cystatin c


Summary: An extracellular cystatin subtype that is abundantly expressed in bodily fluids. It may play a role in the inhibition of interstitial CYSTEINE PROTEASES.

Top Publications

  1. Olafsson I, Grubb A. Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy. Amyloid. 2000;7:70-9 pubmed
  2. Grubb A. Cystatin C--properties and use as diagnostic marker. Adv Clin Chem. 2000;35:63-99 pubmed
  3. Itoh Y, Yamada M. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy in the elderly: the clinicopathological features, pathogenesis, and risk factors. J Med Dent Sci. 1997;44:11-9 pubmed
    ..Immunohistochemically, the cerebrovascular amyloid was positive for beta/A4 peptide, and less intensely for cystatin C. The CAA-related hemorrhages were characteristically located near the cortical surface and ruptured into the ..
  4. Yang H, Yim H, Cho Y, Kym D, Hur J, Kim J, et al. Assessment of biochemical markers in the early post-burn period for predicting acute kidney injury and mortality in patients with major burn injury: comparison of serum creatinine, serum cystatin-C, plasma and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated l. Crit Care. 2014;18:R151 pubmed publisher
    ..Recently, the serum cystatin C and plasma and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) levels have been introduced as early ..
  5. Hudson J, Nolin T. Estimated GFR and cystatin C for drug dosing: moving beyond proof of concept to clinical translation?. Am J Kidney Dis. 2015;65:534-6 pubmed publisher
  6. Wijerathna T, Gawarammana I, Dissanayaka D, Palanagasinghe C, Shihana F, Dassanayaka G, et al. Serum creatinine and cystatin C provide conflicting evidence of acute kidney injury following acute ingestion of potassium permanganate and oxalic acid. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2017;55:970-976 pubmed publisher
    ..measures of change in kidney function were evaluated in 48 consenting patients who had serial sCr and serum cystatin C (sCysC) data available. Thirty-eight (38/48, 79%) patients developed AKI (AKIN criteria)...
  7. Ji H, Wang J, Ju S, Cong H, Wang X, Su J, et al. Quantification of cystatin-C in human serum by stable isotope dilution liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2017;1059:49-55 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystatin C (CysC)-based estimated glomerular filtration rate is an excellent marker for early diagnosis of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)...
  8. Foster M, Levey A, Inker L, Shafi T, Fan L, Gudnason V, et al. Non-GFR Determinants of Low-Molecular-Weight Serum Protein Filtration Markers in the Elderly: AGES-Kidney and MESA-Kidney. Am J Kidney Dis. 2017;70:406-414 pubmed publisher
    ..filtration rate (GFR) determinants of serum levels of the low-molecular-weight protein filtration markers cystatin C, ?2-microglobulin (B2M), and beta-trace protein (BTP) are less affected by age, sex, and ethnicity ..
  9. Donadio C, Tognotti D, Caponi L, Paolicchi A. ?-trace protein is highly removed during haemodialysis with high-flux and super high-flux membranes. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18:68 pubmed publisher
    ..The removal of ?2-microglobulin (?2M, MW 11.8), cystatin C (Cys, MW 13.3), urea and creatinine was also analyzed...

More Information


  1. Garg P, Hidalgo G. Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimation by Serum Creatinine or Serum Cystatin C in Preterm (<31 Weeks) Neonates. Indian Pediatr. 2017;54:508-509 pubmed
    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by serum creatinine (Schwartz's equation) and serum cystatin C (Filler's equation) in preterm neonates (24-31 weeks of gestation) in a prospective cohort study...
  2. Wallin H, Apelqvist J, Andersson F, Ekström U, Abrahamson M. Low-level internalization of cystatin E/M affects legumain activity and migration of melanoma cells. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:14413-14424 pubmed publisher
    The ratio between proteases and their inhibitors is unbalanced in cancer. The cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C is internalized by some cancer cells, which affects cellular properties...
  3. Zilinski J, Shah R, Gaggin H, Gantzer M, Wang T, Januzzi J. Measurement of multiple biomarkers in advanced stage heart failure patients treated with pulmonary artery catheter guided therapy. Crit Care. 2012;16:R135 pubmed publisher
    ..sensitive troponin I, an experimental ultrasensitive troponin I, amino-terminal pro-B type natriuretic peptide, cystatin C, and myeloperoxidase were measured over the first 48 hours...
  4. Barbarash O, Bykova I, Kashtalap V, Zykov M, Hryachkova O, Kalaeva V, et al. Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin has an advantage over serum cystatin C and glomerular filtration rate in prediction of adverse cardiovascular outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2017;17:81 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to assess significance of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (sNGAL) and cystatin C (sCC) in prediction of adverse cardiovascular outcome after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)...
  5. Peralta C, Frigaard M, Rubinsky A, Rolon L, Lo L, Voora S, et al. Implementation of a pragmatic randomized trial of screening for chronic kidney disease to improve care among non-diabetic hypertensive veterans. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18:132 pubmed publisher
    ..the feasibility, implementation, and effectiveness of a "triple marker" CKD screening program (creatinine, cystatin C and albumin to creatinine ratio) for improving care among hypertensive veterans seen in primary care at one ..
  6. Alvarez Fernandez M, Barrett A, Gerhartz B, Dando P, Ni J, Abrahamson M. Inhibition of mammalian legumain by some cystatins is due to a novel second reactive site. J Biol Chem. 1999;274:19195-203 pubmed
    ..investigated the inhibition of the recently identified family C13 cysteine peptidase, pig legumain, by human cystatin C. The cystatin was seen to inhibit enzyme activity by stoichiometric 1:1 binding in competition with substrate...
  7. Naito S, Tazaki H, Okamoto T, Takeuchi K, Kan S, Takeuchi Y, et al. Comparison of nephrotoxicity between two gadolinium-contrasts, gadodiamide and gadopentetate in patients with mildly diminished renal failure. J Toxicol Sci. 2017;42:379-384 pubmed publisher
    ..79 ± 0.21 vs. 0.74 ± 0.14 mg/L, p = 0.028). The ionic contrast medium, gadopentetate, did not affect renal function during MRI, whereas the nonionic contrast medium, gadodiamide, affected renal function transiently. ..
  8. Mueller L, Pruemper C. Performance in Measurement of Serum Cystatin C by Laboratories Participating in the College of American Pathologists 2014 CYS Survey. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2016;140:207 pubmed publisher
  9. Giordano R, Cantinotti M, Arcieri L, Poli V, Pak V, Murzi B. Arterial Switch Operation and Plasma Biomarkers: Analysis and Correlation with Early Postoperative Outcomes. Pediatr Cardiol. 2017;38:1071-1076 pubmed publisher
    The aims of our study were to describe plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), Troponin I (TnI), and Cystatin C (Cys-C) concentration kinetics in the postoperative period after arterial switch operation in neonate, and to test the ..
  10. Salek T, Vesely P, Bernatek J. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Oncology Patients before Cisplatin Chemotherapy. Klin Onkol. 2015;28:273-7 pubmed
    ..Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is estimated from serum creatinine (eGFRcreatinine), serum cystatin C (eGFRcystatin C) and by combined equation (eGFRcreatinine+cystatin C)...
  11. Guo S, Xue Y, He Q, He X, Guo K, Dong P, et al. Preoperative serum cystatin-C as a potential biomarker for prognosis of renal cell carcinoma. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178823 pubmed publisher
    ..Measuring preoperative serum Cys-C might be a simple way for finding poor prognostic patients and patients with elevated preoperative Cys-C level should be more closely followed up. ..
  12. He R, Shen J, Zhao J, Zeng H, Li L, Zhao J, et al. High cystatin C levels predict severe retinopathy in type 2 diabetes patients. Eur J Epidemiol. 2013;28:775-8 pubmed publisher
  13. Lee W, Jung K, Ryu Y, Kim J, Lee S, Chu K, et al. Cystatin C, a potential marker for cerebral microvascular compliance, is associated with white-matter hyperintensities progression. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184999 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we aimed to determine whether the baseline serum cystatin C level represented one mechanism underlying WMH progression, and whether it was associated with the long-term ..
  14. Loesment Wendelmuth A, Schaeffner E, Ebert N. Two elderly patients with normal creatinine and elevated cystatin C - a case report. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18:87 pubmed publisher
    ..This case report presents two elderly patients with normal Scr but elevated serum cystatin C concentration (Scys) where the exclusive assessment of Scr would have lead to an overestimation of GFR and would ..
  15. Markwardt D, Holdt L, Steib C, Benesic A, Bendtsen F, Bernardi M, et al. Plasma cystatin C is a predictor of renal dysfunction, acute-on-chronic liver failure, and mortality in patients with acutely decompensated liver cirrhosis. Hepatology. 2017;66:1232-1241 pubmed publisher
    ..So far there are no biomarkers predicting ACLF. We investigated whether cystatin C (CysC) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) can predict development of renal dysfunction (RD), ..
  16. Arulkumaran N, Sixma M, Jentho E, Ceravola E, Bass P, Kellum J, et al. Sequential Analysis of a Panel of Biomarkers and Pathologic Findings in a Resuscitated Rat Model of Sepsis and Recovery. Crit Care Med. 2017;45:e821-e830 pubmed publisher
    ..While serum creatinine fell at 12 hours, serum cystatin C increased, suggestive of decreased creatinine production...
  17. Palsdottir A, Abrahamson M, Thorsteinsson L, Arnason A, Olafsson I, Grubb A, et al. Mutation in the cystatin C gene causes hereditary brain hemorrhage. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1989;317:241-6 pubmed
    Hereditary cystatin C amyloid angiopathy (HCCAA) is an autosomal dominant disorder leading to massive brain hemorrhage and death in young adults (Jensson et al., 1987)...
  18. Jensson O, Gudmundsson G, Arnason A, Blondal H, Petursdottir I, Thorsteinsson L, et al. Hereditary cystatin C (gamma-trace) amyloid angiopathy of the CNS causing cerebral hemorrhage. Acta Neurol Scand. 1987;76:102-14 pubmed
    ..CNS amyloid angiopathy occurring in Icelanders is the first human disorder known to be caused by deposition of cystatin C amyloid fibrils in the walls of the brain arteries leading to single or or multiple strokes with fatal outcome...
  19. Bretagne M, Jouinot A, Durand J, Huillard O, Boudou Rouquette P, Tlemsani C, et al. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate in cancer patients with abnormal body composition and relation with carboplatin toxicity. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2017;80:45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Serum cystatin C is an alternative marker of GFR, not affected by muscle mass...
  20. Jensen D, Kierulf Lassen C, Kristensen M, Nørregaard R, Weyer K, Nielsen R, et al. Megalin dependent urinary cystatin C excretion in ischemic kidney injury in rats. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178796 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystatin C, a marker of kidney injury, is freely filtered in the glomeruli and reabsorbed by the proximal tubules. Megalin and cubilin are endocytic receptors essential for reabsorption of most filtered proteins...
  21. Ravn B, Prowle J, Martensson J, Martling C, Bell M. Superiority of Serum Cystatin C Over Creatinine in Prediction of Long-Term Prognosis at Discharge From ICU. Crit Care Med. 2017;45:e932-e940 pubmed publisher
    ..Outside hospital, renal dysfunction is more strongly associated with mortality when assessed by serum cystatin C than by creatinine...
  22. Zivlas C, Triposkiadis F, Psarras S, Giamouzis G, Skoularigis I, Chryssanthopoulos S, et al. Left atrial volume index in patients with heart failure and severely impaired left ventricular systolic function: the role of established echocardiographic parameters, circulating cystatin C and galectin-3. Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis. 2017;11:283-295 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the association of two such proteins, cystatin C (CysC) and galectin-3 (Gal-3), and other clinical, echocardiographic and biochemical parameters with LA volume ..
  23. Ng D, Schwartz G, Warady B, Furth S, Munoz A. Relationships of Measured Iohexol GFR and Estimated GFR With CKD-Related Biomarkers in Children and Adolescents. Am J Kidney Dis. 2017;70:397-405 pubmed publisher
    ..mGFR), estimated GFR by the full CKiD equation (eGFRCKiDfull; based on serum creatinine, cystatin C, serum urea nitrogen, height, and sex), and estimated GFR by the bedside CKiD equation (eGFRCKiDbed; ..
  24. Shardlow A, McIntyre N, Fraser S, Roderick P, Raftery J, Fluck R, et al. The clinical utility and cost impact of cystatin C measurement in the diagnosis and management of chronic kidney disease: A primary care cohort study. PLoS Med. 2017;14:e1002400 pubmed publisher
    ..73 m2 and no albuminuria (CKD G3aA1). Whilst there is good evidence for cystatin C being a marker of GFR and risk in people with CKD, its use to define CKD in this manner has not been evaluated ..
  25. Spiga O, Cicaloni V, Bernini A, Zatkova A, Santucci A. ApreciseKUre: an approach of Precision Medicine in a Rare Disease. BMC Med Inform Decis Mak. 2017;17:42 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our approach can serve as a personalization model paradigm for other inborn errors of metabolism or rare diseases in general. ..
  26. Mohamed F, Buckley N, Pickering J, Wunnapuk K, Dissanayake S, Chathuranga U, et al. Nephrotoxicity-induced proteinuria increases biomarker diagnostic thresholds in acute kidney injury. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18:122 pubmed publisher the Acute Kidney Injury Network serum creatinine definition and alternatively by a ?50% increase in serum cystatin C. Albuminuria was defined as albumin-creatinine ratio >30 mg/g...
  27. Wang F, Pan W, Wang H, Zhou Y, Wang S, Pan S. The impacts of thyroid function on the diagnostic accuracy of cystatin C to detect acute kidney injury in ICU patients: a prospective, observational study. Crit Care. 2014;18:R9 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystatin C (Cysc) could be affected by thyroid function both in vivo and in vitro and thereby may have limited ability to reflect renal function...
  28. Duan S, Liu G, Yu Z, Pan P. Urinary KIM-1, IL-18 and Cys-c as early predictive biomarkers in gadolinium-based contrast-induced nephropathy in the elderly patients. Clin Nephrol. 2013;80:349-54 pubmed publisher was designed to investigate whether urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), interleukin-18 (IL-18) and cystatin C (Cys-C) are early predictive biomarkers for gadolinium-based contrast-induced nephropathy (Gd-CIN) in the ..
  29. Wang D, Feng J, Wang A, Yang Y, Liu Y. Role of Cystatin C and glomerular filtration rate in diagnosis of kidney impairment in hepatic cirrhosis patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6949 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to investigate the role of Cystatin C and Cystatin C estimated glomerular filtration rate in the diagnosis of kidney impairment in patients with ..
  30. Nakhjavan Shahraki B, Yousefifard M, Ataei N, Baikpour M, Ataei F, Bazargani B, et al. Accuracy of cystatin C in prediction of acute kidney injury in children; serum or urine levels: which one works better? A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18:120 pubmed publisher
    There is still an ongoing discussion on the prognostic value of cystatin C in assessment of kidney function...
  31. von Scholten B, Persson F, Svane M, Hansen T, Madsbad S, Rossing P. Effect of large weight reductions on measured and estimated kidney function. BMC Nephrol. 2017;18:52 pubmed publisher
    ..muscle mass and pCr causing increase in eGFR (creatinine-based equations), whereas measured GFR (mGFR) and cystatin C-based eGFR would be unaffected if adjusted for body surface area...
  32. Darsie B, Shlipak M, Sarnak M, Katz R, Fitzpatrick A, Odden M. Kidney function and cognitive health in older adults: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2014;180:68-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Kidney function was measured by cystatin C-based estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFRcys)...
  33. Kiers H, de Sevaux R, Pickkers P. Cystatin C is not a reliable marker of residual glomerular filtration rate during continuous renal replacement therapy. Intensive Care Med. 2011;37:1893-4; author reply 1897-8 pubmed publisher
  34. Van Pottelbergh G, Vaes B, Morelle J, Jadoul M, Wallemacq P, Degryse J. Estimating GFR in the oldest old: does it matter what equation we use?. Age Ageing. 2011;40:401-5 pubmed publisher
  35. Perlenfein T, Mehlhoff J, Murphy R. Insights into the mechanism of cystatin C oligomer and amyloid formation and its interaction with β-amyloid. J Biol Chem. 2017;292:11485-11498 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystatin C (CysC) is a versatile and ubiquitously-expressed member of the cysteine protease inhibitor family that is present at notably high concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid...
  36. Levey A, Inker L. Assessment of Glomerular Filtration Rate in Health and Disease: A State of the Art Review. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2017;102:405-419 pubmed publisher
    ..In principle, use of a single equation for each filtration marker (creatinine, cystatin C, or the combination) for detection, evaluation, and management of kidney disease and for drug development and ..
  37. Frazee E, Rule A, Herrmann S, Kashani K, Leung N, Virk A, et al. Serum cystatin C predicts vancomycin trough levels better than serum creatinine in hospitalized patients: a cohort study. Crit Care. 2014;18:R110 pubmed publisher
    Serum cystatin C can improve glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation over creatinine alone, but whether this translates into clinically relevant improvements in drug dosing is unclear...
  38. Ostermann M, Philips B, Forni L. Clinical review: Biomarkers of acute kidney injury: where are we now?. Crit Care. 2012;16:233 pubmed publisher
    ..We outline the major studies described to date as well as discuss potential reasons for the discrepancies observed and suggest that evolution of the field may result in success with ultimately an improvement in patient outcomes. ..
  39. Murai T, Takebe N, Nagasawa K, Todate Y, Nakagawa R, Nakano R, et al. Association of epicardial adipose tissue with serum level of cystatin C in type 2 diabetes. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184723 pubmed publisher
    ..EAT correlated positively with age, body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area, leptin, cystatin C and C-peptide, while correlating negatively with adiponectin, estimated glomerular filteration rate (eGFR) and ..
  40. McIlroy D, Wagener G, Lee H. Biomarkers of acute kidney injury: an evolving domain. Anesthesiology. 2010;112:998-1004 pubmed publisher