Pérez E, Bourguet W, Gronemeyer H, de Lera A. Modulation of RXR function through ligand design. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1821:57-69 pubmed publisher
    As the promiscuous partner of heterodimeric associations, retinoid X receptors (RXRs) play a key role within the Nuclear Receptor (NR) superfamily...
  9. He C, Wang C, Li B, Xie F, Chen Y, Zuo Z. Tissue-specific and embryonic expression of the retinoid X receptors in Sebastiscus marmoratus. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;154:221-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are highly conserved members of the nuclear receptor family and mediate various physiological processes in vertebrates...
  10. Klopper J, Berenz A, Hays W, Sharma V, Pugazhenthi U, Janssen J, et al. In vivo and microarray analysis of rexinoid-responsive anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2008;14:589-96 pubmed publisher
    ..ANGPTL4 is increased in DRO in response to LGD1069 and may be a potential mediator of the effects of rexinoid treatment. ..
  11. Nagaraju G, Rajitha B, Borst D. Molecular cloning and sequence of retinoid X receptor in the green crab Carcinus maenas: a possible role in female reproduction. J Endocrinol. 2011;210:379-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This interaction of RXR, MF, and ovary development axis is a novel finding and is the first report to the best of our knowledge. ..
  12. Hamza M, Pott S, Vega V, Thomsen J, Kandhadayar G, Ng P, et al. De-novo identification of PPARgamma/RXR binding sites and direct targets during adipogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4907 pubmed publisher
  13. Mark M, Ghyselinck N, Chambon P. Function of retinoic acid receptors during embryonic development. Nucl Recept Signal. 2009;7:e002 pubmed publisher
    ..Spatio-temporally-controlled somatic mutations generated in given cell types/tissues and at chosen times during postnatal life, will be required to reveal all the functions of RAR and RXR throughout the lifetime of the mouse. ..
  14. Horigane M, Ogihara K, Nakajima Y, Taylor D. Isolation and expression of the retinoid X receptor from last instar nymphs and adult females of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata (Acari: Argasidae). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2008;156:298-311 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoid X receptors (RXR) exist broadly from invertebrates to vertebrates, and play essential roles in physiological processes of these organisms...
  15. Priya T, Li F, Zhang J, Wang B, Zhao C, Xiang J. Molecular characterization and effect of RNA interference of retinoid X receptor (RXR) on E75 and chitinase gene expression in Chinese shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2009;153:121-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This correlation suggested that RXR might involve in the downstream regulation of E75 and chitinase gene transcription in the ecdysone signaling pathway of decapod crustaceans. ..
  16. Lefebvre P, Benomar Y, Staels B. Retinoid X receptors: common heterodimerization partners with distinct functions. Trends Endocrinol Metab. 2010;21:676-83 pubmed publisher
    b>Retinoid X receptors (RXRs) have been implicated in a diversity of cellular processes ranging from cellular proliferation to lipid metabolism...
  17. Lima D, Reis Henriques M, Silva R, Santos A, Castro L, Santos M. Tributyltin-induced imposex in marine gastropods involves tissue-specific modulation of the retinoid X receptor. Aquat Toxicol. 2011;101:221-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We integrate the results in a conceptual model, and discuss the central role of RXR and the retinoic acid signalling pathways in imposex and male genitalia formation in gastropods. ..
  18. Zhao C, Dahlman Wright K. Liver X receptor in cholesterol metabolism. J Endocrinol. 2010;204:233-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The overlapping and distinct roles of the LXRalpha and LXRbeta isoforms, and the potential use of LXRs as attractive targets for treatment of cardiovascular disease are also discussed. ..
  19. Nowickyj S, Chithalen J, Cameron D, Tyshenko M, Petkovich M, Wyatt G, et al. Locust retinoid X receptors: 9-Cis-retinoic acid in embryos from a primitive insect. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:9540-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings strongly argue for a functional role for retinoids in primitive insects and favor a model where signaling through the binding of 9-cis-RA to its RXR is established relatively early in evolution and embryonic development. ..
  20. Bourhis E, Maheux J, Paquet B, Kagechika H, Shudo K, Rompré P, et al. The transcription factors Nur77 and retinoid X receptors participate in amphetamine-induced locomotor activities. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;202:635-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Two nuclear receptor families, the retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and the retinoid X receptors (RXR), transduce retinoic acid signal...
  21. Jiang P, Zhang W, Li H, Cai H, Xue Y. Repeated haloperidol administration has no effect on vitamin D signaling but increase retinoid X receptors and Nur77 expression in rat prefrontal cortex. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2013;33:309-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Given that VD deficiency is commonly observed in schizophrenia patients, the renal metabolism of VD was also examined. ..
  22. Sato M, Lu J, Iturria S, Stayrook K, Burris L, Zeng Q, et al. A nonsecosteroidal vitamin D receptor ligand with improved therapeutic window of bone efficacy over hypercalcemia. J Bone Miner Res. 2010;25:1326-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, vitamin D analogues were more potent than VDRM2, but VDRM2 had a greater safety margin, suggesting possible therapeutic potential. ..
  23. Martin D, Maestro O, Cruz J, Mané Padrós D, Belles X. RNAi studies reveal a conserved role for RXR in molting in the cockroach Blattella germanica. J Insect Physiol. 2006;52:410-6 pubmed
    ..The results described herein suggest that RXR/USP function, in relation to molting, is conserved across the insect Class...
  24. Nahoum V, Pérez E, Germain P, Rodríguez Barrios F, Manzo F, Kammerer S, et al. Modulators of the structural dynamics of the retinoid X receptor to reveal receptor function. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:17323-8 pubmed
    b>Retinoid X receptors (RXRalpha, -beta, and -gamma) occupy a central position in the nuclear receptor superfamily, because they form heterodimers with many other family members and hence are involved in the control of a variety of (patho)..
  25. Kim H, Lee S, Mykles D. Ecdysteroid-responsive genes, RXR and E75, in the tropical land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis: differential tissue expression of multiple RXR isoforms generated at three alternative splicing sites in the hinge and ligand-binding domains. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;242:80-95 pubmed
    ..All tissues expressed full-length and truncated RXR isoforms. These data suggest that differences in response of claw and thoracic muscles to elevated ecdysteroid are due in part to differences in the expression of RXR isoforms. ..
  26. Bouton D, Escriva H, de Mendonça R, Glineur C, Bertin B, Noel C, et al. A conserved retinoid X receptor (RXR) from the mollusk Biomphalaria glabrata transactivates transcription in the presence of retinoids. J Mol Endocrinol. 2005;34:567-82 pubmed
    b>Retinoid X receptors (RXR) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that have been characterized in a wide variety of metazoan phyla...
  27. Ziouzenkova O, Plutzky J. Retinoid metabolism and nuclear receptor responses: New insights into coordinated regulation of the PPAR-RXR complex. FEBS Lett. 2008;582:32-8 pubmed
    ..These data highlight how pathways of beta-carotene metabolism and specific retinoid metabolites may have direct distinct metabolic effects. ..
  28. Asazuma H, Nagata S, Kono M, Nagasawa H. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of ecdysone receptor and retinoid X receptor from the kuruma prawn, Marsupenaeus japonicus. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2007;148:139-50 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that MjRXR mediates a certain hormonal signal related to reproduction. ..
  29. Burrage P, Huntington J, Sporn M, Brinckerhoff C. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase gene expression by a retinoid X receptor-specific ligand. Arthritis Rheum. 2007;56:892-904 pubmed
  30. Chambon P. The nuclear receptor superfamily: a personal retrospect on the first two decades. Mol Endocrinol. 2005;19:1418-28 pubmed
  31. Maestro O, Cruz J, Pascual N, Martin D, Belles X. Differential expression of two RXR/ultraspiracle isoforms during the life cycle of the hemimetabolous insect Blattella germanica (Dictyoptera, Blattellidae). Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;238:27-37 pubmed
    ..Experiments performed with fat body and embryo cells incubated in vitro showed that the expression of BgRXR-S and BgRXR-L is not affected by 20-hydroxyecdysone or by juvenile hormone III. ..
  32. Yen W, Lamph W. A selective retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene (LGD1069, Targretin) prevents and overcomes multidrug resistance in advanced prostate cancer. Prostate. 2006;66:305-16 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a role of bexarotene in combination with chemotherapeutic agents in prevention and overcoming acquired drug resistance in advanced prostate cancer. ..
  33. de Lera A, Bourguet W, Altucci L, Gronemeyer H. Design of selective nuclear receptor modulators: RAR and RXR as a case study. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2007;6:811-20 pubmed
    Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily whose effects on cell growth and survival can be modulated therapeutically by small-molecule ligands...
  34. Leibowitz M, Ardecky R, Boehm M, Broderick C, Carfagna M, Crombie D, et al. Biological characterization of a heterodimer-selective retinoid X receptor modulator: potential benefits for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Endocrinology. 2006;147:1044-53 pubmed
    ..Therefore, selective RXR modulators are a promising approach for developing improved therapies for type 2 diabetes, although additional studies are needed to understand the strain-specific effects on triglycerides. ..
  35. Palli S, Kapitskaya M, Potter D. The influence of heterodimer partner ultraspiracle/retinoid X receptor on the function of ecdysone receptor. FEBS J. 2005;272:5979-90 pubmed
    ..The EcR:Lm-HsRXR chimera heterodimer, but not the EcR:HsRXR heterodimer, supported ligand-dependent induction of reporter gene in a C57BL/6 mouse model. ..
  36. Stadler R, Kremer A. Therapeutic advances in cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL): from retinoids to rexinoids. Semin Oncol. 2006;33:S7-10 pubmed
    ..This article summarizes the clinical relevance of both groups of compounds in this important patient population. ..
  37. Sinkkonen L, Malinen M, Saavalainen K, Väisänen S, Carlberg C. Regulation of the human cyclin C gene via multiple vitamin D3-responsive regions in its promoter. Nucleic Acids Res. 2005;33:2440-51 pubmed
  38. Tokar E, Webber M. Cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) inhibits growth and invasion by up-regulating nuclear receptors and 25-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) in human prostate cancer cells. Clin Exp Metastasis. 2005;22:275-84 pubmed
    ..Because it can inhibit cellular changes associated with malignant transformation and invasion, we propose that cholecalciferol may be an effective agent for the treatment of prostate cancer. ..
  39. Mark M, Ghyselinck N, Chambon P. Function of retinoid nuclear receptors: lessons from genetic and pharmacological dissections of the retinoic acid signaling pathway during mouse embryogenesis. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol. 2006;46:451-80 pubmed
    ..Additional cell type-restricted and temporally controlled somatic mutagenesis is required to determine the functions of RARs and RXRs during postnatal life. ..
  40. Yen W, Prudente R, Corpuz M, Negro Vilar A, Lamph W. A selective retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene (LGD1069, targretin) inhibits angiogenesis and metastasis in solid tumours. Br J Cancer. 2006;94:654-60 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results suggest a role of bexarotene in treatment of angiogenesis and metastasis in solid tumours. ..
  41. Sánchez Martínez R, Castillo A, Steinmeyer A, Aranda A. The retinoid X receptor ligand restores defective signalling by the vitamin D receptor. EMBO Rep. 2006;7:1030-4 pubmed
    ..This study shows that, in VDR/RXR heterodimers, allosteric communication triggered by the RXR ligand has a previously unrecognized role in vitamin D signalling, with important physiological and therapeutic implications. ..
  42. Wang Y, Wang G, LeBlanc G. Cloning and characterization of the retinoid X receptor from a primitive crustacean Daphnia magna. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2007;150:309-18 pubmed
    ..These results show that branchiopod crustaceans dynamically express RXR which should be evaluated as a candidate receptor for the terpenoid hormone methyl farnesoate which functions as a sex determinant in these organisms. ..
  43. Fu J, Ding Y, Huang D, Li H, Chen X. The retinoid X receptor-selective ligand, LGD1069, inhibits tumor-induced angiogenesis via suppression of VEGF in human non-small cell lung cancer. Cancer Lett. 2007;248:153-63 pubmed
    ..Collectively, our results suggest a role of LGD1069 in treatment for non-small cell lung cancer by inhibition of tumor-induced angiogenesis. ..
  44. Germain P, Chambon P, Eichele G, Evans R, Lazar M, Leid M, et al. International Union of Pharmacology. LXIII. Retinoid X receptors. Pharmacol Rev. 2006;58:760-72 pubmed
    ..are mediated by members of two families of nuclear receptors, the retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and the retinoid X receptors (RXRs), which are encoded by three distinct human genes, RXRalpha, RXRbeta, and RXRgamma...
  45. Waxman J, Yelon D. Comparison of the expression patterns of newly identified zebrafish retinoic acid and retinoid X receptors. Dev Dyn. 2007;236:587-95 pubmed
    ..Heterodimers of retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and retinoid X receptors (RXRs) transduce RA signaling...
  46. Tooker P, Yen W, Ng S, Negro Vilar A, Hermann T. Bexarotene (LGD1069, Targretin), a selective retinoid X receptor agonist, prevents and reverses gemcitabine resistance in NSCLC cells by modulating gene amplification. Cancer Res. 2007;67:4425-33 pubmed
    ..This suggests that bexarotene may have clinical utility in cancers where drug resistance by gene amplification is a major obstacle to successful therapy. ..
  47. Hellemans K, Kerckhofs K, Hannaert J, Martens G, Van Veldhoven P, Pipeleers D. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-retinoid X receptor agonists induce beta-cell protection against palmitate toxicity. FEBS J. 2007;274:6094-105 pubmed
    ..These observations indicate that PPARalpha and RXR regulate beta-cell susceptibility to long-chain fatty acid toxicity by increasing the rates of beta-oxidation and by involving peroxisomes in fatty acid metabolism. ..
  48. Altucci L, Leibowitz M, Ogilvie K, de Lera A, Gronemeyer H. RAR and RXR modulation in cancer and metabolic disease. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2007;6:793-810 pubmed
    ..Retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are ligand-controlled transcription factors that function as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) to regulate cell growth and survival...
  49. Wolf G. Is 9-cis-retinoic acid the endogenous ligand for the retinoic acid-X receptor?. Nutr Rev. 2006;64:532-8 pubmed
    ..A critical experiment demonstrated that, at least in developing mouse skin, 9-cis-retinoic acid is not the ligand for RXR. ..
  50. Levesque D, Rouillard C. Nur77 and retinoid X receptors: crucial factors in dopamine-related neuroadaptation. Trends Neurosci. 2007;30:22-30 pubmed
    ..evidence that certain types of transcription factor of the nuclear receptor family, specifically Nur77 and retinoid X receptors, have important roles in adaptation and homeostatic regulation of dopaminergic systems...
  51. Jones G, Jones D, Teal P, Sapa A, Wozniak M. The retinoid-X receptor ortholog, ultraspiracle, binds with nanomolar affinity to an endogenous morphogenetic ligand. FEBS J. 2006;273:4983-96 pubmed
    ..Along with the ecdysone receptor, USP is now the second arthropod nuclear hormone receptor for which a secreted product of an endocrine gland that binds the receptor with nanomolar affinity has been identified. ..
  52. Calléja C, Messaddeq N, Chapellier B, Yang H, Krezel W, Li M, et al. Genetic and pharmacological evidence that a retinoic acid cannot be the RXR-activating ligand in mouse epidermis keratinocytes. Genes Dev. 2006;20:1525-38 pubmed
  53. Tallafuss A, Hale L, Yan Y, Dudley L, Eisen J, Postlethwait J. Characterization of retinoid-X receptor genes rxra, rxrba, rxrbb and rxrg during zebrafish development. Gene Expr Patterns. 2006;6:556-65 pubmed
    ..Understanding phylogenetic relationships among Rxr genes and their expression patterns during development provides a foundation for future studies of Rxr functions. ..
  54. Niu X, Peng Z, Feng J, Ma H, Liu C, Yuan J. Mechanism of retinoid receptors in inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis of human melanoma cell line A375. Chin Med J (Engl). 2005;118:1482-6 pubmed
  55. Yen W, Lamph W. The selective retinoid X receptor agonist bexarotene (LGD1069, Targretin) prevents and overcomes multidrug resistance in advanced breast carcinoma. Mol Cancer Ther. 2005;4:824-34 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a role for bexarotene in combination with chemotherapeutic agents in prevention and overcoming acquired drug resistance in advanced breast carcinoma. ..
  56. Tan N, Michalik L, Desvergne B, Wahli W. Multiple expression control mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and their target genes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;93:99-105 pubmed
    ..As ligand-activated receptors, they form a functional transcriptional unit upon heterodimerization with retinoid X receptors (RXRs)...
  57. Wente W, Brenner M, Zitzer H, Gromada J, Efanov A. Activation of liver X receptors and retinoid X receptors induces growth arrest and apoptosis in insulin-secreting cells. Endocrinology. 2007;148:1843-9 pubmed
    Liver X receptors (LXRs) form functional heterodimers with the retinoid X receptors (RXRs) and regulate cholesterol, lipid, and glucose metabolism...