myosin type ii


Summary: The subfamily of myosin proteins that are commonly found in muscle fibers. Myosin II is also involved a diverse array of cellular functions including cell division, transport within the GOLGI APPARATUS, and maintaining MICROVILLI structure.

Top Publications

  1. Rape A, Guo W, Wang Y. Microtubule depolymerization induces traction force increase through two distinct pathways. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:4233-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Traction forces are therefore regulated by a complex network of complementary signals and force-generating mechanisms. ..
  2. Oakes P, Beckham Y, Stricker J, Gardel M. Tension is required but not sufficient for focal adhesion maturation without a stress fiber template. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:363-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This work identifies the essential role of lamellar actin architecture in adhesion maturation...
  3. Yumura S, Ueda M, Sako Y, Kitanishi Yumura T, Yanagida T. Multiple mechanisms for accumulation of myosin II filaments at the equator during cytokinesis. Traffic. 2008;9:2089-99 pubmed publisher
  4. Martin A, Gelbart M, Fernandez Gonzalez R, Kaschube M, Wieschaus E. Integration of contractile forces during tissue invagination. J Cell Biol. 2010;188:735-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, pulsed actomyosin contractions require a supracellular, tensile meshwork to transmit cellular forces to the tissue level during morphogenesis. ..
  5. Plageman T, Chung M, Lou M, Smith A, Hildebrand J, Wallingford J, et al. Pax6-dependent Shroom3 expression regulates apical constriction during lens placode invagination. Development. 2010;137:405-15 pubmed publisher
    ..This provides a previously missing link between lens-induction pathways and the morphogenesis machinery and partly explains the absence of lens morphogenesis in Pax6-deficient mutants. ..
  6. Sladewski T, Previs M, Lord M. Regulation of fission yeast myosin-II function and contractile ring dynamics by regulatory light-chain and heavy-chain phosphorylation. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:3941-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Although in vitro studies indicated that phosphorylation at Ser-1444 is not needed for Myo2p motor activity, phosphorylation at this site promotes the initiation of contractile ring constriction. ..
  7. Friedland J, Lee M, Boettiger D. Mechanically activated integrin switch controls alpha5beta1 function. Science. 2009;323:642-4 pubmed publisher
    ..In the context of tissues, this integrin switch connects cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix mechanics to adhesion-dependent motility and signaling pathways. ..
  8. Keren K, Yam P, Kinkhabwala A, Mogilner A, Theriot J. Intracellular fluid flow in rapidly moving cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2009;11:1219-24 pubmed publisher
    ..We present a physical model for fluid pressure and flow in moving cells that quantitatively accounts for our experimental data...
  9. Ren Y, Effler J, Norstrom M, Luo T, Firtel R, Iglesias P, et al. Mechanosensing through cooperative interactions between myosin II and the actin crosslinker cortexillin I. Curr Biol. 2009;19:1421-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Through this cross-talk, myosin II and cortexillin I define a cellular-scale mechanosensor that monitors and corrects shape defects, ensuring symmetrical cell division. ..

More Information


  1. Kondo T, Hamao K, Kamijo K, Kimura H, Morita M, Takahashi M, et al. Enhancement of myosin II/actin turnover at the contractile ring induces slower furrowing in dividing HeLa cells. Biochem J. 2011;435:569-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we show that the enhancement of myosin II and actin turnover at the CR induced slower furrowing in dividing HeLa cells. ..
  2. Zhou Q, Kee Y, Poirier C, Jelinek C, Osborne J, Divi S, et al. 14-3-3 coordinates microtubules, Rac, and myosin II to control cell mechanics and cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1881-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, 14-3-3 appears to integrate several critical cytoskeletal elements that drive two important processes-cytokinesis cell shape change and cell mechanics. ..
  3. Monier B, Pélissier Monier A, Brand A, Sanson B. An actomyosin-based barrier inhibits cell mixing at compartmental boundaries in Drosophila embryos. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:60-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that local regulation of actomyosin contractibility, rather than differential adhesion, is the primary mechanism sorting cells at compartmental boundaries. ..
  4. Bhat P, Thorn P. Myosin 2 maintains an open exocytic fusion pore in secretory epithelial cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1795-803 pubmed publisher
    ..In particular, in the case of the secretory epithelial cells, myosin 2 activity is necessary to maintain fusion pore opening. ..
  5. Chowdhury F, Na S, Li D, Poh Y, Tanaka T, Wang F, et al. Material properties of the cell dictate stress-induced spreading and differentiation in embryonic stem cells. Nat Mater. 2010;9:82-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings demonstrate that cell softness dictates cellular sensitivity to force, suggesting that local small forces might have far more important roles in early development of soft embryos than previously appreciated. ..
  6. Luo T, Mohan K, Srivastava V, Ren Y, Iglesias P, Robinson D. Understanding the cooperative interaction between myosin II and actin cross-linkers mediated by actin filaments during mechanosensation. Biophys J. 2012;102:238-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This mechanism is likely to be general for a range of myosin II-dependent cellular mechanosensory processes...
  7. Vicente Manzanares M, Ma X, Adelstein R, Horwitz A. Non-muscle myosin II takes centre stage in cell adhesion and migration. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2009;10:778-90 pubmed publisher
  8. Yang Q, Zhang X, Pollard T, Forscher P. Arp2/3 complex-dependent actin networks constrain myosin II function in driving retrograde actin flow. J Cell Biol. 2012;197:939-56 pubmed publisher
  9. Rai V, Egelhoff T. Role of B regulatory subunits of protein phosphatase type 2A in myosin II assembly control in Dictyostelium discoideum. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:604-10 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that the PP2A B subunits phr2aB? and phr2aB? contribute to myosin II assembly control in vivo, with phr2aB? having the predominant role facilitating MHC dephosphorylation to facilitate filament assembly. ..
  10. Hasegawa H, Hyodo T, Asano E, Ito S, Maeda M, Kuribayashi H, et al. The role of PLK1-phosphorylated SVIL in myosin II activation and cytokinetic furrowing. J Cell Sci. 2013;126:3627-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study indicates a possible role of phosphorylated SVIL as a molecular link between the central spindle and the contractile ring to coordinate the activation of myosin II for the ingression of the cleavage furrow. ..
  11. Kolpak A, Jiang J, Guo D, Standley C, Bellve K, Fogarty K, et al. Negative guidance factor-induced macropinocytosis in the growth cone plays a critical role in repulsive axon turning. J Neurosci. 2009;29:10488-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that macropinocytosis-mediated membrane trafficking is an important cellular mechanism involved in axon chemorepulsion induced by negative guidance factors. ..
  12. Pramanik M, Iijima M, Iwadate Y, Yumura S. PTEN is a mechanosensing signal transducer for myosin II localization in Dictyostelium cells. Genes Cells. 2009;14:821-34 pubmed publisher
  13. Iwanicki M, Davidowitz R, Ng M, Besser A, Muranen T, Merritt M, et al. Ovarian cancer spheroids use myosin-generated force to clear the mesothelium. Cancer Discov. 2011;1:144-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that ovarian tumor cell clusters gain access to the sub-mesothelial environment by exerting force on the mesothelial cells lining target organs, driving migration and clearance of the mesothelial cells. ..
  14. Berberian K, Torres A, Fang Q, Kisler K, Lindau M. F-actin and myosin II accelerate catecholamine release from chromaffin granules. J Neurosci. 2009;29:863-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that actin and myosin II facilitate release from individual chromaffin granules by accelerating dissociation of catecholamines from the intragranular matrix possibly through generation of mechanical forces. ..
  15. Aratyn Schaus Y, Gardel M. Transient frictional slip between integrin and the ECM in focal adhesions under myosin II tension. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1145-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The current work elucidates a mechanism by which force transmission is modulated during focal adhesion maturation. ..
  16. Lee S, Shen Z, Robinson D, Briggs S, Firtel R. Involvement of the cytoskeleton in controlling leading-edge function during chemotaxis. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:1810-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that MyoII and IQGAP/cortexillin play key roles in spatially and temporally regulating leading-edge activity and, through this, the ability of cells to restrict the site of pseudopod formation. ..
  17. Uehara R, Goshima G, Mabuchi I, Vale R, Spudich J, Griffis E. Determinants of myosin II cortical localization during cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1080-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that multiple regulatory pathways cooperate to control myosin localization during mitosis and cytokinesis to ensure that this essential biological process is as robust as possible. ..
  18. Solecki D, Trivedi N, Govek E, Kerekes R, Gleason S, Hatten M. Myosin II motors and F-actin dynamics drive the coordinated movement of the centrosome and soma during CNS glial-guided neuronal migration. Neuron. 2009;63:63-80 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest leading-process Myosin II may function to "pull" the centrosome and soma forward during glial-guided migration by a mechanism involving the conserved polarity protein Par6alpha. ..
  19. Asano S, Hamao K, Hosoya H. Direct evidence for roles of phosphorylated regulatory light chain of myosin II in furrow ingression during cytokinesis in HeLa cells. Genes Cells. 2009;14:555-68 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the P-MRLC is essential for the progress of furrow ingression but not the retainment of F-actin and myosin II in the contractile ring of dividing HeLa cells. ..
  20. Kee Y, Ren Y, Dorfman D, Iijima M, FIRTEL R, Iglesias P, et al. A mechanosensory system governs myosin II accumulation in dividing cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:1510-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this mechanosensory system is structured like a control system characterized by mechanochemical feedback loops that regulate myosin II localization at sites of mechanical stress and the cleavage furrow. ..
  21. Chan C, Odde D. Traction dynamics of filopodia on compliant substrates. Science. 2008;322:1687-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a motor-clutch system inherently senses and responds to the mechanical stiffness of the local environment. ..
  22. Pathak A, Kumar S. Independent regulation of tumor cell migration by matrix stiffness and confinement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012;109:10334-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies represent a paradigm for investigating matrix regulation of invasion and demonstrate that matrix confinement alters the relationship between cell migration speed and ECM stiffness. ..
  23. Walker A, Su H, Conti M, Harb N, Adelstein R, Sato N. Non-muscle myosin II regulates survival threshold of pluripotent stem cells. Nat Commun. 2010;1:71 pubmed publisher
    ..These results underscore the importance of the molecular motor, NMII, as a novel target for chemically engineering the survival and self-renewal of hPS cells. ..
  24. Liu Z, Tan J, Cohen D, Yang M, Sniadecki N, Ruiz S, et al. Mechanical tugging force regulates the size of cell-cell junctions. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9944-9 pubmed publisher
  25. Jana S, Kim K, Mao J, Kawamoto S, Sellers J, Adelstein R. An alternatively spliced isoform of non-muscle myosin II-C is not regulated by myosin light chain phosphorylation. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:11563-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This is in contrast to NM II-C1 and NM II-C0, both of which are ubiquitously expressed. Full-length NM II-C2-GFP expressed in COS-7 cells localizes to filaments in interphase cells and to the cytokinetic ring in dividing cells. ..
  26. Ehrlicher A, Nakamura F, Hartwig J, Weitz D, Stossel T. Mechanical strain in actin networks regulates FilGAP and integrin binding to filamin A. Nature. 2011;478:260-3 pubmed publisher
    ..These results identify a molecular mechanotransduction element within the actin cytoskeleton, revealing that mechanical strain of key proteins regulates the binding of signalling molecules. ..
  27. Köhler S, Schaller V, Bausch A. Collective dynamics of active cytoskeletal networks. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23798 pubmed publisher
    ..This is shown by varying the binding strength of the acto-myosin bond and by combining the experiments with phenomenological simulations based on simple interaction rules. ..
  28. Betapudi V. Myosin II motor proteins with different functions determine the fate of lamellipodia extension during cell spreading. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8560 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, with different roles in the regulation of the actin network and focal contacts formation, both myosin IIA and IIB determine the fate of lamellipodia extension during cell spreading. ..
  29. Fernandez Gonzalez R, Simões S, Röper J, Eaton S, Zallen J. Myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in intercalating cells. Dev Cell. 2009;17:736-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in a positive feedback loop that leads to multicellular actomyosin cable formation and efficient tissue elongation. ..
  30. Miserey Lenkei S, Chalancon G, Bardin S, Formstecher E, Goud B, Echard A. Rab and actomyosin-dependent fission of transport vesicles at the Golgi complex. Nat Cell Biol. 2010;12:645-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide evidence that the actomyosin system is required in vesicle biogenesis at the Golgi, and uncover a function for Rab GTPases in vesicle fission. ..
  31. Ferrari A, Veligodskiy A, Berge U, Lucas M, Kroschewski R. ROCK-mediated contractility, tight junctions and channels contribute to the conversion of a preapical patch into apical surface during isochoric lumen initiation. J Cell Sci. 2008;121:3649-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These phases correlate with distinct cell surface and volume patterns, which suggests that such morphometric parameters are regulated by trafficking, ROCK-mediated contractility and hydrostatic pressure or vice versa. ..
  32. Ng M, Besser A, Danuser G, Brugge J. Substrate stiffness regulates cadherin-dependent collective migration through myosin-II contractility. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:545-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our findings suggest that the mechanical environment integrates in a feedback with cell contractility and cell-cell adhesion to regulate collective migration. ..
  33. Pouille P, Ahmadi P, Brunet A, Farge E. Mechanical signals trigger Myosin II redistribution and mesoderm invagination in Drosophila embryos. Sci Signal. 2009;2:ra16 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that the mechanical tissue deformation that occurs during the Snail-dependent stochastic phase is necessary for the Fog-dependent signaling that mediates the second collective constriction wave. ..
  34. Jiang Y, Scott K, Kwak S, Chen R, Mardon G. Sds22/PP1 links epithelial integrity and tumor suppression via regulation of myosin II and JNK signaling. Oncogene. 2011;30:3248-60 pubmed publisher
  35. Gerisch G, Ecke M, Schroth Diez B, Gerwig S, Engel U, Maddera L, et al. Self-organizing actin waves as planar phagocytic cup structures. Cell Adh Migr. 2009;3:373-82 pubmed
    ..We suggest that actin waves enable a phagocyte to scan a surface for particles that might be engulfed. ..
  36. Larson S, Lee H, Hung P, Matthews L, Robinson D, Evans J. Cortical mechanics and meiosis II completion in mammalian oocytes are mediated by myosin-II and Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin (ERM) proteins. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3182-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, myosin-II and ERM proteins modulate mechanical properties in oocytes, contributing to cell polarity and to completion of meiosis. ..
  37. Stark B, Sladewski T, Pollard L, Lord M. Tropomyosin and myosin-II cellular levels promote actomyosin ring assembly in fission yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:989-1000 pubmed publisher
    ..This mode of regulation reflects a role for tropomyosin in specifying and stabilizing actomyosin interactions, which facilitates contractile ring assembly in the fission yeast system. ..
  38. Lee C, Choi C, Shin E, Schwartz M, Kim E. Myosin II directly binds and inhibits Dbl family guanine nucleotide exchange factors: a possible link to Rho family GTPases. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:663-74 pubmed publisher
    ..The results elucidate a functional link between MII and Rac1/Cdc42 GTPases, which may regulate protrusion/adhesion dynamics in migrating cells. ..
  39. Fischer R, Gardel M, Ma X, Adelstein R, Waterman C. Local cortical tension by myosin II guides 3D endothelial cell branching. Curr Biol. 2009;19:260-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, local downregulation of myosin II cortical contraction allows pseudopodium initiation to mediate EC branching and hence guide directional migration and angiogenesis. ..
  40. Tang H, Wang Y, Wang S, Wu M, Lin S, Chen G. Atg1-mediated myosin II activation regulates autophagosome formation during starvation-induced autophagy. EMBO J. 2011;30:636-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provide evidence of a link between Atg1 and the control of Atg9-mediated autophagosome formation through the myosin II motor protein. ..
  41. Ma X, Jana S, Conti M, Kawamoto S, Claycomb W, Adelstein R. Ablation of nonmuscle myosin II-B and II-C reveals a role for nonmuscle myosin II in cardiac myocyte karyokinesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:3952-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study shows that NM II is involved in regulating cardiac myocyte karyokinesis by affecting microtubule dynamics. ..
  42. Strilic B, Kucera T, Eglinger J, Hughes M, McNagny K, Tsukita S, et al. The molecular basis of vascular lumen formation in the developing mouse aorta. Dev Cell. 2009;17:505-15 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, VEGF-A is required for F-actin-nm-Myosin II interactions and EC shape change. Based on these data, we propose a molecular mechanism of in vivo vascular lumen formation in developing blood vessels. ..
  43. Widmann T, Dahmann C. Dpp signaling promotes the cuboidal-to-columnar shape transition of Drosophila wing disc epithelia by regulating Rho1. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1362-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results identify a cell-autonomous role for Dpp signaling in promoting and maintaining the elongated columnar shape of wing disc cells and suggest that Dpp signaling acts by regulating Rho1 and MRLC. ..
  44. Kollins K, Hu J, Bridgman P, Huang Y, Gallo G. Myosin-II negatively regulates minor process extension and the temporal development of neuronal polarity. Dev Neurobiol. 2009;69:279-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data indicate that myosin II negatively regulates MP extension, and the developmental time course for axonogenesis. ..
  45. Tojkander S, Gateva G, Schevzov G, Hotulainen P, Naumanen P, Martin C, et al. A molecular pathway for myosin II recruitment to stress fibers. Curr Biol. 2011;21:539-50 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, the mechanisms by which contractile actomyosin arrays such as stress fibers are generated in cells, and how myosin II is specifically recruited to these structures, are not known...
  46. Fernandez Gonzalez R, Zallen J. Oscillatory behaviors and hierarchical assembly of contractile structures in intercalating cells. Phys Biol. 2011;8:045005 pubmed publisher
    ..We discuss models to explain how the architecture of cytoskeletal networks regulates their contractile behavior and the mechanisms that give rise to oscillatory cell behaviors in intercalating cells...
  47. Martin A, Kaschube M, Wieschaus E. Pulsed contractions of an actin-myosin network drive apical constriction. Nature. 2009;457:495-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest a new model for apical constriction in which a cortical actin-myosin cytoskeleton functions as a developmentally controlled subcellular ratchet to reduce apical area incrementally. ..
  48. Watanabe M, Yumoto M, Tanaka H, Wang H, Katayama T, Yoshiyama S, et al. Blebbistatin, a myosin II inhibitor, suppresses contraction and disrupts contractile filaments organization of skinned taenia cecum from guinea pig. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010;298:C1118-26 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggested that blebbistatin suppressed skinned smooth muscle contraction through disruption of structure of SMM by the agent...
  49. Dickinson D, Robinson D, Nelson W, Weis W. ?-catenin and IQGAP regulate myosin localization to control epithelial tube morphogenesis in Dictyostelium. Dev Cell. 2012;23:533-46 pubmed publisher
  50. Parsons J, Horwitz A, Schwartz M. Cell adhesion: integrating cytoskeletal dynamics and cellular tension. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2010;11:633-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Adhesion formation and disassembly drive the migration cycle by activating Rho GTPases, which in turn regulate actin polymerization and myosin II activity, and therefore adhesion dynamics. ..
  51. Burnette D, Manley S, Sengupta P, Sougrat R, Davidson M, Kachar B, et al. A role for actin arcs in the leading-edge advance of migrating cells. Nat Cell Biol. 2011;13:371-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The actin arc thereby serves as a structural element underlying the temporal and spatial connection between the lamellipodium and the lamella during directed cell motion. ..
  52. Laporte D, Ojkic N, Vavylonis D, Wu J. ?-Actinin and fimbrin cooperate with myosin II to organize actomyosin bundles during contractile-ring assembly. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:3094-110 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our work supports a cooperative process of ring self-organization driven by the interaction between actin filaments and myosin II, which is progressively stabilized by the cross-linking proteins. ..
  53. Canovas D, Boyce K, Andrianopoulos A. The fungal type II myosin in Penicillium marneffei, MyoB, is essential for chitin deposition at nascent septation sites but not actin localization. Eukaryot Cell. 2011;10:302-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, MyoB is essential for correct morphogenesis of all cell types regardless of division mode (budding or fission) and defines differences between the different types of growth. ..