myosin type v


Summary: A subclass of myosin involved in organelle transport and membrane targeting. It is abundantly found in nervous tissue and neurosecretory cells. The heavy chains of myosin V contain unusually long neck domains that are believed to aid in translocating molecules over large distances.

Top Publications

  1. Toprak E, Enderlein J, Syed S, McKinney S, Petschek R, Ha T, et al. Defocused orientation and position imaging (DOPI) of myosin V. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:6495-9 pubmed
    ..When beta changes, the probe rotates +/-27 degrees azimuthally around actin and then rotates back again on the next step. Our results remove degeneracy in angles and the appearance of nontilting lever arms that were reported. ..
  2. Forgacs E, Sakamoto T, Cartwright S, Belknap B, Kovacs M, Toth J, et al. Switch 1 mutation S217A converts myosin V into a low duty ratio motor. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:2138-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus we demonstrate that, by mutational perturbation of the switch 1 structure, myosin V can be converted into a low duty ratio motor that is processive only at low substrate concentrations. ..
  3. Gangar A, Rossi G, Andreeva A, Hales R, Brennwald P. Structurally conserved interaction of Lgl family with SNAREs is critical to their cellular function. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1136-42 pubmed
    ..These data support the model that the Lgl family functions in cell polarity, at least in part, by regulating SNARE-mediated membrane delivery events at the cell surface. ..
  4. Syed S, Snyder G, Franzini Armstrong C, Selvin P, Goldman Y. Adaptability of myosin V studied by simultaneous detection of position and orientation. EMBO J. 2006;25:1795-803 pubmed
  5. Eves P, Jin Y, Brunner M, Weisman L. Overlap of cargo binding sites on myosin V coordinates the inheritance of diverse cargoes. J Cell Biol. 2012;198:69-85 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations predict that competition for access to Myo2 may be a common mechanism to coordinate the inheritance of diverse cargoes. ..
  6. Krauss J, López de Quinto S, NUSSLEIN VOLHARD C, Ephrussi A. Myosin-V regulates oskar mRNA localization in the Drosophila oocyte. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1058-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal that a balance of microtubule- and actin-based motor activities regulates oskar mRNA localization in the Drosophila oocyte. ..
  7. Yengo C, Sweeney H. Functional role of loop 2 in myosin V. Biochemistry. 2004;43:2605-12 pubmed
    ..The ability to maintain a high affinity for actin in the weak binding states may prevent diffusion away from the actin filament and increase the degree of processive motion of myosin V. ..
  8. Eppinga R, Peng I, Lin J, Wu C, Lin J. Opposite effects of overexpressed myosin Va or heavy meromyosin Va on vesicle distribution, cytoskeleton organization, and cell motility in nonmuscle cells. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2008;65:197-215 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest that myosin Va overexpression induces actin bundles in vivo whereas the tailless version fails to bundle actin and disrupts cell motility. ..
  9. Chung S, Takizawa P. Multiple Myo4 motors enhance ASH1 mRNA transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Cell Biol. 2010;189:755-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that multiple, nonprocessive Myo4 motors can generate continuous transport of mRNA to the bud tip. ..

More Information


  1. Pashkova N, Catlett N, Novak J, Wu G, Lu R, Cohen R, et al. Myosin V attachment to cargo requires the tight association of two functional subdomains. J Cell Biol. 2005;168:359-64 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest a model whereby intramolecular interactions between the globular tail subdomains help to coordinate the transport of multiple distinct cargoes by myosin V. ..
  2. McCaffrey M, Lindsay A. Roles for myosin Va in RNA transport and turnover. Biochem Soc Trans. 2012;40:1416-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review examines the evidence that myosin Va plays a role in the transport and turnover of mRNA. ..
  3. Legesse Miller A, Zhang S, Santiago Tirado F, Van Pelt C, Bretscher A. Regulated phosphorylation of budding yeast's essential myosin V heavy chain, Myo2p. Mol Biol Cell. 2006;17:1812-21 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that in yeast, Myo2p is subject to phosphoregulation involving a PKA-related signaling pathway. ..
  4. Sotelo Silveira J, Calliari A, Cárdenas M, Koenig E, Sotelo J. Myosin Va and kinesin II motor proteins are concentrated in ribosomal domains (periaxoplasmic ribosomal plaques) of myelinated axons. J Neurobiol. 2004;60:187-96 pubmed
    ..Additional possibilities are trafficking functions intrinsic to the domain, and/or functions that govern dynamic organizational properties of PARPs. ..
  5. Provance D, Gourley C, Silan C, Cameron L, Shokat K, Goldenring J, et al. Chemical-genetic inhibition of a sensitized mutant myosin Vb demonstrates a role in peripheral-pericentriolar membrane traffic. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:1868-73 pubmed
  6. Clemen A, Vilfan M, Jaud J, Zhang J, Bärmann M, Rief M. Force-dependent stepping kinetics of myosin-V. Biophys J. 2005;88:4402-10 pubmed
    ..5 pN of backward load. At superstall forces of 5 pN, we observe continuous backward stepping of myosin-V, indicating that a force-driven reversal of the power stroke is possible. ..
  7. Park H, Toprak E, Selvin P. Single-molecule fluorescence to study molecular motors. Q Rev Biophys. 2007;40:87-111 pubmed
    ..We explain new understanding of molecular motors obtained from measurements using these techniques. ..
  8. Boldogh I, Ramcharan S, Yang H, Pon L. A type V myosin (Myo2p) and a Rab-like G-protein (Ypt11p) are required for retention of newly inherited mitochondria in yeast cells during cell division. Mol Biol Cell. 2004;15:3994-4002 pubmed
    ..Finally, destabilization of actin cables and the resulting delocalization of Myo2p from the bud tip had no significant effect on the accumulation of mitochondria in the bud tip. ..
  9. Martín García R, Mulvihill D. Myosin V spatially regulates microtubule dynamics and promotes the ubiquitin-dependent degradation of the fission yeast CLIP-170 homologue, Tip1. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:3862-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Myo52 facilitates microtubule catastrophe by enhancing Tip1 removal from the plus end of growing microtubules at the cell tips. There, Myo52 and the ubiquitin receptor, Dph1, work in concert to target Tip1 for degradation. ..
  10. Liu J, Taylor D, Krementsova E, Trybus K, Taylor K. Three-dimensional structure of the myosin V inhibited state by cryoelectron tomography. Nature. 2006;442:208-11 pubmed
    ..This structure indicates that motor recycling after cargo delivery might occur through transport on actively treadmilling actin filaments rather than by diffusion. ..
  11. Desnos C, Huet S, Darchen F. 'Should I stay or should I go?': myosin V function in organelle trafficking. Biol Cell. 2007;99:411-23 pubmed
    ..These defects probably account for the severe neurological symptoms observed in Griscelli syndrome due to mutations in the MYO5A gene. ..
  12. Purcell T, Sweeney H, Spudich J. A force-dependent state controls the coordination of processive myosin V. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:13873-8 pubmed
    ..These results support a model in which the coordination of myosin V stepping is mediated by strain-generated inhibition of the lead head. ..
  13. Rosenfeld S, Houdusse A, Sweeney H. Magnesium regulates ADP dissociation from myosin V. J Biol Chem. 2005;280:6072-9 pubmed
    ..Increasing magnesium concentration to within the physiological range would thus slow both the ATPase activity and the velocity of movement of this motor. ..
  14. Grallert A, Martín García R, Bagley S, Mulvihill D. In vivo movement of the type V myosin Myo52 requires dimerisation but is independent of the neck domain. J Cell Sci. 2007;120:4093-8 pubmed
    ..We go on to show that, although dimerisation is required for Myo52 movement, deleting its neck has no discernable affect on Myo52 function or velocity in vivo. ..
  15. Bookwalter C, Lord M, Trybus K. Essential features of the class V myosin from budding yeast for ASH1 mRNA transport. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3414-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that the most important feature for correct localization is the retention of coupling between all the members of the complex (Myo4p-She3p-She2p-ASH1 mRNA), which is aided by She3p being a tightly bound subunit of Myo4p. ..
  16. Weber I, Gruber C, Steinberg G. A class-V myosin required for mating, hyphal growth, and pathogenicity in the dimorphic plant pathogen Ustilago maydis. Plant Cell. 2003;15:2826-42 pubmed
    ..Consequently, few mutant hyphae were formed that penetrated the plant epidermis but did not continue invasive growth. These results indicate a crucial role of Myo5 in the morphogenesis, dimorphic switch, and pathogenicity of U. maydis...
  17. Chaudhury A, He X, Goyal R. Myosin Va plays a key role in nitrergic neurotransmission by transporting nNOS? to enteric varicosity membrane. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2011;301:G498-507 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies reveal the critical importance of myosin Va in nitrergic neurotransmission by facilitating transport of nNOS? to the varicosity membrane. ..
  18. Yampolsky P, Pacifici P, Lomb L, Giese G, Rudolf R, Röder I, et al. Time lapse in vivo visualization of developmental stabilization of synaptic receptors at neuromuscular junctions. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34589-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Myosin Va, an F-actin-dependent motor protein, is also accumulated synaptically during postnatal development and thus could mediate the stabilization of end plate AChR. ..
  19. Nishikawa M, Takagi H, Shibata T, Iwane A, Yanagida T. Fluctuation analysis of mechanochemical coupling depending on the type of biomolecular motors. Phys Rev Lett. 2008;101:128103 pubmed
    ..These different mechanics are ideal for their physiological functions. ..
  20. Swiatecka Urban A, Talebian L, Kanno E, Moreau Marquis S, Coutermarsh B, Hansen K, et al. Myosin Vb is required for trafficking of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator in Rab11a-specific apical recycling endosomes in polarized human airway epithelial cells. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:23725-36 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that myosin Vb is required for CFTR recycling in Rab11a-specific apical recycling endosomes in polarized human airway epithelial cells. ..
  21. Salerno V, Calliari A, Provance D, Sotelo Silveira J, Sotelo J, Mercer J. Myosin-Va mediates RNA distribution in primary fibroblasts from multiple organs. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 2008;65:422-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we show that localization of beta-actin mRNA is significantly changed by the absence of myosin-Va. These results suggest that myosin-Va is involved in a transient transport or tethering function in the perinuclear region. ..
  22. Yu J, Crevenna A, Bettenbühl M, Freisinger T, Wedlich Soldner R. Cortical actin dynamics driven by formins and myosin V. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:1533-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we identify molecular mechanisms for the regulation of cable dynamics and suggest that fast actin reorganization is necessary for fidelity of cell polarization. ..
  23. Robblee J, Cao W, Henn A, Hannemann D, De La Cruz E. Thermodynamics of nucleotide binding to actomyosin V and VI: a positive heat capacity change accompanies strong ADP binding. Biochemistry. 2005;44:10238-49 pubmed
    ..The heat capacity (DeltaC(P) degrees ) and entropy (DeltaS degrees ) changes are greater for actomyosin VI than actomyosin V, suggesting different extents of ADP-induced structural rearrangement. ..
  24. Peng Y, Weisman L. The cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1 directly regulates vacuole inheritance. Dev Cell. 2008;15:478-85 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of multiple predicted Cdk1 sites in other organelle-specific myosin V adaptors suggests that the inheritance of other cytoplasmic organelles may be regulated by a similar mechanism. ..
  25. Vilfan A. Influence of fluctuations in actin structure on myosin V step size. J Chem Inf Model. 2005;45:1672-5 pubmed
    ..We show that fluctuations of +/-5 degrees per actin subunit, as proposed by Egelman et al., significantly alter the distribution of step sizes and improve the agreement with experimental data. ..
  26. Oke O, Burgess S, Forgacs E, Knight P, Sakamoto T, Sellers J, et al. Influence of lever structure on myosin 5a walking. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2509-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Slow rates of ADP dissociation observed from lead heads of these molecules can be explained by the unfavorable equilibrium between the pre- and postpowerstroke conformations preceding ADP loss. ..
  27. Bierbaum V, Lipowsky R. Chemomechanical coupling and motor cycles of myosin V. Biophys J. 2011;100:1747-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our theory provides a unified description of the experimental data as obtained for myosin V in single motor experiments. ..
  28. Desnos C, Huet S, Fanget I, Chapuis C, Böttiger C, Racine V, et al. Myosin va mediates docking of secretory granules at the plasma membrane. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10636-45 pubmed
    ..We thus propose that, despite its known motor activity, MyoVa directly mediates stable attachment of SGs at the plasma membrane. ..
  29. Snyder G, Sakamoto T, Hammer J, Sellers J, Selvin P. Nanometer localization of single green fluorescent proteins: evidence that myosin V walks hand-over-hand via telemark configuration. Biophys J. 2004;87:1776-83 pubmed
    ..This kink, or "telemark skier" configuration, may cause strain, which, when released, leads to the powerstroke of myosin, throwing the rear head forward and leading to unidirectional motion. ..
  30. Kierszenbaum A, Tres L, Rivkin E, Kang Decker N, van Deursen J. The acroplaxome is the docking site of Golgi-derived myosin Va/Rab27a/b- containing proacrosomal vesicles in wild-type and Hrb mutant mouse spermatids. Biol Reprod. 2004;70:1400-10 pubmed
    ..We suggest that nucleopodes develop at a site where a keratin 5-deficient acroplaxome may not withstand tension forces operating during spermatid nuclear shaping. ..
  31. MARCHELLETTA R, Jacobs D, Schechter J, Cheney R, Hamm Alvarez S. The class V myosin motor, myosin 5c, localizes to mature secretory vesicles and facilitates exocytosis in lacrimal acini. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C13-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Myo5c participates in apical exocytosis of secretory vesicles. ..
  32. Taylor W, Katsimitsoulia Z. A coarse-grained molecular model for actin-myosin simulation. J Mol Graph Model. 2010;29:266-79 pubmed publisher
    ..The effects of the myosin twofold symmetry and the restriction of an attached cargo were also tested. These results provide the basis for the development of a dynamic model of processive motion. ..
  33. Kogel T, Gerdes H. Roles of myosin Va and Rab3D in membrane remodeling of immature secretory granules. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2010;30:1303-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest an implication of myosin Va and Rab3D in the maturation of SGs where they participate in overlapping but not identical tasks. ..
  34. Schmid M, Jaedicke A, Du T, Jansen R. Coordination of endoplasmic reticulum and mRNA localization to the yeast bud. Curr Biol. 2006;16:1538-43 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest a novel model for mRNA localization that involves association of She2p and mRNPs with ER tubules and myosin-dependent cotransport of tubules and localized mRNPs. ..
  35. Fagarasanu A, Fagarasanu M, Eitzen G, Aitchison J, Rachubinski R. The peroxisomal membrane protein Inp2p is the peroxisome-specific receptor for the myosin V motor Myo2p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dev Cell. 2006;10:587-600 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, Inp2p is the first peroxisomal protein implicated in the vectorial movement of peroxisomes. ..
  36. Lipatova Z, Tokarev A, Jin Y, Mulholland J, Weisman L, Segev N. Direct interaction between a myosin V motor and the Rab GTPases Ypt31/32 is required for polarized secretion. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:4177-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these results indicate that Ypt31/32 play roles in both the formation of trans-Golgi vesicles and their subsequent Myo2-dependent motility. ..
  37. Sakamoto T, Yildez A, Selvin P, Sellers J. Step-size is determined by neck length in myosin V. Biochemistry. 2005;44:16203-10 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrate that the step-size of myosin V is affected by the length of its neck and is not solely determined by the pseudo-repeat of the actin filament. ..
  38. Satoh A, Li B, Xia H, Ready D. Calcium-activated Myosin V closes the Drosophila pupil. Curr Biol. 2008;18:951-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This first demonstration of an in vivo role for Ca(2+) in MyoV activity shows that in Drosophila photoreceptors, Ca(2+) stimulates MyoV motility. ..
  39. Roland J, Lapierre L, Goldenring J. Alternative splicing in class V myosins determines association with Rab10. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:1213-23 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that Rab GTPases regulate diverse endocytic trafficking pathways through recruitment of multiple myosin V isoforms. ..
  40. Jambhekar A, McDermott K, Sorber K, Shepard K, Vale R, Takizawa P, et al. Unbiased selection of localization elements reveals cis-acting determinants of mRNA bud localization in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:18005-10 pubmed
    ..Our findings further our understanding of RNA recognition by the She complex, and the methods used here should be applicable for elucidating minimal RNA motifs involved in many other types of interactions. ..
  41. Röder I, Choi K, Reischl M, Petersen Y, Diefenbacher M, Zaccolo M, et al. Myosin Va cooperates with PKA RIalpha to mediate maintenance of the endplate in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:2031-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To this end, myosin Va mediates correct positioning of PKA in a postsynaptic microdomain, presumably by tethering PKA to the actin cytoskeleton. ..
  42. Watanabe S, Watanabe T, Sato O, Awata J, Homma K, Umeki N, et al. Human myosin Vc is a low duty ratio nonprocessive motor. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:10581-92 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that myosin Vc fulfills its function as a cargo transporter by different mechanisms from other myosin V isoforms. ..
  43. Jin Y, Taylor Eves P, Tang F, Weisman L. PTC1 is required for vacuole inheritance and promotes the association of the myosin-V vacuole-specific receptor complex. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1312-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, these observations suggest that despite the existence of organelle-specific receptors, there is a higher order regulation that coordinates the movement of diverse cellular components. ..
  44. Li B, Satoh A, Ready D. Myosin V, Rab11, and dRip11 direct apical secretion and cellular morphogenesis in developing Drosophila photoreceptors. J Cell Biol. 2007;177:659-69 pubmed
    ..A protein trio conserved across eukaryotes thus mediates normal, in vivo sensory neuron morphogenesis. ..
  45. Terrak M, Rebowski G, Lu R, Grabarek Z, Dominguez R. Structure of the light chain-binding domain of myosin V. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005;102:12718-23 pubmed
    ..The model points to a prominent role of the LCBD in the function, regulation, and molecular interactions of myosin V. ..
  46. Jung G, Titus M, Hammer J. The Dictyostelium type V myosin MyoJ is responsible for the cortical association and motility of contractile vacuole membranes. J Cell Biol. 2009;186:555-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, myoJ cooperates with plus and minus end-directed microtubule motors to drive the normal distribution and dynamics of the CV complex in Dictyostelium. ..
  47. Correia S, Bassani S, Brown T, Lise M, Backos D, El Husseini A, et al. Motor protein-dependent transport of AMPA receptors into spines during long-term potentiation. Nat Neurosci. 2008;11:457-66 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, we identified the specific motor protein and organelle acceptor that catalyze the directional transport of AMPARs into spines during activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. ..
  48. Mermall V, Bonafe N, Jones L, Sellers J, Cooley L, Mooseker M. Drosophila myosin V is required for larval development and spermatid individualization. Dev Biol. 2005;286:238-55 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that MyoV contributes to the formation of the actin-based investment cones and acts to coordinate and/or anchor these structures and other components of the individualization complex. ..
  49. Watanabe S, Mabuchi K, Ikebe R, Ikebe M. Mechanoenzymatic characterization of human myosin Vb. Biochemistry. 2006;45:2729-38 pubmed
    ..22 +/- 0.03 microm/s) remained constant at a low motor density. The actin filament landing assay revealed that a single HuM5B molecule is sufficient to move the actin filament continuously, indicating that HuM5b is a processive motor. ..
  50. Yan Q, Sun W, Kujala P, Lotfi Y, Vida T, Bean A. CART: an Hrs/actinin-4/BERP/myosin V protein complex required for efficient receptor recycling. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:2470-82 pubmed
    ..The novel CART complex may provide a molecular mechanism for the actin-dependence of rapid recycling of constitutively recycled plasma membrane receptors. ..
  51. Watanabe M, Nomura K, Ohyama A, Ishikawa R, Komiya Y, Hosaka K, et al. Myosin-Va regulates exocytosis through the submicromolar Ca2+-dependent binding of syntaxin-1A. Mol Biol Cell. 2005;16:4519-30 pubmed
    ..Our results demonstrate that the interaction between myosin-Va and syntaxin-1A is involved in exocytosis and suggest that the myosin-Va neck contributes not only to the large step size but also to the regulation of exocytosis by Ca2+. ..
  52. Krementsova E, Hodges A, Lu H, Trybus K. Processivity of chimeric class V myosins. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:6079-86 pubmed
    ..The results imply that a positively charged loop 2 and a high affinity for actin are important to maintain processivity near physiologic ionic strength. ..
  53. Schilstra M, Martin S. An elastically tethered viscous load imposes a regular gait on the motion of myosin-V. Simulation of the effect of transient force relaxation on a stochastic process. J R Soc Interface. 2006;3:153-65 pubmed
    ..Multiple thresholds limit the variation in tether length to values below that of the total step size. ..