Genomes and Genes
Summary: A diverse superfamily of proteins that function as translocating proteins. They share the common characteristics of being able to bind ACTINS and hydrolyze MgATP. Myosins generally consist of heavy chains which are involved in locomotion, and light chains which are involved in regulation. Within the structure of myosin heavy chain are three domains: the head, the neck and the tail. The head region of the heavy chain contains the actin binding domain and MgATPase domain which provides energy for locomotion. The neck region is involved in binding the light-chains. The tail region provides the anchoring point that maintains the position of the heavy chain. The superfamily of myosins is organized into structural classes based upon the type and arrangement of the subunits they contain.
- Bishe B, Syed G, Field S, Siddiqui A. Role of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PI4P) and its binding protein GOLPH3 in hepatitis C virus secretion. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:27637-47 pubmed publisher..These studies establish the role of PI4P and its interacting protein GOLPH3 in HCV secretion and strengthen the significance of the Golgi secretory pathway in this process. ..
- Iwabuchi S, Takahashi T, Hatori K. Transport of actin-decorated liposomes along myosin molecules in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2012;422:164-8 pubmed publisher..These data show that the actomyosin system was successfully integrated into the liposomes and possesses the ability to actively transport useful agents enclosed within the liposomes. ..
- Furt F, Liu Y, Bibeau J, Tüzel E, Vidali L. Apical myosin XI anticipates F-actin during polarized growth of Physcomitrella patens cells. Plant J. 2013;73:417-28 pubmed publisher..We hypothesize this is a general mechanism for the participation of myosin XI and F-actin in tip growing cells. ..
- Wang Q, Feng J, Pismen L. A cell-level biomechanical model of Drosophila dorsal closure. Biophys J. 2012;103:2265-74 pubmed publisher..Overall, the model captures the key features of dorsal closure through the three distinct phases, and its predictions are in good agreement with observations. ..
- Lo Presti L, Chang F, Martin S. Myosin Vs organize actin cables in fission yeast. Mol Biol Cell. 2012;23:4579-91 pubmed publisher..Together these in vivo data reveal elements of a self-organizing system in which the motors shape their own tracks by transporting cargoes and exerting physical pulling forces. ..
- Müller M, Diensthuber R, Chizhov I, Claus P, Heissler S, Preller M, et al. Distinct functional interactions between actin isoforms and nonsarcomeric myosins. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e70636 pubmed publisher..Mammalian cytoplasmic ?- and ?-actin interact with nonsarcomeric conventional myosins such as the members of the nonmuscle myosin-2 family and myosin-7A...
- Behrmann E, Müller M, Penczek P, Mannherz H, Manstein D, Raunser S. Structure of the rigor actin-tropomyosin-myosin complex. Cell. 2012;150:327-38 pubmed publisher..Complex domain motions occur in myosin, but not in actin. Based on our results, we propose a structural model for the tropomyosin-dependent modulation of myosin binding to actin. ..
- Clayton J, Pollard L, Sckolnick M, Bookwalter C, Hodges A, Trybus K, et al. Fission yeast tropomyosin specifies directed transport of myosin-V along actin cables. Mol Biol Cell. 2014;25:66-75 pubmed publisherA hallmark of class-V myosins is their processivity--the ability to take multiple steps along actin filaments without dissociating...
- Wang G, Wang F, Wang G, Wang F, Zhang X, Zhong M, et al. Opaque1 encodes a myosin XI motor protein that is required for endoplasmic reticulum motility and protein body formation in maize endosperm. Plant Cell. 2012;24:3447-62 pubmedb>Myosins are encoded by multigene families and are involved in many basic biological processes. However, their functions in plants remain poorly understood...
- Sahly I, Dufour E, Schietroma C, Michel V, Bahloul A, Perfettini I, et al. Localization of Usher 1 proteins to the photoreceptor calyceal processes, which are absent from mice. J Cell Biol. 2012;199:381-99 pubmed publisher..We suggest that USH1 proteins form an adhesion belt around the basolateral region of the photoreceptor outer segment in humans, and that defects in this structure cause the retinal degeneration in USH1 patients. ..
- Woo H, Park H, Baek J, Park M, Kim U, Sagong B, et al. Whole-exome sequencing identifies MYO15A mutations as a cause of autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss in Korean families. BMC Med Genet. 2013;14:72 pubmed publisher..The present results also indicate that whole-exome sequencing is a valuable method for comprehensive medical diagnosis of a genetically heterogeneous recessive disease, especially in small-sized families. ..
- East D, Mulvihill D. Regulation and function of the fission yeast myosins. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:1383-90 pubmed publisher..The ease with which diverse methodologies can be used, together with the small number of myosins, makes fission yeast an attractive model system for actomyosin research and provides the opportunity to fully ..
- Wu L, Pan L, Wei Z, Zhang M. Structure of MyTH4-FERM domains in myosin VIIa tail bound to cargo. Science. 2011;331:757-60 pubmed publisher..The structure will also facilitate mechanistic and functional studies of MyTH4-FERM domains in other myosins.
- Mun J, Gulick J, Robbins J, Woodhead J, Lehman W, Craig R. Electron microscopy and 3D reconstruction of F-actin decorated with cardiac myosin-binding protein C (cMyBP-C). J Mol Biol. 2011;410:214-25 pubmed publisher..The location of binding was such that it could modulate tropomyosin position and would interfere with myosin head binding to actin. ..
- Luther P, Winkler H, Taylor K, Zoghbi M, Craig R, Padrón R, et al. Direct visualization of myosin-binding protein C bridging myosin and actin filaments in intact muscle. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:11423-8 pubmed publisher..This binding implies a physical mechanism for communicating the relative sliding between thick and thin filaments that does not involve myosin and which could modulate the contractile process...
- Rocha Sanchez S, Scheetz L, Contreras M, Weston M, Korte M, McGee J, et al. Mature mice lacking Rbl2/p130 gene have supernumerary inner ear hair cells and supporting cells. J Neurosci. 2011;31:8883-93 pubmed publisher..Interestingly, p130(-/-) mice exhibited nearly normal peripheral auditory sensitivity. ..
- Dzijak R, Yildirim S, Kahle M, Novak P, Hnilicová J, Venit T, et al. Specific nuclear localizing sequence directs two myosin isoforms to the cell nucleus in calmodulin-sensitive manner. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e30529 pubmed publisher..This opens a new field for exploring functions of this molecular motor in nuclear processes, and for exploring the signals between cytoplasm and the nucleus. ..
- Naber N, Cooke R, Pate E. Slow myosin ATP turnover in the super-relaxed state in tarantula muscle. J Mol Biol. 2011;411:943-50 pubmed publisher..and chased with ADP, the SRX is not seen, indicating that trinucleotide-relaxed myosins are responsible for the SRX...
- Doria C, Toniolo L, Verratti V, Cancellara P, Pietrangelo T, Marconi V, et al. Improved VO2 uptake kinetics and shift in muscle fiber type in high-altitude trekkers. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2011;111:1597-605 pubmed publisher..These results indicate that a prolonged and active sojourn in hypoxia may induce muscular ultrastructural and functional changes similar to those observed after aerobic training. ..
- Siden Kiamos I, Ganter M, Kunze A, Hliscs M, Steinbüchel M, Mendoza J, et al. Stage-specific depletion of myosin A supports an essential role in motility of malarial ookinetes. Cell Microbiol. 2011;13:1996-2006 pubmed publisher..Similar approaches should permit the analysis of gene function in the mosquito forms that are shared with the erythrocytic stages of the malaria parasite...
- Arjonen A, Kaukonen R, Ivaska J. Filopodia and adhesion in cancer cell motility. Cell Adh Migr. 2011;5:421-30 pubmed publisher..These data implicated that several different filopodia inducing genes may contribute in a collective manner to cancer progression and the high metastasis rates associated with basal-type breast carcinomas. ..
- Peremyslov V, Mockler T, Filichkin S, Fox S, Jaiswal P, Makarova K, et al. Expression, splicing, and evolution of the myosin gene family in plants. Plant Physiol. 2011;155:1191-204 pubmed publisherPlants possess two myosin classes, VIII and XI. The myosins XI are implicated in organelle transport, filamentous actin organization, and cell and plant growth...
- Mao Y, Tournier A, Bates P, Gale J, Tapon N, Thompson B. Planar polarization of the atypical myosin Dachs orients cell divisions in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2011;25:131-6 pubmed publisher..Planar polarization of Dachs is ultimately oriented by long-range gradients emanating from compartment boundaries, and is therefore a mechanism linking these gradients with the control of tissue shape. ..
- Heissler S, Manstein D. Comparative kinetic and functional characterization of the motor domains of human nonmuscle myosin-2C isoforms. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:21191-202 pubmed publisherNonmuscle myosins are widely distributed and play important roles in the maintenance of cell morphology and cytokinesis...
- Kaya M, Higuchi H. Nonlinear elasticity and an 8-nm working stroke of single myosin molecules in myofilaments. Science. 2010;329:686-9 pubmed publisher..optical trapping and fluorescence imaging techniques, we measured the step size and stiffness of single skeletal myosins interacting with actin filaments and arranged on myosin-rod cofilaments that approximate myosin mechanics during ..
- Kasza K, Zallen J. Dynamics and regulation of contractile actin-myosin networks in morphogenesis. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2011;23:30-8 pubmed publisher..Analysis of the complex behaviors of actin-myosin networks will be crucial for understanding force generation in actively remodeling cells and the coordination of cell shape and movement at the tissue level. ..
- Ratti J, Rostkova E, Gautel M, Pfuhl M. Structure and interactions of myosin-binding protein C domain C0: cardiac-specific regulation of myosin at its neck?. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:12650-8 pubmed publisher..These results provide new insights into how cardiac MyBP-C incorporates in the sarcomere and how it can contribute to the regulation of muscle contraction. ..
- Ohgushi M, Matsumura M, Eiraku M, Murakami K, Aramaki T, Nishiyama A, et al. Molecular pathway and cell state responsible for dissociation-induced apoptosis in human pluripotent stem cells. Cell Stem Cell. 2010;7:225-39 pubmed publisher..Thus, the Abr-dependent "Rho-high/Rac-low" state plays a decisive role in initiating the dissociation-induced actomyosin hyperactivation and apoptosis in hESCs. ..
- Amari K, Lerich A, Schmitt Keichinger C, Dolja V, Ritzenthaler C. Tubule-guided cell-to-cell movement of a plant virus requires class XI myosin motors. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002327 pubmed publisher..This transport relies primarily on the class XI myosins XI-K and XI-2...
- MALIK F, Morgan B. Cardiac myosin activation part 1: from concept to clinic. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011;51:454-61 pubmed publisher..Cardiac myosin activation may provide a new therapeutic approach for systolic heart failure. This article is part of a special issue entitled "Key Signaling Molecules in Hypertrophy and Heart Failure." ..
- Lin T, Greenberg M, Moore J, Ostap E. A hearing loss-associated myo1c mutation (R156W) decreases the myosin duty ratio and force sensitivity. Biochemistry. 2011;50:1831-8 pubmed publisher..Taken together, these results indicate that myo1c with the R156W mutation has a lower duty ratio than the wild-type protein and motile properties that are less sensitive to resisting forces. ..
- Snaith H, Thompson J, Yates J, Sawin K. Characterization of Mug33 reveals complementary roles for actin cable-dependent transport and exocyst regulators in fission yeast exocytosis. J Cell Sci. 2011;124:2187-99 pubmed publisher..We propose that Mug33 contributes to exocyst function and that actin cable-dependent vesicle transport and exocyst function have complementary roles in promoting efficient exocytosis in fission yeast. ..
- Preller M, Chinthalapudi K, Martin R, Knölker H, Manstein D. Inhibition of Myosin ATPase activity by halogenated pseudilins: a structure-activity study. J Med Chem. 2011;54:3675-85 pubmed publisher..Moreover, we describe the inhibitory potency for a congeneric series of halogenated pseudilins. Insight into their mode of action is gained by applying a combination of experimental and computational approaches. ..
- Duncan J, Lim K, Engel J, Fritzsch B. Limited inner ear morphogenesis and neurosensory development are possible in the absence of GATA3. Int J Dev Biol. 2011;55:297-303 pubmed publisher..Finally, while GATA3 is expressed in the developing vestibulo-cochlear efferent (VCE) neurons, and its absence in the null mutants disrupts VCE projections to the ear, loss of GATA3 does not affect VCE progenitor cell migration. ..
- Heissler S, Manstein D. Functional characterization of the human myosin-7a motor domain. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2012;69:299-311 pubmed publisher..Our results suggest that in a cellular environment, compartment-specific fluctuations in free Mg(2+) ions can mediate the conditional switching of myosin-7a between cargo moving and tension bearing modes. ..
- Sakai T, Umeki N, Ikebe R, Ikebe M. Cargo binding activates myosin VIIA motor function in cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:7028-33 pubmed publisher..Present findings support that MyRip, a cargo molecule, functions as an activator of myosin VIIA transporter function. ..
- Gorfinkiel N, Blanchard G. Dynamics of actomyosin contractile activity during epithelial morphogenesis. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2011;23:531-9 pubmed publisher..Pulsatile contractions, polarized cell organization and various stiffening ratchet mechanisms combine to provide a rich variety of options for robust epithelial tissue remodelling. ..
- Wei Z, Yan J, Lu Q, Pan L, Zhang M. Cargo recognition mechanism of myosin X revealed by the structure of its tail MyTH4-FERM tandem in complex with the DCC P3 domain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:3572-7 pubmed publisherMyosin X (MyoX), encoded by Myo10, is a representative member of the MyTH4-FERM domain-containing myosins, and this family of unconventional myosins shares common functions in promoting formation of filopodia/stereocilia structures in ..
- Bähler M, Elfrink K, Hanley P, Thelen S, Xu Y. Cellular functions of class IX myosins in epithelia and immune cells. Biochem Soc Trans. 2011;39:1166-8 pubmed publisherMammals contain two class IX myosins, Myo9a and Myo9b. They are actin-based motorized signalling molecules that negatively regulate RhoA signalling...
- Craig E, Dey S, Mogilner A. The emergence of sarcomeric, graded-polarity and spindle-like patterns in bundles of short cytoskeletal polymers and two opposite molecular motors. J Phys Condens Matter. 2011;23:374102 pubmed publisher..We discuss modeling implications for actin-myosin fibers and in vitro and meiotic spindles...
- Williams C, Regnier M, Daniel T. Axial and radial forces of cross-bridges depend on lattice spacing. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010;6:e1001018 pubmed publisher..The radial force that a cross-bridge produces as it undergoes a power stroke varies from expansive to compressive as lattice spacing increases. Importantly, these results mirror those for intact, contracting muscle force production. ..
- Thoresen T, Lenz M, Gardel M. Reconstitution of contractile actomyosin bundles. Biophys J. 2011;100:2698-705 pubmed publisher..These results provide insight into nonsarcomeric mechanisms of actomyosin contraction found in smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells. ..
- Matsui K, Parameswaran N, Bagheri N, Willard B, Gupta N. Proteomics analysis of the ezrin interactome in B cells reveals a novel association with Myo18a?. J Proteome Res. 2011;10:3983-92 pubmed publisher..Our study is not only significant with respect to understanding the molecular regulation of BCR signaling but also provides a broader basis for understanding the mechanism of action of ezrin in other cellular systems. ..
- Williams D, Lopes V. The many different cellular functions of MYO7A in the retina. Biochem Soc Trans. 2011;39:1207-10 pubmed publisher..It is likely that the progressive retinal degeneration that occurs in Usher syndrome 1B patients results from a combination of cellular defects in the RPE and photoreceptor cells. ..
- Várkuti B, Yang Z, Kintses B, Erdélyi P, Bárdos Nagy I, Kovacs A, et al. A novel actin binding site of myosin required for effective muscle contraction. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2012;19:299-306 pubmed publisher..We conclude that the binding of actin to myosin's activation loop specifically increases the ratio of mechanically productive to futile myosin heads, leading to efficient muscle contraction. ..
- Chiang L, Ngo J, Schechter J, Karvar S, Tolmachova T, Seabra M, et al. Rab27b regulates exocytosis of secretory vesicles in acinar epithelial cells from the lacrimal gland. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2011;301:C507-21 pubmed publisher..These data show that Rab27b participates in aspects of lacrimal gland acinar cell secretory vesicle formation and release...
- Avisar D, Abu Abied M, Belausov E, Sadot E. Myosin XIK is a major player in cytoplasm dynamics and is regulated by two amino acids in its tail. J Exp Bot. 2012;63:241-9 pubmed publisherIt has recently been found that among the 17 Arabidopsis myosins, six (XIC, XIE, XIK, XI-I, MYA1, and MYA2) have a major role in the motility of Golgi bodies and mitochondria in Nicotiana benthamiana and Nicotiana tabacum...
- Bernick E, Zhang P, Du S. Knockdown and overexpression of Unc-45b result in defective myofibril organization in skeletal muscles of zebrafish embryos. BMC Cell Biol. 2010;11:70 pubmed publisher..Collectively, these studies indicate that the expression levels of Unc-45b must be precisely regulated to ensure normal myofibril organization. Loss or overexpression of Unc-45b leads to defective myofibril organization. ..
- Lopes V, Gibbs D, Libby R, Aleman T, Welch D, Lillo C, et al. The Usher 1B protein, MYO7A, is required for normal localization and function of the visual retinoid cycle enzyme, RPE65. Hum Mol Genet. 2011;20:2560-70 pubmed publisher..Together, the results support a role for MYO7A in the translocation of RPE65, illustrating the involvement of a molecular motor in the spatiotemporal organization of the retinoid cycle in vision. ..
- Harris S, Lyons R, Bezold K. In the thick of it: HCM-causing mutations in myosin binding proteins of the thick filament. Circ Res. 2011;108:751-64 pubmed publisher..Additional work is still needed to determine the mechanisms by which individual mutations induce hypertrophic phenotypes. ..
- Malm E, Ponjavic V, Moller C, Kimberling W, Andreasson S. Phenotypes in defined genotypes including siblings with Usher syndrome. Ophthalmic Genet. 2011;32:65-74 pubmed publisher..Evaluation of visual function comprising both the severity of the rod cone degeneration and the function in the macular region confirm phenotypical heterogeneity within siblings and between different genotypes of Usher syndrome. ..
- Roh Johnson M, Shemer G, Higgins C, McClellan J, Werts A, Tulu U, et al. Triggering a cell shape change by exploiting preexisting actomyosin contractions. Science. 2012;335:1232-5 pubmed publisher..Thus, apical constriction appears to be triggered not by a change in cortical tension, but by dynamic linking of apical cell-cell contact zones to an already contractile apical cortex...
- Ricca B, Rock R. The stepping pattern of myosin X is adapted for processive motility on bundled actin. Biophys J. 2010;99:1818-26 pubmed publisher..Together, these results delineate some of the structural features of the motor and the track that allow myosin X to recognize actin filament bundles. ..
- Lo Presti L, Martin S. Shaping fission yeast cells by rerouting actin-based transport on microtubules. Curr Biol. 2011;21:2064-9 pubmed publisherKinesins and myosins transport cargos to specific locations along microtubules and actin filaments, respectively...
- Omelchenko T, Hall A. Myosin-IXA regulates collective epithelial cell migration by targeting RhoGAP activity to cell-cell junctions. Curr Biol. 2012;22:278-88 pubmed publisher..We propose that myosin-IXA locally regulates Rho and the assembly of thin actin bundles associated with nascent cell-cell adhesions and that this is required to sustain the collective migration of epithelial cells. ..
- Bonnet C, El Amraoui A. Usher syndrome (sensorineural deafness and retinitis pigmentosa): pathogenesis, molecular diagnosis and therapeutic approaches. Curr Opin Neurol. 2012;25:42-9 pubmed publisher..Efforts to improve clinical diagnosis have been successful. Yet, despite some encouraging results, further development of therapeutic approaches is necessary to ultimately treat this dual sensory defect. ..