skeletal muscle myosins


Summary: Myosin type II isoforms found in skeletal muscle.

Top Publications

  1. Ochala J, Gustafson A, Diez M, Renaud G, Li M, Aare S, et al. Preferential skeletal muscle myosin loss in response to mechanical silencing in a novel rat intensive care unit model: underlying mechanisms. J Physiol. 2011;589:2007-26 pubmed publisher
  2. Caiozzo V, Richmond H, Kaska S, Valeroso D. The mechanical behavior of activated skeletal muscle during stretch: effects of muscle unloading and MyHC isoform shifts. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2007;103:1150-60 pubmed
    ..e., ligaments) have been compromised by injury. ..
  3. Liu Y, Jia S, Hou Y. Effects of ovariectomy on rat genioglossal muscle contractile properties and fiber-type distribution. Angle Orthod. 2009;79:509-14 pubmed publisher
    ..The hypothesis is rejected. The contractile properties of the GG are sensitive to ovariectomy. These changes were, at least in part, associated with changes in the amount and type of contractile protein expressed. ..
  4. Debold E, Turner M, Stout J, Walcott S. Phosphate enhances myosin-powered actin filament velocity under acidic conditions in a motility assay. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2011;300:R1401-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that P(i) differentially affects myosin function: enhancing velocity, if it rebinds to the ADP-bound state, while slowing velocity, if it binds to the rigor state. ..
  5. Cheung A, Dantzig J, Hollingworth S, Baylor S, Goldman Y, Mitchison T, et al. A small-molecule inhibitor of skeletal muscle myosin II. Nat Cell Biol. 2002;4:83-8 pubmed
    ..The isolation of BTS and the recently discovered Eg5 kinesin inhibitor, monastrol, suggests that motor proteins may be potential targets for therapeutic applications. ..
  6. Seki M, Awata J, Shimada K, Kashiyama T, Ito K, Yamamoto K. Susceptibility of Chara myosin to SH reagents. Plant Cell Physiol. 2003;44:201-5 pubmed
    ..corallina decreased to a level accountable for the decrease in the velocity of cytoplasmic streaming but it was also found that Chara myosin was far less susceptible to NEM than skeletal muscle myosin. ..
  7. Tamura T, Iwamoto H. Thymol: a classical small-molecule compound that has a dual effect (potentiating and inhibitory) on myosin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;318:786-91 pubmed
    ..Thymol may serve as a potent tool for studying the mechanism of coupling between the ATPase reaction and contraction in muscle. ..
  8. Pae E, Hyatt J, Wu J, Chien P. Short-term electrical stimulation alters tongue muscle fibre type composition. Arch Oral Biol. 2007;52:544-51 pubmed
    ..Together, these results demonstrate a successful alteration in tongue muscle characteristics using exogenous electrical stimulation and perhaps a potential therapeutic application for OSA. ..
  9. Suchak A, Hunt N, Shah R, Sinanan A, Lloyd T, Lewis M. Myosin proteins identified from masseter muscle using quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction--a pilot study of the relevance to orthodontics. Eur J Orthod. 2009;31:196-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Rapid genotyping of patients in this way could reveal important information of relevance to treatment. This technology has potential as a diagnostic and prognostic aid when considering correction of certain malocclusions. ..

More Information


  1. Greenberg M, Mealy T, Watt J, Jones M, Szczesna Cordary D, Moore J. The molecular effects of skeletal muscle myosin regulatory light chain phosphorylation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R265-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Last, we showed that the duty cycle of skeletal muscle myosin is strain dependent, consistent with the notion that strain slows the rate of ADP release in striated muscle...
  2. Kudryashova E, Kudryashov D, Kramerova I, Spencer M. Trim32 is a ubiquitin ligase mutated in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H that binds to skeletal muscle myosin and ubiquitinates actin. J Mol Biol. 2005;354:413-24 pubmed publisher
  3. Wazawa T, Yasui S, Morimoto N, Suzuki M. 1,3-Diethylurea-enhanced Mg-ATPase activity of skeletal muscle myosin with a converse effect on the sliding motility. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013;1834:2620-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to DEU, 0.3M urea exhibits only modest effects on both actin-activated ATPase and sliding motility of actomyosin. Thus, DEU has the effect of uncoupling the sliding motility of actomyosin from its ATP turnover. ..
  4. Lionikas A, Li M, Larsson L. Human skeletal muscle myosin function at physiological and non-physiological temperatures. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2006;186:151-8 pubmed
  5. Granberg I, Lindell B, Eriksson P, Pedrosa Domellof F, Stål P. Capillary supply in relation to myosin heavy chain fibre composition of human intrinsic tongue muscles. Cells Tissues Organs. 2010;192:303-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, human intrinsic tongue muscles showed internal specialization in distribution of MyHC isoforms and capillary supply, but not in the expression of unusual MyHCs. ..
  6. Sokoloff A, Yang B, Li H, Burkholder T. Immunohistochemical characterization of slow and fast myosin heavy chain composition of muscle fibres in the styloglossus muscle of the human and macaque (Macaca rhesus). Arch Oral Biol. 2007;52:533-43 pubmed
    ..These data suggest a similar range of mechanical properties in styloglossus muscle fibres of the macaque and human. ..
  7. den Hoed M, Hesselink M, Westerterp K. Skeletal muscle fiber-type distribution and habitual physical activity in daily life. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2009;19:373-80 pubmed publisher
    ..06 and P<0.01, respectively). In conclusion, Muscle(FTD) probably cannot explain why some people are more prone to engaging in physical activities than others. ..
  8. Toth M, Tchernof A. Effect of age on skeletal muscle myofibrillar mRNA abundance: relationship to myosin heavy chain protein synthesis rate. Exp Gerontol. 2006;41:1195-200 pubmed
  9. Coirault C, Guellich A, Barbry T, Samuel J, Riou B, Lecarpentier Y. Oxidative stress of myosin contributes to skeletal muscle dysfunction in rats with chronic heart failure. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007;292:H1009-17 pubmed
    ..These data provide experimental evidence that intrinsic myosin dysfunction occurs in CHF and may be related to oxidative damage to myosin. ..
  10. Allen D. Making sense (and antisense) of myosin heavy chain gene expression. Comments on "Intergenic bidirectional promoter and cooperative regulation of the IIx and IIb MHC genes in fast skeletal muscle" by Rinaldi et al. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;295:R206-7 pubmed publisher
  11. Li M, Zheng W. All-atom molecular dynamics simulations of actin-myosin interactions: a comparative study of cardiac ? myosin, ? myosin, and fast skeletal muscle myosin. Biochemistry. 2013;52:8393-405 pubmed publisher
  12. Francisco C, Jorge A, Dal Pai Silva M, Carani F, Cabeço L, Silva S. Muscle fiber type characterization and myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoform expression in Mediterranean buffaloes. Meat Sci. 2011;88:535-41 pubmed publisher
    ..There was a difference (P<0.05) in the frequency of LD and ST muscle fiber types according to slaughter weights, which demonstrate that the slaughter weight influences the profile of muscle fibers from buffaloes. ..
  13. Stål P, Marklund S, Thornell L, De Paul R, Eriksson P. Fibre composition of human intrinsic tongue muscles. Cells Tissues Organs. 2003;173:147-61 pubmed
  14. Chalovich J. Michael Bárány: a recollection. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2012;33:373-6 pubmed publisher
    ..They were deeply committed to science and to fostering the careers of young investigators. ..
  15. Eizema K, van den Burg M, Kiri A, Dingboom E, van Oudheusden H, Goldspink G, et al. Differential expression of equine myosin heavy-chain mRNA and protein isoforms in a limb muscle. J Histochem Cytochem. 2003;51:1207-16 pubmed publisher
    ..This discrepancy was most likely not due to differential mRNA expression of myonuclei...
  16. Nakamura M, Kakuda T, Oba Y, Ojika M, Nakamura H. Synthesis of biotinylated xestoquinone that retains inhibitory activity against Ca2+ ATPase of skeletal muscle myosin. Bioorg Med Chem. 2003;11:3077-82 pubmed
    ..This biotinylated xestoquinone could be useful as a probe in studies of the xestoquinone-myosin binding mode. ..
  17. Umeki N, Yoshizawa T, Sugimoto Y, Mitsui T, Wakabayashi K, Maruta S. Incorporation of an azobenzene derivative into the energy transducing site of skeletal muscle myosin results in photo-induced conformational changes. J Biochem. 2004;136:839-46 pubmed
  18. Friedmann B, Kinscherf R, Vorwald S, Muller H, Kucera K, Borisch S, et al. Muscular adaptations to computer-guided strength training with eccentric overload. Acta Physiol Scand. 2004;182:77-88 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the increased eccentric load in the CON/ECC-OVERLOAD training leads to distinct adaptations towards a stronger, faster muscle. ..
  19. Bloemink M, Deacon J, Resnicow D, Leinwand L, Geeves M. The superfast human extraocular myosin is kinetically distinct from the fast skeletal IIa, IIb, and IId isoforms. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:27469-79 pubmed publisher
  20. Brennan K, Kaufman S, Reynolds S, McCook B, Kan G, Christiaens I, et al. Differential effects of maternal nutrient restriction through pregnancy on kidney development and later blood pressure control in the resulting offspring. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2008;295:R197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, maternal nutrient restriction suppressed renal PG concentrations in the offspring, and this was associated with suppressed kidney growth and development and decreased blood pressure. ..
  21. Llano Diez M, Renaud G, Andersson M, Marrero H, Cacciani N, Engquist H, et al. Mechanisms underlying ICU muscle wasting and effects of passive mechanical loading. Crit Care. 2012;16:R209 pubmed publisher
    ..The positive effect of passive loading on muscle fiber function strongly supports the importance of early physical therapy and mobilization in deeply sedated and mechanically ventilated ICU patients. ..
  22. Van Dijk J, Lafont C, Knetsch M, Derancourt J, Manstein D, Long E, et al. Conformational changes in actin-myosin isoforms probed by Ni(II).Gly-Gly-His reactivity. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2004;25:527-37 pubmed
  23. Manandhar P, Huang L, Grubich J, Hutchinson J, Chase P, Hong S. Highly selective directed assembly of functional actomyosin on Au surfaces. Langmuir. 2005;21:3213-6 pubmed
    ..In vitro motility assays of filament sliding were used to confirm functionality of assembled actomyosin. ..
  24. Gedrange T, Gredes T, Spassov A, Mai R, Kuhn D, Dominiak M, et al. Histological changes and changes in the myosin mRNA content of the porcine masticatory muscles after masseter treatment with botulinum toxin A. Clin Oral Investig. 2013;17:887-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Application of Botox may lead to uncontrolled structural changes in affected and unaffected muscles. Treatment of muscle hypertrophy with Botox may cause muscle imbalance. ..
  25. Wang Y, Ajtai K, Burghardt T. Ventricular myosin modifies in vitro step-size when phosphorylated. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2014;72:231-7 pubmed publisher
    Cardiac and skeletal muscle myosins have the central role in contraction transducing ATP free energy into the mechanical work of moving actin...
  26. Maccatrozzo L, Patruno M, Toniolo L, Reggiani C, Mascarello F. Myosin heavy chain 2B isoform is expressed in specialized eye muscles but not in trunk and limb muscles of cattle. Eur J Histochem. 2004;48:357-66 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, a cardiac isoform, MHC-a-cardiac was found to be expressed not only in extraocular muscles but also in masticatory muscles as masseter. ..
  27. Toniolo L, Maccatrozzo L, Patruno M, Pavan E, Caliaro F, Rossi R, et al. Fiber types in canine muscles: myosin isoform expression and functional characterization. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;292:C1915-26 pubmed
    ..V(o) increased progressively in the order 1/slow < 2A < 2X < 2B, thus confirming the identification of the myosin isoforms and providing their first functional characterization of canine muscle fibers...
  28. Yengo C, Takagi Y, Sellers J. Temperature dependent measurements reveal similarities between muscle and non-muscle myosin motility. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2012;33:385-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Within this small subset of myosins examined, the in vitro sliding velocity correlates reasonably well with actin-activated ATPase activity, which was suggested by the original study by Barany (J Gen Physiol 50:197-218, 1967). ..
  29. Roberts M, Dalbo V, Sunderland K, Kerksick C. Electrophoretic separation of myosin heavy chain isoforms using a modified mini gel system. J Strength Cond Res. 2012;26:3461-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As additional technologies become available, the need to modify and adapt existing electrophoretic protocols for myosin heavy chain isoform separation and other protocols will continue to be evident. ..
  30. Balagopal P, Olney R, Darmaun D, Mougey E, Dokler M, Sieck G, et al. Oxandrolone enhances skeletal muscle myosin synthesis and alters global gene expression profile in Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2006;290:E530-9 pubmed
  31. Soares M, Damiani C, Moreira C, Stefanon I, Vassallo D. Eucalyptol, an essential oil, reduces contractile activity in rat cardiac muscle. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2005;38:453-61 pubmed
    ..3 mM), supporting the idea of a reduction of sarcolemmal Ca2+ influx. The present results suggest that eucalyptol depresses force development, probably acting as a calcium channel blocker. ..
  32. Sassoon C, Zhu E, Caiozzo V. Assist-control mechanical ventilation attenuates ventilator-induced diaphragmatic dysfunction. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;170:626-32 pubmed
    ..We conclude that preserving diaphragmatic contractions during mechanical ventilation attenuates the force loss induced by complete inactivity and maintains MAF-box gene expression in control. ..
  33. Miniaci M, Bucci M, Santamaria R, Irace C, Cantalupo A, Cirino G, et al. CL316,243, a selective ?3-adrenoceptor agonist, activates protein translation through mTOR/p70S6K signaling pathway in rat skeletal muscle cells. Pflugers Arch. 2013;465:509-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that stimulation of ?3-AR in skeletal muscle cells activates a specific signaling pathway leading to protein synthesis and, eventually, muscle growth. ..
  34. Strick D, Feng W, Vollrath D. Mertk drives myosin II redistribution during retinal pigment epithelial phagocytosis. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:2427-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Mertk mobilizes myosin II from the RPE cell periphery to sites of OS engulfment, where myosin II function is essential for the normal phagocytic ingestion of OS. ..
  35. Pandorf C, Haddad F, Qin A, Baldwin K. IIx myosin heavy chain promoter regulation cannot be characterized in vivo by direct gene transfer. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C1338-46 pubmed
  36. Bortolini M, Feitosa S, Bilhar A, Salerno G, Zanoteli E, Simões M, et al. Molecular and histomorphological evaluation of female rats' urethral tissues after an innovative trauma model of prolonged vaginal distention: immediate, short-term and long-term effects. Int Urogynecol J. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..of the VEGF and NGF growth factors, collagens (COL1a1 and COL3a1), desmin, smooth muscle myosin (MYH11), skeletal muscle myosins (MYH1, MYH2 and MYH3) and cell proliferation marker MKi67...
  37. Reconditi M, Linari M, Lucii L, Stewart A, Sun Y, Narayanan T, et al. Structure-function relation of the myosin motor in striated muscle. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005;1047:232-47 pubmed
    ..The load dependence of the size and speed of the myosin working stroke is the molecular determinant of the macroscopic performance and efficiency of muscle. ..
  38. Tiago T, Simão S, Aureliano M, Martín Romero F, Gutierrez Merino C. Inhibition of skeletal muscle S1-myosin ATPase by peroxynitrite. Biochemistry. 2006;45:3794-804 pubmed
    ..V(1) to induce the intermediate catalytic transition state and also produced the partial unfolding of S1 that leads to an enhanced susceptibility of S1 to trypsin digestion, which can be fully protected by 2 mM GSH. ..
  39. Li M, Marx J, Larsson L. There is no slowing of motility speed with increased body size in rat, human, horse and rhinoceros independent on temperature and skeletal muscle myosin isoform. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2011;202:671-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, other factors than myosin structure and function appear to cause this scaling effect and thin filament isoform expression or myofilament lattice spacing are forwarded as alternative underlying factors. ..
  40. Tang W, Ingalls C, Durham W, Snider J, Reid M, Wu G, et al. Altered excitation-contraction coupling with skeletal muscle specific FKBP12 deficiency. FASEB J. 2004;18:1597-9 pubmed
    ..In highly used muscles such as the diaphragm, adaptation to the loss of FKBP12 occurs, possibly due to the increased Ca2+ influx. ..
  41. Ortiz Costa S, Sorenson M, Sola Penna M. Counteracting effects of urea and methylamines in function and structure of skeletal muscle myosin. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2002;408:272-8 pubmed
  42. Branishte T, Minciuna V, Braniste A. Aspects of molecular mechanisms in myocardial hypertrophy, particular morphological changes and cell bioenergetic characteristics in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2013;117:851-6 pubmed
    ..Energy disturbances are significantly more pronounced in patients with DCM, with a more significant cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and an obvious increase in the size of nuclei. ..
  43. Deguchi H, Sinha R, Marchese P, Ruggeri Z, Zilberman Rudenko J, McCarty O, et al. Prothrombotic skeletal muscle myosin directly enhances prothrombin activation by binding factors Xa and Va. Blood. 2016;128:1870-1878 pubmed publisher
    To test the hypothesis that skeletal muscle myosins can directly influence blood coagulation and thrombosis, ex vivo studies of the effects of myosin on thrombogenesis in fresh human blood were conducted...
  44. Yamaguchi M, Takemori S, Kimura M, Tanishima Y, Nakayoshi T, Kimura S, et al. Protruding masticatory (superfast) myosin heads from staggered thick filaments of dog jaw muscle revealed by X-ray diffraction. J Biochem. 2010;147:53-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Electron micrographs confirmed the staggered alignment of thick filaments along the filament axis within sarcomeres of masticatory fibres, a feature that may confer efficient force development over a wide range of the sarcomere lengths. ..
  45. Picard B, Barboiron C, Chadeyron D, Jurie C. Protocol for high-resolution electrophoresis separation of myosin heavy chain isoforms in bovine skeletal muscle. Electrophoresis. 2011;32:1804-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This procedure uses mini-gel electrophoresis system and does not involve preparation of gradient separating gels. In addition, this protocol can also be applied to the electrophoretic separation of ovine and camel MyHC isoforms. ..
  46. Cao X, Yang Y, Li H, Cui H, Ya J. Morphology of the developing muscularis externa in the mouse esophagus. Dis Esophagus. 2012;25:10-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides, apoptosis may not participate in the development of esophageal muscularis externa. The smooth muscle cells from arch arteries may participate in the development of esophageal muscularis externa. ..
  47. Campbell K. Compliance Accelerates Relaxation in Muscle by Allowing Myosin Heads to Move Relative to Actin. Biophys J. 2016;110:661-668 pubmed publisher
    ..The nonlinear behavior during relaxation reflects perturbations to the dynamic coupling of regulated binding sites and cycling myosin heads that are induced by interfilamentary movement. ..
  48. Sonmez E, Kayikçioğlu A, Temucin C, Kecik A. Motor reinnervation of a denervated muscle by using a sensory nerve: an experimental study on gluteus maximus muscle of the rat. J Hand Surg Am. 2007;32:1183-9 pubmed
    ..In light of histologic and electrophysiologic findings, this type of reinnervation is possible. ..
  49. Huffman K, Zapata I, Reddish J, Lilburn M, Wick M. Feed restriction delays developmental fast skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms in turkey poults selected for differential growth. Poult Sci. 2012;91:3178-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Feed restriction, however, altered the temporal expression patterns of nMyHC and aMyHC in both F line and RBC2 poults compared with the poults fed ad libitum. ..
  50. Toniolo L, Cancellara P, Maccatrozzo L, Patruno M, Mascarello F, Reggiani C. Masticatory myosin unveiled: first determination of contractile parameters of muscle fibers from carnivore jaw muscles. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C1535-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The specific mechanical characteristics of M fibers might be attributed to a diversity in cross-bridge kinetics. ..
  51. Brenner B, Hahn N, Hanke E, Matinmehr F, Scholz T, Steffen W, et al. Mechanical and kinetic properties of ?-cardiac/slow skeletal muscle myosin. J Muscle Res Cell Motil. 2012;33:403-17 pubmed publisher
    ..We show that the slower kinetics may be linked to a larger flexibility of the ?-cardiac/MyHC-1 isoform compared to fast MyHC isoforms. ..
  52. Vreeke M, Langenbach G, Korfage J, Zentner A, Grünheid T. The masticatory system under varying functional load. Part 1: Structural adaptation of rabbit jaw muscles to reduced masticatory load. Eur J Orthod. 2011;33:359-64 pubmed publisher
    ..These muscles adapt structurally to the reduced functional load with changes in the MyHC composition and cross-sectional area mainly within their slow fibre compartment. ..
  53. Ogura Y, Naito H, Kakigi R, Akema T, Sugiura T, Katamoto S, et al. Different adaptations of alpha-actinin isoforms to exercise training in rat skeletal muscles. Acta Physiol (Oxf). 2009;196:341-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, the increase in expression levels of alpha-actinin-2 is apparently related to alteration of skeletal muscle: its aerobic capacity is improved. ..