troponin

Summary

Summary: One of the minor protein components of skeletal and cardiac muscles. It functions as the calcium-binding component in a complex with BETA-TROPOMYOSIN; ACTIN; and MYOSIN and confers calcium sensitivity to the cross-linked actin and myosin filaments. Troponin itself is a complex of three regulatory proteins (TROPONIN C; TROPONIN I; and TROPONIN T).

Top Publications

  1. Mijailovich S, Li X, Del Alamo J, Griffiths R, Kecman V, Geeves M. Resolution and uniqueness of estimated parameters of a model of thin filament regulation in solution. Comput Biol Chem. 2010;34:19-33 pubmed publisher
    ..of MG model is defined by a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations (ODEs) that predict the evolution of troponin-tropomyosin-actin and actin-myosin states...
  2. Parmacek M, Solaro R. Biology of the troponin complex in cardiac myocytes. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2004;47:159-76 pubmed
    b>Troponin is the regulatory complex of the myofibrillar thin filament that plays a critical role in regulating excitation-contraction coupling in the heart...
  3. Mohlenkamp S, Leineweber K, Lehmann N, Braun S, Roggenbuck U, Perrey M, et al. Coronary atherosclerosis burden, but not transient troponin elevation, predicts long-term outcome in recreational marathon runners. Basic Res Cardiol. 2014;109:391 pubmed publisher
    We determined the prognostic value of transient increases in high-sensitive serum troponin I (hsTnI) during a marathon and its association with traditional cardiovascular risk factors and imaging-based risk markers for incident coronary ..
  4. Tentzeris I, Jarai R, Farhan S, Perkmann T, Schwarz M, Jakl G, et al. Complementary role of copeptin and high-sensitivity troponin in predicting outcome in patients with stable chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail. 2011;13:726-33 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present study we investigated whether the complementary role of copeptin and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) could be used for identification of high-risk patients with chronic stable heart failure...
  5. Kelly A. What is the incidence of major adverse cardiac events in emergency department chest pain patients with a normal ECG, thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score of zero and initial troponin <=99th centile: an observational study?. Emerg Med J. 2013;30:15-8 pubmed publisher
    ..rate of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in patients assessed in an emergency department (ED) for chest pain with a non-ischaemic ECG, Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) score of 0 and initial troponin I (TnI) ?99th centile.
  6. Braga J, Tu J, Austin P, Chong A, You J, Farkouh M, et al. Outcomes and care of patients with acute heart failure syndromes and cardiac troponin elevation. Circ Heart Fail. 2013;6:193-202 pubmed publisher
    ..5%) or absence (cTn-) of elevated troponin. Clinically abstracted data on patients who were admitted or discharged from the emergency department in Ontario, ..
  7. Levy M, Heels Ansdell D, Hiralal R, Bhandari M, Guyatt G, Yusuf S, et al. Prognostic value of troponin and creatine kinase muscle and brain isoenzyme measurement after noncardiac surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Anesthesiology. 2011;114:796-806 pubmed publisher
    There is uncertainty regarding the prognostic value of troponin and creatine kinase muscle and brain isoenzyme measurements after noncardiac surgery. The current study undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis...
  8. Melki D, Lind S, Agewall S, Jernberg T. Diagnostic value of high sensitive troponin T in chest pain patients with no persistent ST-elevations. Scand Cardiovasc J. 2011;45:198-204 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to compare the early diagnostic value of the Roche high-sensitive troponin T (Hs-TnT) and that of conventional troponins. A total of 233 consecutive chest pain patients without ST-elevations were included...
  9. Eijsvogels T, Shave R, Van Dijk A, Hopman M, Thijssen D. Exercise-induced cardiac troponin release: real-life clinical confusion. Curr Med Chem. 2011;18:3457-61 pubmed
    ..for the identification of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) importantly depend on the presence of cardiac troponin as a highly sensitive marker of cardiac damage...

More Information

Publications77

  1. de Winter J, Buck D, Hidalgo C, Jasper J, MALIK F, Clarke N, et al. Troponin activator augments muscle force in nemaline myopathy patients with nebulin mutations. J Med Genet. 2013;50:383-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we studied the ability of the novel fast skeletal muscle troponin activator, CK-2066260, to augment force generation at submaximal calcium levels in muscle cells from nemaline ..
  2. Russell A, Hartman J, Hinken A, Muci A, Kawas R, Driscoll L, et al. Activation of fast skeletal muscle troponin as a potential therapeutic approach for treating neuromuscular diseases. Nat Med. 2012;18:452-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a small-molecule fast-skeletal-troponin activator, CK-2017357, as a means to increase muscle strength by amplifying the response of muscle when neural ..
  3. Mills N, Lee K, McAllister D, Churchhouse A, MacLeod M, Stoddart M, et al. Implications of lowering threshold of plasma troponin concentration in diagnosis of myocardial infarction: cohort study. BMJ. 2012;344:e1533 pubmed publisher
    To assess the relation between troponin concentration, assay precision, and clinical outcomes in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome. Cohort study. Tertiary centre in Scotland...
  4. Miciak J, Warsing L, Tibbs M, Jasper J, Jampel S, MALIK F, et al. Fast skeletal muscle troponin activator in the dy2J muscular dystrophy model. Muscle Nerve. 2013;48:279-85 pubmed publisher
    Tirasemtiv is a novel small molecule activator of the fast skeletal muscle troponin complex that produces sensitization of the sarcomere to calcium. Tirasemtiv is currently in Phase II clinical trials for neuromuscular disease...
  5. Lippi G. Biomarkers of myocardial ischemia in the emergency room: cardiospecific troponin and beyond. Eur J Intern Med. 2013;24:97-9 pubmed publisher
    ..rule, there are important issues that should be addressed when combining an innovative diagnostic test with troponin, including a benchmark evaluation of diagnostic performance, the impact on throughput and turnaround time, along ..
  6. Korley F, Jaffe A. Preparing the United States for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2013;61:1753-8 pubmed publisher
    It is only a matter of time before the use of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays (hs-cTn) becomes common throughout the United States...
  7. Januzzi J, Filippatos G, Nieminen M, Gheorghiade M. Troponin elevation in patients with heart failure: on behalf of the third Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction Global Task Force: Heart Failure Section. Eur Heart J. 2012;33:2265-71 pubmed publisher
    Cardiac troponin testing is commonly performed in patients with heart failure (HF)...
  8. Giannitsis E, Katus H. Pros and cons of high-sensitivity assays for cardiac troponin. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2012;9:616-8 pubmed publisher
    A 3-h algorithm using high-sensitivity assays for cardiac troponin to rule out myocardial infarction (MI) is recommended in current ESC guidelines...
  9. Brown J, Hirsh D, Mahle W. Use of troponin as a screen for chest pain in the pediatric emergency department. Pediatr Cardiol. 2012;33:337-42 pubmed publisher
    b>Troponin levels are commonly employed in the assessment of adults presenting with chest pain or concern for coronary ischemia. However, the utility of troponin measurements in children is not well defined...
  10. Erban T. Purification of tropomyosin, paramyosin, actin, tubulin, troponin and kinases for chemiproteomics and its application to different scientific fields. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22860 pubmed publisher
    ..enabled the purification of the panallergenic proteins tropomyosin and paramyosin, as well as actin, tubulin, troponin and several kinases and annexins, with variable specificity depending on the tissue source and slight ..
  11. Zhang Z, Akhter S, Mottl S, Jin J. Calcium-regulated conformational change in the C-terminal end segment of troponin I and its binding to tropomyosin. FEBS J. 2011;278:3348-59 pubmed publisher
    The troponin complex plays an essential role in the thin filament regulation of striated muscle contraction...
  12. Hallén J. Troponin for the estimation of infarct size: what have we learned?. Cardiology. 2012;121:204-12 pubmed publisher
    ..More studies are needed to understand how cardiac troponin-estimated infarct size may be integrated with other prognostic assessments and employed systematically in risk ..
  13. Sanfilippo F, Hobbs M, Knuiman M, Ridout S, Bradshaw P, Finn J, et al. Can we monitor heart attack in the troponin era? Evidence from a population-based cohort study. BMC Cardiovasc Disord. 2011;11:35 pubmed publisher
    ..a difference largely due to increased false-negative cases in the HMDC associated with marked increased use of troponin tests in cardiac admissions generally, and progressively lower test thresholds...
  14. Kooij V, Zhang P, Piersma S, Sequeira V, Boontje N, Wijnker P, et al. PKC?-specific phosphorylation of the troponin complex in human myocardium: a functional and proteomics analysis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e74847 pubmed publisher
    Protein kinase C? (PKC?) is one of the predominant PKC isoforms that phosphorylate cardiac troponin. PKC? is implicated in heart failure and serves as a potential therapeutic target, however, the exact consequences for contractile ..
  15. McFalls E, Larsen G, Johnson G, Apple F, Goldman S, Arai A, et al. Outcomes of hospitalized patients with non-acute coronary syndrome and elevated cardiac troponin level. Am J Med. 2011;124:630-5 pubmed publisher
    Cardiac troponin levels help risk-stratify patients presenting with an acute coronary syndrome...
  16. Markou N, Gregorakos L, Myrianthefs P. Increased blood troponin levels in ICU patients. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2011;17:454-63 pubmed publisher
    Cardiac troponins in serum have become the biomarkers of choice for the diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Yet, troponin can also be elevated by a multitude of causes in the absence of overt myocardial ischemia...
  17. Tardiff J. Thin filament mutations: developing an integrative approach to a complex disorder. Circ Res. 2011;108:765-82 pubmed publisher
    Sixteen years ago, mutations in cardiac troponin (Tn)T and ?-tropomyosin were linked to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, thus transforming the disorder from a disease of the ?-myosin heavy chain to a disease of the cardiac sarcomere...
  18. Meune C, Drexler B, Haaf P, Reichlin T, Reiter M, Meissner J, et al. The GRACE score's performance in predicting in-hospital and 1-year outcome in the era of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays and B-type natriuretic peptide. Heart. 2011;97:1479-83 pubmed publisher
    ..score, a strong prognosticator in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) that is calculated using conventional cardiac troponin (cTn) assays, with that calculated with high-sensitivity cTn (hs-cTn) and with the combination of the GRACE score ..
  19. Leurent G, Langella B, Fougerou C, Lentz P, Larralde A, Bedossa M, et al. Diagnostic contributions of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in patients presenting with elevated troponin, acute chest pain syndrome and unobstructed coronary arteries. Arch Cardiovasc Dis. 2011;104:161-70 pubmed publisher
    ..of cardiac magnetic resonance in patients presenting with acute chest pain syndrome, elevated serum cardiac troponin concentrations and no significant coronary artery stenoses...
  20. Devereaux P, Xavier D, Pogue J, Guyatt G, Sigamani A, Garutti I, et al. Characteristics and short-term prognosis of perioperative myocardial infarction in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2011;154:523-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Data suggest that routine monitoring of troponin levels in at-risk patients is needed after surgery to detect most MIs, which have an equally poor prognosis ..
  21. Redfern G, Rodseth R, Biccard B. Outcomes in vascular surgical patients with isolated postoperative troponin leak: a meta-analysis. Anaesthesia. 2011;66:604-10 pubmed publisher
    ..a significant cause of morbidity and mortality following vascular surgery, the significance of an isolated troponin leak is uncertain...
  22. Chong C, van Gaal W, Savige J, Lim W. Cardiac injury and troponin testing after orthopaedic surgery. Injury. 2011;42:855-63 pubmed
    ..The detection of cardiac injury has been aided by the use of cardiac troponins which has also raised questions about the utility of this enzyme in the post-operative setting...
  23. Thokala P, Goodacre S, Collinson P, Stevens J, Mills N, Newby D, et al. Cost-effectiveness of presentation versus delayed troponin testing for acute myocardial infarction. Heart. 2012;98:1498-503 pubmed
    To estimate the cost-effectiveness of delayed troponin testing for myocardial infarction compared with troponin testing at presentation. Decision analysis modelling of cost-effectiveness using secondary data sources...
  24. Miki M, Makimura S, Sugahara Y, Yamada R, Bunya M, Saitoh T, et al. A three-dimensional FRET analysis to construct an atomic model of the actin-tropomyosin-troponin core domain complex on a muscle thin filament. J Mol Biol. 2012;420:40-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) was used to construct an atomic model of the actin-tropomyosin (Tm)-troponin (Tn) core domain complex...
  25. Kociol R, Pang P, Gheorghiade M, Fonarow G, O Connor C, Felker G. Troponin elevation in heart failure prevalence, mechanisms, and clinical implications. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2010;56:1071-8 pubmed publisher
    ..natriuretic peptides have received much focus, there is increasing interest in the role of circulating cardiac troponin (cTn) in detecting myocardial injury (often subclinical) in those with HF...
  26. Freund Y, Chenevier Gobeaux C, Bonnet P, Claessens Y, Allo J, Doumenc B, et al. High-sensitivity versus conventional troponin in the emergency department for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. Crit Care. 2011;15:R147 pubmed publisher
    Recently, newer assays for cardiac troponin (cTn) have been developed which are able to detect changes in concentration of the biomarker at or below the 99th percentile for a normal population...
  27. Chalovich J. Disease causing mutations of troponin alter regulated actin state distributions. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2012;33:493-9 pubmed publisher
    Striated muscle contraction is regulated primarily through the action of tropomyosin and troponin that are bound to actin. Activation requires Ca(2+) binding to troponin and/or binding of high affinity myosin complexes to actin...
  28. Gallagher S, Jones D, Anand V, Mohiddin S. Diagnosis and management of patients with acute cardiac symptoms, troponin elevation and culprit-free angiograms. Heart. 2012;98:974-81 pubmed publisher
    Patients with acute cardiac symptoms, elevated cardiac troponin and culprit-free angiograms comprise a significant proportion of patients admitted with presumed acute coronary syndromes (ACS)...
  29. Gruettner J, Haghi D, Henzler T, Kraus P, Borggrefe M, Schoenberg S, et al. Cardiac computed tomographic angiography in patients with acute chest pain and moderately-increased troponin. In Vivo. 2012;26:1035-9 pubmed
    The aim of the study was to investigate patients with undefined chest pain and moderately increased troponin based on the results of cardiac computed tomographic (CT) angiography (CCTA).
  30. Stahrenberg R, Niehaus C, Edelmann F, Mende M, Wohlfahrt J, Wasser K, et al. High-sensitivity troponin assay improves prediction of cardiovascular risk in patients with cerebral ischaemia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2013;84:479-87 pubmed publisher
    ..7%) and 13 deaths (6.6%) to 1 year follow-up. In multivariate analyses of all markers, only high-sensitivity troponin T (hsTropT) remained independently predictive for vascular events (p=0.045) and all-cause mortality (p=0.004)...
  31. Kelly A. Performance of a sensitive troponin assay in the early diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction in the emergency department. Emerg Med Australas. 2011;23:181-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Troponin assays have high diagnostic value for myocardial infarction (MI), but sensitivity has been weak early after chest pain onset. New, so-called 'sensitive' troponin assays have recently been introduced...
  32. Schoffstall B, Labarbera V, Brunet N, Gavino B, Herring L, Heshmati S, et al. Interaction between troponin and myosin enhances contractile activity of myosin in cardiac muscle. DNA Cell Biol. 2011;30:653-9 pubmed publisher
    Ca(2+) signaling in striated muscle cells is critically dependent upon thin filament proteins tropomyosin (Tm) and troponin (Tn) to regulate mechanical output...
  33. Kawahara C, Tsutamoto T, Nishiyama K, Yamaji M, Sakai H, Fujii M, et al. Prognostic role of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. Circ J. 2011;75:656-61 pubmed
    Cardiac troponin T (cTnT) is useful biomarker in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). However, its clinical use is limited by the low sensitivity of the conventional commercial assay system...
  34. Wu A, Christenson R. Analytical and assay issues for use of cardiac troponin testing for risk stratification in primary care. Clin Biochem. 2013;46:969-978 pubmed publisher
    Cardiac troponin is the standard marker for diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction and risk stratification of patients who present to an emergency department with signs and symptoms of acute cardiac ischemia...
  35. Gaibazzi N, Reverberi C, Badano L. Usefulness of contrast stress-echocardiography or exercise-electrocardiography to predict long-term acute coronary syndromes in patients presenting with chest pain without electrocardiographic abnormalities or 12-hour troponin elevation. Am J Cardiol. 2011;107:161-7 pubmed publisher
    ..pain suggestive of myocardial ischemia, nondiagnostic electrocardiographic findings, and normal 12-hour cardiac troponin levels remains a challenge for the clinician...
  36. Agewall S, Giannitsis E, Jernberg T, Katus H. Troponin elevation in coronary vs. non-coronary disease. Eur Heart J. 2011;32:404-11 pubmed publisher
    ..are the most sensitive and specific biochemical markers of myocardial injury and with the new high-sensitivity troponin methods very minor damages on the heart muscle can be detected...
  37. Collinson P. Sensitive troponin assays. J Clin Pathol. 2011;64:845-9 pubmed publisher
    Sensitive troponin assays have been developed to meet the diagnostic goals set by the universal definition of myocardial infarction (MI)...
  38. O Hanlon R, Wilson M, Wage R, Smith G, Alpendurada F, Wong J, et al. Troponin release following endurance exercise: is inflammation the cause? a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson. 2010;12:38 pubmed publisher
    The aetiology and clinical significance of troponin release following endurance exercise is unclear but may be due to transient myocardial inflammation...
  39. Keller T, Post F, Tzikas S, Schneider A, Arnolds S, Scheiba O, et al. Improved outcome in acute coronary syndrome by establishing a chest pain unit. Clin Res Cardiol. 2010;99:149-55 pubmed publisher
    ..When compared to patients with exclusion of ACS they had more cardiovascular risk factors and higher troponin, creatinine and C-reactive protein levels (P < 0.001) at admission...
  40. Gomes A, Liang J, Potter J. Mutations in human cardiac troponin I that are associated with restrictive cardiomyopathy affect basal ATPase activity and the calcium sensitivity of force development. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:30909-15 pubmed
    Human cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) is the first sarcomeric protein for which mutations have been associated with restrictive cardiomyopathy...
  41. Moraczewska J, Gruszczynska Biegala J, Redowicz M, Khaitlina S, Strzelecka Golaszewska H. The DNase-I binding loop of actin may play a role in the regulation of actin-myosin interaction by tropomyosin/troponin. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:31197-204 pubmed
    ..been questioned based on unimpaired Ca(2+) regulation of myosin interaction, in the presence of the tropomyosin-troponin complex, with actin cleaved by subtilisin between Met(47) and Gly(48)...
  42. Boussouf S, Maytum R, Jaquet K, Geeves M. Role of tropomyosin isoforms in the calcium sensitivity of striated muscle thin filaments. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2007;28:49-58 pubmed
    ..to define the assembly of actin filaments with the Tm isoforms with either a cardiac or a skeletal muscle troponin (cTn, skTn)...
  43. Burness C, Beacock D, Channer K. Pitfalls and problems of relying on serum troponin. QJM. 2005;98:365-71 pubmed
    Cardiac troponin (cT) is released after myocardial damage. In the appropriate clinical setting, a measured elevation of cT can increase the diagnostic rate of myocardial infarction and acute coronary syndrome...
  44. Relos R, Hasinoff I, Beilman G. Moderately elevated serum troponin concentrations are associated with increased morbidity and mortality rates in surgical intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:2598-603 pubmed
    To determine the significance of moderate elevations of serum troponin I in a surgical intensive care unit patient population in terms of its impact on indexes of outcome including mortality, morbidity, and hospital and intensive care ..
  45. Jaffe A. The clinical impact of the universal diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2008;46:1485-8 pubmed publisher
    All of the recent guidelines now endorse the use of troponin as the biomarker or choice for the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Review of the recent guidelines criteria...
  46. Harvey M, Hancox R. Elevation of cardiac troponins in exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Emerg Med Australas. 2004;16:212-5 pubmed
    To investigate the prevalence of serum troponin elevation in patients admitted to hospital with an exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
  47. van Bockel E, Tulleken J, Ligtenberg J, Zijlstra J. Troponin in septic and critically ill patients. Chest. 2005;127:687-8; author reply 688 pubmed
  48. Ke L, Qi X, Dijkhuis A, Chartier D, Nattel S, Henning R, et al. Calpain mediates cardiac troponin degradation and contractile dysfunction in atrial fibrillation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008;45:685-93 pubmed publisher
    ..HL-1 cardiomyocytes and atrial tissue from AF and control patients, degradation of myofibrillar proteins troponin (cTn) T, I, C, human cTnT and actin was investigated by Western blotting, and contractile function was analyzed ..
  49. Clemmens E, Entezari M, Martyn D, Regnier M. Different effects of cardiac versus skeletal muscle regulatory proteins on in vitro measures of actin filament speed and force. J Physiol. 2005;566:737-46 pubmed
    Mammalian cardiac and skeletal muscle express unique isoforms of the thin filament regulatory proteins, troponin (Tn) and tropomyosin (Tm), and the significance of these different isoforms in thin filament regulation has not been clearly ..
  50. Schoffstall B, Brunet N, Williams S, Miller V, Barnes A, Wang F, et al. Ca2+ sensitivity of regulated cardiac thin filament sliding does not depend on myosin isoform. J Physiol. 2006;577:935-44 pubmed
    ..Regulated thin filaments were reconstituted with recombinant human cardiac troponin (rhcTn) and alpha-tropomyosin (rhcTm) expressed in Escherichia coli...
  51. Mirza M, Marston S, Willott R, Ashley C, Mogensen J, McKenna W, et al. Dilated cardiomyopathy mutations in three thin filament regulatory proteins result in a common functional phenotype. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:28498-506 pubmed
    ..Inherited DCM can result from mutations in the genes encoding cardiac troponin T, troponin C, and alpha-tropomyosin; different mutations in the same genes cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy...
  52. Whyte G. Clinical significance of cardiac damage and changes in function after exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40:1416-23 pubmed publisher
    ..It would seem erroneous, however, to assume that a linear relationship exists between exercise volume and cardiac health. ..
  53. Goteiner D, Craig R, Ashmen R, Janal M, Eskin B, Lehrman N. Endotoxin levels are associated with high-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, and troponin in patients with acute coronary syndrome and angina: possible contributions from periodontal sources. J Periodontol. 2008;79:2331-9 pubmed
    ..was to correlate the presence of periodontitis with serum endotoxin/lipopolysaccharides (LPS), lipid profiles, troponin, and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody to Porphyromonas gingivalis in control patients or patients with ACS or ..
  54. Baylor S, Hollingworth S. Simulation of Ca2+ movements within the sarcomere of fast-twitch mouse fibers stimulated by action potentials. J Gen Physiol. 2007;130:283-302 pubmed
    ..The simulations include Ca(2+) complexation reactions with ATP, troponin, parvalbumin, and the SR Ca(2+) pump, as well as Ca(2+) transport by the pump...
  55. Kosior D, Opolski G, Tadeusiak W, Chwyczko T, Wozakowska Kaplon B, Stawicki S, et al. Serum troponin I and myoglobin after monophasic versus biphasic transthoracic shocks for cardioversion of persistent atrial fibrillation. Pacing Clin Electrophysiol. 2005;28 Suppl 1:S128-32 pubmed
    ..versus biphasic direct current shocks for cardioversion of atrial fibrillation (AF) on the release of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and myoglobin (Myo). We randomized 48 patients with persistent AF (mean age = 61.4 +/- 10...
  56. Landesberg G, Vesselov Y, Einav S, Goodman S, Sprung C, Weissman C. Myocardial ischemia, cardiac troponin, and long-term survival of high-cardiac risk critically ill intensive care unit patients. Crit Care Med. 2005;33:1281-7 pubmed
    To determine the incidence and association of myocardial ischemia with troponin elevation and survival in high-cardiac-risk intensive care patients. Prospective observational study. Intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital...
  57. Boussouf S, Geeves M. Tropomyosin and troponin cooperativity on the thin filament. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2007;592:99-109 pubmed
  58. Katayama K, Anggraeni H, Mori T, Ahhmed A, Kawahara S, Sugiyama M, et al. Porcine skeletal muscle troponin is a good source of peptides with Angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory activity and antihypertensive effects in spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Agric Food Chem. 2008;56:355-60 pubmed publisher
    In the search for novel peptides that inhibit the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE), porcine skeletal troponin was hydrolyzed with pepsin, and the products were subjected to various types of chromatography to isolate active peptides...
  59. Salim A, Hadjizacharia P, Brown C, Inaba K, Teixeira P, Chan L, et al. Significance of troponin elevation after severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 2008;64:46-52 pubmed publisher
    Elevation of serum troponin (cTnI) after nontraumatic cerebral insult has been associated with an adverse prognosis. This association has not been well documented in traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
  60. Lim W, Whitlock R, Khera V, Devereaux P, Tkaczyk A, Heels Ansdell D, et al. Etiology of troponin elevation in critically ill patients. J Crit Care. 2010;25:322-8 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to assess the etiology of cardiac troponin elevation among patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) and to examine whether etiology affects mortality and length of stay...
  61. Lassalle M. Defective dynamic properties of human cardiac troponin mutations. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2010;74:82-91 pubmed
    Mutations in Troponin I (TnI) and Troponin T (TnT) are closely linked to familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (FHC) and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), but the underlying molecular mechanism is not yet well understood...
  62. Omland T. New features of troponin testing in different clinical settings. J Intern Med. 2010;268:207-17 pubmed publisher
    Cardiac troponin levels are routinely measured for diagnosing acute myocardial infarction...
  63. Kaczynska A, Pelsers M, Bochowicz A, Kostrubiec M, Glatz J, Pruszczyk P. Plasma heart-type fatty acid binding protein is superior to troponin and myoglobin for rapid risk stratification in acute pulmonary embolism. Clin Chim Acta. 2006;371:117-23 pubmed
    ..echocardiography (for RV overload) were recorded and plasma concentrations of myoglobin (Mb), cardiac troponin T (cTnT), N-terminal fragment of proBNP (NT-proBNP) and H-FABP were evaluated. Fifteen (19...
  64. Jaffe A. Chasing troponin: how low can you go if you can see the rise?. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2006;48:1763-4 pubmed
  65. Rosenbaum L, Januzzi J. Moving troponin testing into the 21st century: will greater sensitivity be met with greater sensibility?. Cardiovasc Hematol Disord Drug Targets. 2008;8:118-26 pubmed
    With its superior sensitivity and specificity, cardiac troponin has gradually replaced other cardiac enzymes, and is now the biomarker of choice in making the critical diagnosis of an acute coronary syndrome (ACS)...
  66. Testa L, van Gaal W, Biondi Zoccai G, Agostoni P, Latini R, Bedogni F, et al. Myocardial infarction after percutaneous coronary intervention: a meta-analysis of troponin elevation applying the new universal definition. QJM. 2009;102:369-78 pubmed publisher
    Elevation of Troponin after scheduled percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a recognized consequence...
  67. Akhtar S, Silverman D. Assessment and management of patients with ischemic heart disease. Crit Care Med. 2004;32:S126-36 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis and management of perioperative myocardial infarction continues to be a challenge. However, use of cardiac specific biomarkers should improve the diagnostic process. ..
  68. Metzger J, Westfall M. Covalent and noncovalent modification of thin filament action: the essential role of troponin in cardiac muscle regulation. Circ Res. 2004;94:146-58 pubmed
    b>Troponin is essential for the regulation of cardiac contraction. Troponin is a sarcomeric molecular switch, directly regulating the contractile event in concert with intracellular calcium signals...