Summary: A homologous group of endogenous CYSTEINE PROTEINASE INHIBITORS. The cystatins inhibit most CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES such as PAPAIN, and other peptidases which have a sulfhydryl group at the active site.

Top Publications

  1. Hamilton G, Colbert J, Schuettelkopf A, Watts C. Cystatin F is a cathepsin C-directed protease inhibitor regulated by proteolysis. EMBO J. 2008;27:499-508 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystatins are a family of naturally occurring cysteine protease inhibitors, yet the target proteases and biological processes they regulate are poorly understood...
  2. Colbert J, Matthews S, Kos J, Watts C. Internalization of exogenous cystatin F supresses cysteine proteases and induces the accumulation of single-chain cathepsin L by multiple mechanisms. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:42082-90 pubmed publisher
    ..However, we found equivalent loss of CatL activity in wild type and cystatin F-null macrophages suggesting that an inhibitory activity other than cystatin F quenches CatL activity in activated macrophages. ..
  3. Kaeser S, Herzig M, Coomaraswamy J, Kilger E, Selenica M, Winkler D, et al. Cystatin C modulates cerebral beta-amyloidosis. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1437-9 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that cystatin C concentrations modulate cerebral amyloidosis risk and provide an opportunity for genetic risk assessment and therapeutic interventions. ..
  4. Zhou J, Liao M, Ueda M, Gong H, Xuan X, Fujisaki K. Characterization of an intracellular cystatin homolog from the tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. Vet Parasitol. 2009;160:180-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystatins are tight-binding inhibitors of papain-like cysteine proteases. On the basis of amino acid sequencing, cystatins can be subdivided into three closely related families, family 1, family 2 and family 3...
  5. Ekström U, Wallin H, Lorenzo J, Holmqvist B, Abrahamson M, Aviles F. Internalization of cystatin C in human cell lines. FEBS J. 2008;275:4571-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Because cystatins added to cell cultures can inhibit polio, herpes simplex and coronavirus replication, which are intracellular ..
  6. Martinez M, Cambra I, Carrillo L, Diaz Mendoza M, Diaz I. Characterization of the entire cystatin gene family in barley and their target cathepsin L-like cysteine-proteases, partners in the hordein mobilization during seed germination. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:1531-45 pubmed publisher
    Plant cystatins are inhibitors of cysteine-proteases of the papain C1A and legumain C13 families...
  7. Neuteboom L, Matsumoto K, Christopher D. An extended AE-rich N-terminal trunk in secreted pineapple cystatin enhances inhibition of fruit bromelain and is posttranslationally removed during ripening. Plant Physiol. 2009;151:515-27 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that proteolytic removal of the NTT results in the decrease of the inhibitory potency of AcCYS1 against fruit bromelain during fruit ripening to increase tissue proteolysis, softening, and degradation...
  8. Colbert J, Plechanovova A, Watts C. Glycosylation directs targeting and activation of cystatin f from intracellular and extracellular sources. Traffic. 2009;10:425-37 pubmed publisher
  9. Zerovnik E. The emerging role of cystatins in Alzheimer's disease. Bioessays. 2009;31:597-9 pubmed publisher
    Recently opposing effects of cysteine protease inhibitors, the human cystatins, on neurodegeneration have been reported...

More Information


  1. Rivenbark A, Coleman W. Epigenetic regulation of cystatins in cancer. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2009;14:453-62 pubmed
    b>Cystatins function as cysteine protease inhibitors, are expressed in numerous cell types, and regulate a number of physiological processes. Four cystatins have been extensively studied: cystatin A, cystatin B, cystatin C, and cystatin M...
  2. Carrillo L, Martinez M, Ramessar K, Cambra I, Castanera P, Ortego F, et al. Expression of a barley cystatin gene in maize enhances resistance against phytophagous mites by altering their cysteine-proteases. Plant Cell Rep. 2011;30:101-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to assess the effects of barley cystatins on two phytophagous spider mites, Tetranychus urticae and Brevipalpus chilensis...
  3. Gianotti A, Sommer C, Carmona A, Henrique Silva F. Inhibitory effect of the sugarcane cystatin CaneCPI-4 on cathepsins B and L and human breast cancer cell invasion. Biol Chem. 2008;389:447-53 pubmed publisher
    ..An imbalance between these cathepsins and their endogenous inhibitors, the cystatins, has been associated with development of the metastatic phenotype...
  4. Serbielle C, Chowdhury S, Pichon S, Dupas S, Lesobre J, Purisima E, et al. Viral cystatin evolution and three-dimensional structure modelling: a case of directional selection acting on a viral protein involved in a host-parasitoid interaction. BMC Biol. 2008;6:38 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that cystatins are the first bracovirus genes proven to be subject to strong positive selection within a host-parasitoid system...
  5. Richards R, St Pierre L, Trabi M, Johnson L, de Jersey J, Masci P, et al. Cloning and characterisation of novel cystatins from elapid snake venom glands. Biochimie. 2011;93:659-68 pubmed publisher
    ..One highly conserved isoform, which displayed close sequence identity with family 2 cystatins, was detected in each elapid snake...
  6. Cornwall G, von Horsten H, Whelly S. Cystatin-related epididymal spermatogenic aggregates in the epididymis. J Androl. 2011;32:679-85 pubmed publisher
    ..epididymal spermatogenic (CRES) is the defining member of a reproductive subgroup within the family 2 cystatins of the cystatin superfamily of cysteine protease inhibitors...
  7. Blaydon D, Nitoiu D, Eckl K, Cabral R, Bland P, Hausser I, et al. Mutations in CSTA, encoding Cystatin A, underlie exfoliative ichthyosis and reveal a role for this protease inhibitor in cell-cell adhesion. Am J Hum Genet. 2011;89:564-71 pubmed publisher
    ..We show here evidence of a key role for a protease inhibitor in epidermal adhesion within the lower layers of the human epidermis. ..
  8. Gole B, Huszthy P, Popovic M, Jeruc J, Ardebili Y, Bjerkvig R, et al. The regulation of cysteine cathepsins and cystatins in human gliomas. Int J Cancer. 2012;131:1779-89 pubmed publisher invasive glioblastoma (GBM) cells in vitro, in part due to attenuation of their endogenous inhibitors, the cystatins. To investigate this relationship in vivo, we established U87-MG xenografts in non-obese diabetic (NOD)/severe ..
  9. Chang K, Wu C, Chen H, Chen S, Peng P, Tsang N, et al. Identification of candidate nasopharyngeal carcinoma serum biomarkers by cancer cell secretome and tissue transcriptome analysis: potential usage of cystatin A for predicting nodal stage and poor prognosis. Proteomics. 2010;10:2644-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, our results indicate that analysis of both the cancer cell secretome and tissue transcriptome is a feasible strategy for efficient identification of novel NPC serum marker panel. ..
  10. Nissen M, Kumar G, Youn B, Knowles D, Lam K, Ballinger W, et al. Characterization of Solanum tuberosum multicystatin and its structural comparison with other cystatins. Plant Cell. 2009;21:861-75 pubmed publisher
    ..of a representative repeating unit of PMC, PMC-2, showed structural similarity to both type I and type II cystatins. The N-terminal trunk, alpha-helix, and L2 region of PMC-2 were most similar to those of type I cystatins, while ..
  11. Tarasuk M, Vichasri Grams S, Viyanant V, Grams R. Type I cystatin (stefin) is a major component of Fasciola gigantica excretion/secretion product. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2009;167:60-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering inhibition kinetics and previously demonstrated immunomodulatory properties of cystatin in parasitic nematodes a comparable function of FgStefin-1 is suggested and is at present under investigation. ..
  12. Rhee S, Kang J, Nahm D. Cystatins and cathepsin B during orthodontic tooth movement. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 2009;135:99-105 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Cystatins function as an inhibitor of cathepsin B...
  13. Senthilkumar R, Cheng C, Yeh K. Genetically pyramiding protease-inhibitor genes for dual broad-spectrum resistance against insect and phytopathogens in transgenic tobacco. Plant Biotechnol J. 2010;8:65-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, stacking protease-inhibitor genes, driven by the wound and pathogen responsive pMSPOA promoter, is an effective strategy for engineering crops to resistance against insects and phytopathogens. ..
  14. Megdiche W, Passaquet C, Zourrig W, Zuily Fodil Y, Abdelly C. Molecular cloning and characterization of novel cystatin gene in leaves Cakile maritima halophyte. J Plant Physiol. 2009;166:739-49 pubmed publisher
    ..expression of cysteine protease inhibitor (cystatin) genes in the response to hydric and saline constraints, as cystatins are known to participate in the response to environmental constraints in plants. We isolated, from C...
  15. Cambra I, Martinez M, Dáder B, González Melendi P, Gandullo J, Santamaría M, et al. A cathepsin F-like peptidase involved in barley grain protein mobilization, HvPap-1, is modulated by its own propeptide and by cystatins. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:4615-29 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a complex regulation exerted by the barley cystatins, which are cysteine protease inhibitors, and by its own propeptide, is also described.
  16. Irene D, Chen B, Lo S, Liu T, Tzen J, Chyan C. Resonance assignments and secondary structure of a phytocystatin from Ananas comosus. Biomol NMR Assign. 2012;6:99-101 pubmed publisher
    ..coli and purified to homogeneous. The recombinant pineapple cystatins (AcCYS) showed effectively inhibitory activity toward cysteine proteases including papain, bromelain, and ..
  17. Mi W, Pawlik M, Sastre M, Jung S, Radvinsky D, Klein A, et al. Cystatin C inhibits amyloid-beta deposition in Alzheimer's disease mouse models. Nat Genet. 2007;39:1440-2 pubmed
    ..Thus, cystatin C has a protective role in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, and modulation of cystatin C concentrations may have therapeutic implications for the disease. ..
  18. Morgan G, Giannini S, Hounslow A, Craven C, Zerovnik E, Turk V, et al. Exclusion of the native alpha-helix from the amyloid fibrils of a mixed alpha/beta protein. J Mol Biol. 2008;375:487-98 pubmed
    ..Before forming amyloid in vitro, cystatins dimerise via 3D domain swapping, and assemble into tetramers with trans to cis isomerism of a conserved proline...
  19. Schnoeller C, Rausch S, Pillai S, Avagyan A, Wittig B, Loddenkemper C, et al. A helminth immunomodulator reduces allergic and inflammatory responses by induction of IL-10-producing macrophages. J Immunol. 2008;180:4265-72 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that treatment with a single helminth protein can exert the antiallergic effects of helminth infections. ..
  20. Hwang J, Hong J, Je J, Lee K, Kim D, Lee S, et al. Regulation of seed germination and seedling growth by an Arabidopsis phytocystatin isoform, AtCYS6. Plant Cell Rep. 2009;28:1623-32 pubmed publisher
  21. Turk V, Stoka V, Turk D. Cystatins: biochemical and structural properties, and medical relevance. Front Biosci. 2008;13:5406-20 pubmed
    ..Some of the cystatins also inhibit the legumain (C13) family of enzymes...
  22. Goulet M, Dallaire C, Vaillancourt L, Khalf M, Badri A, Preradov A, et al. Tailoring the specificity of a plant cystatin toward herbivorous insect digestive cysteine proteases by single mutations at positively selected amino acid sites. Plant Physiol. 2008;146:1010-9 pubmed publisher
    Plant cystatins, similar to other defense proteins, include hypervariable, positively selected amino acid sites presumably impacting their biological activity...
  23. Johnson S, Evans D, Laurenson S, Paul D, Davies A, Ko Ferrigno P, et al. Surface-immobilized peptide aptamers as probe molecules for protein detection. Anal Chem. 2008;80:978-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, we demonstrate the high selectivity of the peptide aptamer STM_(pep9) by exposing surface-immobilized ST(cys+)_(pep9) to a complex biological solution containing small concentrations of the target protein CDK2. ..
  24. Weeda S, Mohan Kumar G, Richard Knowles N. Developmentally linked changes in proteases and protease inhibitors suggest a role for potato multicystatin in regulating protein content of potato tubers. Planta. 2009;230:73-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these results are consistent with a role for PMC in facilitating the accumulation of proteins in developing tubers by inhibiting Cys-type proteases. ..
  25. Magister S, Obermajer N, Mirković B, Svajger U, Renko M, Softić A, et al. Regulation of cathepsins S and L by cystatin F during maturation of dendritic cells. Eur J Cell Biol. 2012;91:391-401 pubmed publisher
  26. Zavasnik Bergant T. Cystatin protease inhibitors and immune functions. Front Biosci. 2008;13:4625-37 pubmed
    b>Cystatins are natural tight-binding reversible inhibitors of cysteine proteases. They are wide spread in all living organisms (mammals, nematodes, arthropods etc...
  27. Carrillo L, Herrero I, Cambra I, Sanchez Monge R, Diaz I, Martinez M. Differential in vitro and in vivo effect of barley cysteine and serine protease inhibitors on phytopathogenic microorganisms. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2011;49:1191-200 pubmed publisher
    ..In barley, thirteen cystatins (HvCPI-1 to 13) and the BTI-CMe trypsin inhibitor have been previously studied...
  28. Volpicella M, Leoni C, Costanza A, De Leo F, Gallerani R, Ceci L. Cystatins, serpins and other families of protease inhibitors in plants. Curr Protein Pept Sci. 2011;12:386-98 pubmed
    ..In the present article we aim to give an overview of other families of plant PIs, active either against serine proteases or other class of proteases, describing their distribution, activity and main structural characteristics. ..
  29. Benchabane M, Schlüter U, Vorster J, Goulet M, Michaud D. Plant cystatins. Biochimie. 2010;92:1657-66 pubmed publisher
    Plant cystatins have been the object of intense research since the publication of a first paper reporting their existence more than 20 years ago...
  30. Miyaji T, Murayama S, Kouzuma Y, Kimura N, Kanost M, Kramer K, et al. Molecular cloning of a multidomain cysteine protease and protease inhibitor precursor gene from the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) and functional expression of the cathepsin F-like cysteine protease domain. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2010;40:835-46 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting mature MsCPI protein probably plays a role in the regulation of the activity of endogenous cysteine proteases...
  31. Wang K, Kumar S, Cheng Y, Venkatagiri S, Yang A, Yeh K. Characterization of inhibitory mechanism and antifungal activity between group-1 and group-2 phytocystatins from taro (Colocasia esculenta). FEBS J. 2008;275:4980-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results are valid for most phytocystatins with respect to the inhibitory mechanism against cysteine proteinase. ..
  32. Renko M, Pozgan U, Majera D, Turk D. Stefin A displaces the occluding loop of cathepsin B only by as much as required to bind to the active site cleft. FEBS J. 2010;277:4338-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, the enzyme also exhibits endopeptidase activity and is inhibited by stefins and cystatins. To clarify the structural properties of the occluding loop upon the binding of stefins, we determined the ..
  33. Martinez M, Diaz I. The origin and evolution of plant cystatins and their target cysteine proteinases indicate a complex functional relationship. BMC Evol Biol. 2008;8:198 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystatins and their putative targets, the families of cysteine proteinases C1A and C13 play key roles in plants...
  34. Kotsyfakis M, Horka H, Salat J, Andersen J. The crystal structures of two salivary cystatins from the tick Ixodes scapularis and the effect of these inhibitors on the establishment of Borrelia burgdorferi infection in a murine model. Mol Microbiol. 2010;77:456-70 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first structural analysis of cystatins from an invertebrate source...
  35. Kang J, Lee K, Sohn W, Na B. Identification and functional characterization of CsStefin-1, a cysteine protease inhibitor of Clonorchis sinensis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;177:126-34 pubmed publisher
    ..CsStefin-1 was shown to be a typical cysteine protease inhibitor of family 1 cystatins that lacks the N-terminal signal peptide and C-terminal cysteine residues required for disulfide bond formation...
  36. Kordis D, Turk V. Phylogenomic analysis of the cystatin superfamily in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. BMC Evol Biol. 2009;9:266 pubmed publisher
    ..A primordial gene duplication produced two ancestral eukaryotic lineages, cystatins and stefins...
  37. Klotz C, Ziegler T, Daniłowicz Luebert E, Hartmann S. Cystatins of parasitic organisms. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2011;712:208-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In this chapter we will focus on I25 family members, which consist predominantly of the type 2 cystatins. Recently, a wealth of information on these molecules and their activities has been described...
  38. Lee C, Bongcam Rudloff E, Sollner C, Jahnen Dechent W, Claesson Welsh L. Type 3 cystatins; fetuins, kininogen and histidine-rich glycoprotein. Front Biosci (Landmark Ed). 2009;14:2911-22 pubmed
    ..In addition, several members of the type 3 cystatins have been implicated in tumor growth and shown to regulate endothelial cell function and formation of new blood ..
  39. Ma J, Tanaka K, Shimizu T, Bernard C, Kakita A, Takahashi H, et al. Microglial cystatin F expression is a sensitive indicator for ongoing demyelination with concurrent remyelination. J Neurosci Res. 2011;89:639-49 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that the expression of cystatin F indicates the occurrence of ongoing demyelination/remyelination and the absence of cystatin F expression indicates the cessation of remyelination in the demyelinating area. ..
  40. Parker B, Ciocca D, Bidwell B, Gago F, Fanelli M, George J, et al. Primary tumour expression of the cysteine cathepsin inhibitor Stefin A inhibits distant metastasis in breast cancer. J Pathol. 2008;214:337-46 pubmed
    ..We conclude that Stefin A expression reduces distant metastasis in breast cancer and propose that this may be due to the inhibition of cysteine cathepsins, such as cathepsin B. ..
  41. Badri M, Rivard D, Coenen K, Vaillancourt L, Goulet C, Michaud D. A SELDI-TOF MS procedure for the detection, quantitation, and preliminary characterization of low-molecular-weight recombinant proteins expressed in transgenic plants. Proteomics. 2009;9:233-41 pubmed publisher
  42. Gregory W, Maizels R. Cystatins from filarial parasites: evolution, adaptation and function in the host-parasite relationship. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2008;40:1389-98 pubmed publisher
    b>Cystatins, together with stefins and kininogens, are members of the cystatin superfamily of cysteine protease inhibitors (CPI) present across the animal and plant kingdoms...
  43. Chu M, Liu K, Wu H, Yeh K, Cheng Y. Crystal structure of tarocystatin-papain complex: implications for the inhibition property of group-2 phytocystatins. Planta. 2011;234:243-54 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of the structures, the linker flexibility and inhibition activity of tarocystatins, we propose that the overhangs from the cystatin domain may enhance the inhibition ability of the cystatin domain against papain. ..
  44. de Sousa Pereira P, Amado F, Abrantes J, Ferreira R, Esteves P, Vitorino R. An evolutionary perspective of mammal salivary peptide families: cystatins, histatins, statherin and PRPs. Arch Oral Biol. 2013;58:451-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of histatin, statherin and PRP families restricted to few millions and comprising few species when compared with cystatins, where duplication occurred at more than 650 mya...
  45. Rivard D, Girard C, Anguenot R, Vézina L, Trépanier S, Michaud D. MsCYS1, a developmentally-regulated cystatin from alfalfa. Plant Physiol Biochem. 2007;45:508-14 pubmed
    Several roles have been attributed to cystatins in plants, ranging from the regulation of host [endogenous] cysteine proteases to the inhibition of herbivorous pest [exogenous] proteases...
  46. Wahlbom M, Wang X, Lindström V, Carlemalm E, Jaskolski M, Grubb A. Fibrillogenic oligomers of human cystatin C are formed by propagated domain swapping. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:18318-26 pubmed
  47. Alvarez Alfageme F, Martinez M, Pascual Ruiz S, Castanera P, Diaz I, Ortego F. Effects of potato plants expressing a barley cystatin on the predatory bug Podisus maculiventris via herbivorous prey feeding on the plant. Transgenic Res. 2007;16:1-13 pubmed
    ..To investigate the physiological background, biochemical analysis were carried out on guts of insects dissected at the end of the feeding assays. ..
  48. Bouvet Y, Bouissou F, Coulais Y, Seronie Vivien S, Tafani M, Decramer S, et al. GFR is better estimated by considering both serum cystatin C and creatinine levels. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006;21:1299-306 pubmed
    ..16))]. This equation was associated with a less biased and more precise estimation than the Schwartz equation. CysC improves the estimation of the GFR in children if considered with other covariates within the mathematical formula. ..
  49. Stevens L, Coresh J, Greene T, Levey A. Assessing kidney function--measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate. N Engl J Med. 2006;354:2473-83 pubmed
  50. Werle B, Schanzenbächer U, Lah T, Ebert E, Jülke B, Ebert W, et al. Cystatins in non-small cell lung cancer: tissue levels, localization and relation to prognosis. Oncol Rep. 2006;16:647-55 pubmed
    b>Cystatins regulate tumour-associated cysteine proteases, however, their role in tumour progression is not clear yet...
  51. Lutgens S, Cleutjens K, Daemen M, Heeneman S. Cathepsin cysteine proteases in cardiovascular disease. FASEB J. 2007;21:3029-41 pubmed
  52. Tian M, Win J, Song J, van der Hoorn R, van der Knaap E, Kamoun S. A Phytophthora infestans cystatin-like protein targets a novel tomato papain-like apoplastic protease. Plant Physiol. 2007;143:364-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Altogether, this and earlier studies suggest that interplay between host proteases of diverse catalytic families and pathogen inhibitors is a general defense-counterdefense process in plant-pathogen interactions...
  53. Martinez M, Diaz Mendoza M, Carrillo L, Diaz I. Carboxy terminal extended phytocystatins are bifunctional inhibitors of papain and legumain cysteine proteinases. FEBS Lett. 2007;581:2914-8 pubmed
    ..with an amino acid motif (SNSL) similar to that involved in the inhibition of legumain-like proteins by human cystatins. The role of these carboxy terminal extended PhyCys as inhibitors of legumain-like cysteine proteinases is here ..
  54. Kiyosaki T, Matsumoto I, Asakura T, Funaki J, Kuroda M, Misaka T, et al. Gliadain, a gibberellin-inducible cysteine proteinase occurring in germinating seeds of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., specifically digests gliadin and is regulated by intrinsic cystatins. FEBS J. 2007;274:1908-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Hydrolysis was inhibited by two wheat cystatins, WC1 and WC4, with IC(50) values of 1.7 x 10(-8) and 5.0 x 10(-8) m, respectively...
  55. Ohtsubo S, Taiyoji M, Kawase T, Taniguchi M, Saitoh E. Oryzacystatin-II, a cystatin from rice (Oryza sativa L. japonica), is a dimeric protein: possible involvement of the interconversion between dimer and monomer in the regulation of the reactivity of oryzacystatin-II. J Agric Food Chem. 2007;55:1762-6 pubmed
    ..The affinity of the monomer for cysteine proteinases was significantly higher than that of the dimer. This is the first paper to describe the noncovalent dimerization for a cystatin under nonstress conditions. ..
  56. Singh D, Whooley M, Ix J, Ali S, Shlipak M. Association of cystatin C and estimated GFR with inflammatory biomarkers: the Heart and Soul Study. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007;22:1087-92 pubmed
    ..Although a gold standard of kidney function is lacking, this analysis suggests that cystatin C captures an association of mildly impaired kidney function with increased inflammation. ..
  57. Keller C, Odden M, Fried L, Newman A, Angleman S, Green C, et al. Kidney function and markers of inflammation in elderly persons without chronic kidney disease: the health, aging, and body composition study. Kidney Int. 2007;71:239-44 pubmed
    ..05). Cystatin C has a linear association with inflammatory biomarkers in an ambulatory elderly cohort with estimated glomerular filtration rates >or=60; associations are particularly strong with TNF-alpha and the STNF-R. ..
  58. Zhu J, Yin R, Wu H, Yi J, Luo L, Dong G, et al. Cystatin C as a reliable marker of renal function following heart valve replacement surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Clin Chim Acta. 2006;374:116-21 pubmed
    ..In agreement with many other investigators, the present findings support cystatin C is a reliable marker of renal function. It is superior to creatinine in patients post CPB. ..
  59. Jenko Kokalj S, Guncar G, Stern I, Morgan G, Rabzelj S, Kenig M, et al. Essential role of proline isomerization in stefin B tetramer formation. J Mol Biol. 2007;366:1569-79 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the hypothesis that isomerization of proline residues can play a decisive role in amyloidogenesis. ..