myogenic regulatory factors


Summary: A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).

Top Publications

  1. Sellin J, Drechsler M, Nguyen H, Paululat A. Antagonistic function of Lmd and Zfh1 fine tunes cell fate decisions in the Twi and Tin positive mesoderm of Drosophila melanogaster. Dev Biol. 2009;326:444-55 pubmed publisher
    ..We show further that Tin repression and pericardial restriction in the dorsal mesoderm facilitated by Lmd is instructed by a late Decapentaplegic (Dpp) signal that is abolished in embryos carrying the disk region mutation dpp(d6). ..
  2. Gu L, Dean J, Oliveira A, Sheehy N, Hall W, Gautier V. Expression profile and differential regulation of the Human I-mfa domain-Containing protein (HIC) gene in immune cells. Immunol Lett. 2009;123:179-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, this report provides new insights for a putative role of HIC in the modulation of immune and inflammatory responses and/or hematological malignancies. ..
  3. Blanchard F, Collins B, Cyran S, Hancock D, Taylor M, Blau J. The transcription factor Mef2 is required for normal circadian behavior in Drosophila. J Neurosci. 2010;30:5855-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a normal level of Mef2 activity is required in clock neurons to maintain robust and accurate circadian behavioral rhythms. ..
  4. Meadows E, Cho J, Flynn J, Klein W. Myogenin regulates a distinct genetic program in adult muscle stem cells. Dev Biol. 2008;322:406-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Remarkably, these changes in gene expression were distinct from those found in Myog-null embryonic skeletal muscle, indicating that myogenin has separate functions during postnatal life. ..
  5. Putt M, Hannenhalli S, Lu Y, Haines P, Chandrupatla H, Morrisey E, et al. Evidence for coregulation of myocardial gene expression by MEF2 and NFAT in human heart failure. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009;2:212-9 pubmed publisher
    ..More broadly, we demonstrate how integrating diverse sources of genomic data yields novel insight into human cardiovascular disorders. ..
  6. Ten Broek R, Grefte S, Von den Hoff J. Regulatory factors and cell populations involved in skeletal muscle regeneration. J Cell Physiol. 2010;224:7-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Knowledge about the factors regulating satellite cell activity and skeletal muscle regeneration can be used to improve the treatment of muscle injuries and diseases. ..
  7. Al Madhoun A, Mehta V, Li G, Figeys D, Wiper Bergeron N, Skerjanc I. Skeletal myosin light chain kinase regulates skeletal myogenesis by phosphorylation of MEF2C. EMBO J. 2011;30:2477-89 pubmed publisher
    ..This work identifies the first kinase that regulates MyoD and Myf5 expression in ES or satellite cells. ..
  8. Reiss Sklan E, Levitzki A, Naveh Many T. The complex regulation of HIC (Human I-mfa domain containing protein) expression. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e6152 pubmed publisher
  9. Shum A, Mahendradatta T, Taylor R, Painter A, Moore M, Tsoli M, et al. Disruption of MEF2C signaling and loss of sarcomeric and mitochondrial integrity in cancer-induced skeletal muscle wasting. Aging (Albany NY). 2012;4:133-43 pubmed
    ..Together, these effects may limit sarcomeric contractile ability and also predispose skeletal muscle to structural instability; associated with muscle wasting and fatigue in cachexia. ..

More Information


  1. Nowakowska B, Obersztyn E, Szymanska K, Bekiesinska Figatowska M, Xia Z, Ricks C, et al. Severe mental retardation, seizures, and hypotonia due to deletions of MEF2C. Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet. 2010;153B:1042-51 pubmed publisher
  2. Dietrich J, Takemori H, Grosch Dirrig S, Bertorello A, Zwiller J. Cocaine induces the expression of MEF2C transcription factor in rat striatum through activation of SIK1 and phosphorylation of the histone deacetylase HDAC5. Synapse. 2012;66:61-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Since MEF2C plays a key role in memory/learning processes, activation of this pathway by cocaine is probably involved in plasticity mechanisms whereby the drug establishes its long-term effects such as drug dependence. ..
  3. Dessalle K, Euthine V, Chanon S, Delarichaudy J, Fujii I, Rome S, et al. SREBP-1 transcription factors regulate skeletal muscle cell size by controlling protein synthesis through myogenic regulatory factors. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e50878 pubmed publisher
    ..showed that their overexpression induced muscle atrophy together with a combined lack of expression of myogenic regulatory factors. Here we present evidences that SREBP-1 regulate muscle protein synthesis through the downregulation of ..
  4. Pfeiffer B, Zang T, Wilkerson J, Taniguchi M, Maksimova M, Smith L, et al. Fragile X mental retardation protein is required for synapse elimination by the activity-dependent transcription factor MEF2. Neuron. 2010;66:191-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that active MEF2 and FMRP function together in an acute, cell-autonomous mechanism to eliminate excitatory synapses. ..
  5. Liu Q, Zhang M, Jiang X, Zhang Z, Dai L, Min S, et al. miR-223 suppresses differentiation of tumor-induced CD11b? Gr1? myeloid-derived suppressor cells from bone marrow cells. Int J Cancer. 2011;129:2662-73 pubmed publisher
  6. Hinits Y, Pan L, Walker C, Dowd J, Moens C, Hughes S. Zebrafish Mef2ca and Mef2cb are essential for both first and second heart field cardiomyocyte differentiation. Dev Biol. 2012;369:199-210 pubmed publisher
    ..Mef2cb single mutants have a functional heart and are viable adults. Our results show that the key role of Mef2c in myocardial differentiation is conserved throughout the vertebrate heart. ..
  7. Zhou Y, Liu Y, Jiang X, Du H, Li X, Zhu Q. Polymorphism of chicken myocyte-specific enhancer-binding factor 2A gene and its association with chicken carcass traits. Mol Biol Rep. 2010;37:587-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that the MEF2A gene may be a potential marker affecting the muscle trait of chickens. ..
  8. Protze S, Khattak S, Poulet C, Lindemann D, Tanaka E, Ravens U. A new approach to transcription factor screening for reprogramming of fibroblasts to cardiomyocyte-like cells. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2012;53:323-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, our results point to the importance of verifying multiple lineage specific genes when assessing reprogramming. ..
  9. Dy P, Wang W, Bhattaram P, Wang Q, Wang L, Ballock R, et al. Sox9 directs hypertrophic maturation and blocks osteoblast differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes. Dev Cell. 2012;22:597-609 pubmed publisher
  10. Liu J, Ku S, Lee J, Young T, PE ERY T, Mathews M, et al. The 3'UTR of HIC mRNA improves the production of recombinant proteins in Chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biotechnol. 2009;139:152-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report that demonstrates the improvement of expression of biopharmaceutical proteins by overexpressing a non-coding 3'UTR in CHO cells. ..
  11. Wu J, Kubota J, Hirayama J, Nagai Y, Nishina S, Yokoi T, et al. p38 Mitogen-activated protein kinase controls a switch between cardiomyocyte and neuronal commitment of murine embryonic stem cells by activating myocyte enhancer factor 2C-dependent bone morphogenetic protein 2 transcription. Stem Cells Dev. 2010;19:1723-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings reveal the molecular mechanism by which p38 MAPK activity in ES cells drives their commitment to differentiate preferentially into cardiomyocytes, and the conditions under which these same cells might develop into neurons. ..
  12. Clark R, Tan S, Péan C, Roostalu U, Vivancos V, Bronda K, et al. MEF2 is an in vivo immune-metabolic switch. Cell. 2013;155:435-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The loss of phosphorylated MEF2 contributes to loss of anabolic enzyme expression in Gram-negative bacterial infection. MEF2 is thus a critical transcriptional switch in the adult fat body between metabolism and immunity. ..
  13. Shi X, Garry D. Myogenic regulatory factors transactivate the Tceal7 gene and modulate muscle differentiation. Biochem J. 2010;428:213-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, we demonstrated that MRFs (myogenic regulatory factors) were Tceal7 upstream transactivators using transcriptional assays, EMSAs (electrophoretic mobility-..
  14. Morin R, Mendez Lago M, Mungall A, Goya R, Mungall K, Corbett R, et al. Frequent mutation of histone-modifying genes in non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Nature. 2011;476:298-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Our analysis suggests a previously unappreciated disruption of chromatin biology in lymphomagenesis. ..
  15. Gonçalves K, Bressan G, Saito A, Morello L, Zanchin N, Kobarg J. Evidence for the association of the human regulatory protein Ki-1/57 with the translational machinery. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:2556-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore Ki-1/57 cosediments with free ribosomal particles and enhances translation, when tethered to a reporter mRNA, suggesting that Ki-1/57 may be involved in translational regulation. ..
  16. Buchon N, Broderick N, Poidevin M, Pradervand S, Lemaitre B. Drosophila intestinal response to bacterial infection: activation of host defense and stem cell proliferation. Cell Host Microbe. 2009;5:200-11 pubmed publisher
    ..The Drosophila gut provides a powerful model to study the integration of stress and immunity with pathways associated with stem cell control, and this study should prove to be a useful resource for such further studies...
  17. Liu M, Stevens Lapsley J, Jayaraman A, Ye F, Conover C, Walter G, et al. Impact of treadmill locomotor training on skeletal muscle IGF1 and myogenic regulatory factors in spinal cord injured rats. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;109:709-20 pubmed publisher
    ..of treadmill locomotor training on the expression of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF1) and changes in myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) in rat soleus muscle following spinal cord injury (SCI)...
  18. Dai D, Zhou X, Xiao Y, Xu F, Sun F, Ji F, et al. Structural changes in exon 11 of MEF2A are not related to sporadic coronary artery disease in Han Chinese population. Eur J Clin Invest. 2010;40:669-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results reveal that structural changes of exon 11 in MEF2A are not involved in sporadic CAD in the Han population of China. ..
  19. Métrich M, Laurent A, Breckler M, Duquesnes N, Hmitou I, Courillau D, et al. Epac activation induces histone deacetylase nuclear export via a Ras-dependent signalling pathway. Cell Signal. 2010;22:1459-68 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data show that Epac activates a prohypertrophic signalling pathway which involves PLC, H-Ras, CaMKII and HDAC nuclear export. ..
  20. Ieda M, Fu J, Delgado Olguin P, Vedantham V, Hayashi Y, Bruneau B, et al. Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into functional cardiomyocytes by defined factors. Cell. 2010;142:375-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Reprogramming of endogenous or explanted fibroblasts might provide a source of cardiomyocytes for regenerative approaches. ..
  21. She H, Mao Z. Regulation of myocyte enhancer factor-2 transcription factors by neurotoxins. Neurotoxicology. 2011;32:563-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In this work, the mechanisms of regulation of MEF2 function by several well-known neurotoxins and their implications in various neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed. ..
  22. Tian X, Kai L, Hockberger P, Wokosin D, Surmeier D. MEF-2 regulates activity-dependent spine loss in striatopallidal medium spiny neurons. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2010;44:94-108 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies establish a translational framework within which striatal adaptations linked to the symptoms of Parkinson's disease can be explored. ..
  23. Mokalled M, Johnson A, Creemers E, Olson E. MASTR directs MyoD-dependent satellite cell differentiation during skeletal muscle regeneration. Genes Dev. 2012;26:190-202 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide new insights into the genetic circuitry of muscle regeneration and identify MASTR as a central regulator of this process. ..
  24. Castillero E, Martín A, López Menduiña M, Villanúa M, López Calderón A. Eicosapentaenoic acid attenuates arthritis-induced muscle wasting acting on atrogin-1 and on myogenic regulatory factors. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2009;297:R1322-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Arthritis not only decreased myogenic regulatory factors but also increased PCNA, MyoD, and myogenin mRNA in the gastrocnemius...
  25. Wu W, Huang X, Cheng J, Li Z, de Folter S, Huang Z, et al. Conservation and evolution in and among SRF- and MEF2-type MADS domains and their binding sites. Mol Biol Evol. 2011;28:501-11 pubmed publisher
  26. Sasagawa S, Takemori H, Uebi T, Ikegami D, Hiramatsu K, Ikegawa S, et al. SIK3 is essential for chondrocyte hypertrophy during skeletal development in mice. Development. 2012;139:1153-63 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate an essential role for SIK3 in facilitating chondrocyte hypertrophy during skeletogenesis and growth plate maintenance. ..
  27. Della Gaspera B, Armand A, Sequeira I, Chesneau A, Mazabraud A, Lecolle S, et al. Myogenic waves and myogenic programs during Xenopus embryonic myogenesis. Dev Dyn. 2012;241:995-1007 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we assessed the expression of myogenic regulatory factors of the Myod family (MRFs) during embryonic development and revealed distinct MRF programs...
  28. Le Meur N, Holder Espinasse M, Jaillard S, Goldenberg A, Joriot S, Amati Bonneau P, et al. MEF2C haploinsufficiency caused by either microdeletion of the 5q14.3 region or mutation is responsible for severe mental retardation with stereotypic movements, epilepsy and/or cerebral malformations. J Med Genet. 2010;47:22-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results strongly suggest that haploinsufficiency of MEF2C is responsible for severe mental retardation with stereotypic movements, seizures and/or cerebral malformations. ..
  29. Kusano S, Eizuru Y. Human I-mfa domain proteins specifically interact with KSHV LANA and affect its regulation of Wnt signaling-dependent transcription. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010;396:608-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These data reveal for the first time that I-mfa domain proteins interact with LANA and negatively regulate LANA-mediated activation of Wnt signaling-dependent transcription by inhibiting the formation of the LANA.GSK-3beta complex. ..
  30. Sambasivan R, Gayraud Morel B, Dumas G, Cimper C, Paisant S, Kelly R, et al. Distinct regulatory cascades govern extraocular and pharyngeal arch muscle progenitor cell fates. Dev Cell. 2009;16:810-21 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings identify novel genetic networks that may provide insights into myopathies which often affect only subsets of muscles...
  31. Zanou N, Gailly P. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and regeneration: interplay between the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) pathways. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2013;70:4117-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In response to stimuli such as injury or exercise, these cells become activated and express myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), i.e...
  32. Campos C, Valente L, Borges P, Bizuayehu T, Fernandes J. Dietary lipid levels have a remarkable impact on the expression of growth-related genes in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup). J Exp Biol. 2010;213:200-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to its practical implications, this work provides a valuable contribution towards our understanding of the genetic networks controlling growth in teleosts...
  33. Wang X, She H, Mao Z. Phosphorylation of neuronal survival factor MEF2D by glycogen synthase kinase 3beta in neuronal apoptosis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:32619-26 pubmed publisher
  34. Zhang Y, Tan X, Sun W, Xu P, Zhang P, Xu Y. Characterization of flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) FoxD3 and its function in regulating myogenic regulatory factors. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2011;47:399-405 pubmed publisher
    ..isolated the FoxD3 gene from flounder, and analyzed its expression pattern and function in regulating myogenic regulatory factors, MyoD and Myf5...
  35. Hennebry A, Berry C, Siriett V, O Callaghan P, Chau L, Watson T, et al. Myostatin regulates fiber-type composition of skeletal muscle by regulating MEF2 and MyoD gene expression. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2009;296:C525-34 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that Mstn could regulate fiber-type composition by regulating the expression of MEF2C and MyoD during myogenesis. ..
  36. Elhawari S, Al Boudari O, Muiya P, Khalak H, Andres E, Al Shahid M, et al. A study of the role of the Myocyte-specific Enhancer Factor-2A gene in coronary artery disease. Atherosclerosis. 2010;209:152-4 pubmed publisher
    ..22(0.9-1.54); p=0.088]. Importantly, a haplotype 1A-2G-3G-4A-5C-6G-7G-8A constructed from the studied SNPs was also associated with CAD [6.39(0.93-43.75); p=0.0052]. These results identify MEF2A gene as a susceptibility gene for CAD. ..
  37. Guella I, Rimoldi V, Asselta R, Ardissino D, Francolini M, Martinelli N, et al. Association and functional analyses of MEF2A as a susceptibility gene for premature myocardial infarction and coronary artery disease. Circ Cardiovasc Genet. 2009;2:165-72 pubmed publisher
    ..All together, our data do not support MEF2A as a susceptibility gene for coronary artery disease/MI in the Italian population. ..
  38. Soler C, Han J, Taylor M. The conserved transcription factor Mef2 has multiple roles in adult Drosophila musculature formation. Development. 2012;139:1270-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results therefore establish the importance of Mef2 in multiple roles in examples of myogenesis that have parallels in vertebrates and are distinct from that occurring in Drosophila embryogenesis. ..
  39. Liu Y, Chu A, Chakroun I, Islam U, Blais A. Cooperation between myogenic regulatory factors and SIX family transcription factors is important for myoblast differentiation. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010;38:6857-71 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of a bioinformatic analysis of gene regulatory sequences, we hypothesized that myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs), key regulators of skeletal myogenesis, cooperate with members of the SIX family of ..
  40. Inagawa K, Miyamoto K, Yamakawa H, Muraoka N, Sadahiro T, Umei T, et al. Induction of cardiomyocyte-like cells in infarct hearts by gene transfer of Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5. Circ Res. 2012;111:1147-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Quantitative RT-PCR also demonstrated that FACS-sorted 3F2A-transduced cells expressed cardiac-specific genes. GMT gene transfer induced cardiomyocyte-like cells in infarcted hearts. ..
  41. Hsiao S, Chen S. Myogenic regulatory factors regulate M-cadherin expression by targeting its proximal promoter elements. Biochem J. 2010;428:223-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, most MRFs (myogenic regulatory factors) significantly activated the promoter of M-cadherin, but not that of N-cadherin...
  42. Tsai N, Wilkerson J, Guo W, Maksimova M, Demartino G, Cowan C, et al. Multiple autism-linked genes mediate synapse elimination via proteasomal degradation of a synaptic scaffold PSD-95. Cell. 2012;151:1581-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, our findings reveal roles for multiple autism-linked genes in activity-dependent synapse elimination. ..
  43. Konno T, Chen D, Wang L, Wakimoto H, Teekakirikul P, Nayor M, et al. Heterogeneous myocyte enhancer factor-2 (Mef2) activation in myocytes predicts focal scarring in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:18097-102 pubmed publisher
  44. Martinez P, Okoshi K, Zornoff L, Carvalho R, Oliveira Junior S, Lima A, et al. Chronic heart failure-induced skeletal muscle atrophy, necrosis, and changes in myogenic regulatory factors. Med Sci Monit. 2010;16:BR374-83 pubmed
    ..In this study we evaluated the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRF), myosin heavy chain (MyHC) isoforms, and fiber trophism in the soleus muscle of rats with ..
  45. Stehling Sun S, Dade J, Nutt S, DeKoter R, Camargo F. Regulation of lymphoid versus myeloid fate 'choice' by the transcription factor Mef2c. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:289-96 pubmed publisher
    ..1 during lymphopoiesis. Thus, Mef2c is a crucial component of the transcriptional network that regulates cell fate 'choice' in multipotent progenitors. ..
  46. Castillero E, Martín A, López Menduiña M, Granado M, Villanúa M, López Calderón A. IGF-I system, atrogenes and myogenic regulatory factors in arthritis induced muscle wasting. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2009;309:8-16 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this work was to analyse the evolution of the ubiquitin-proteasome, the myogenic regulatory factors, and the IGF-I system during the development of experimental arthritis...
  47. Delgado Olguin P, Brand Arzamendi K, Scott I, Jungblut B, Stainier D, Bruneau B, et al. CTCF promotes muscle differentiation by modulating the activity of myogenic regulatory factors. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:12483-94 pubmed publisher
    ..We addressed the functional connection between CTCF and myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs)...
  48. Manzano R, Toivonen J, Oliván S, Calvo A, Moreno Igoa M, Muñoz M, et al. Altered expression of myogenic regulatory factors in the mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Neurodegener Dis. 2011;8:386-96 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize the expression of satellite cell marker Pax7 and myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) in skeletal muscle of SOD1-G93A mice at different stages of the disease...
  49. Krzysik Walker S, Hadley J, Pesall J, McFarland D, Vasilatos Younken R, Ramachandran R. Nampt/visfatin/PBEF affects expression of myogenic regulatory factors and is regulated by interleukin-6 in chicken skeletal muscle cells. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2011;159:413-21 pubmed publisher
    ..mL(-1)) decreased Nampt mRNA abundance. Collectively, these results demonstrate that Nampt, regulated in part by IL-6, alters the expression of key myogenic transcription factors and thereby may influence postnatal myogenesis. ..
  50. Flavell S, Kim T, Gray J, Harmin D, Hemberg M, Hong E, et al. Genome-wide analysis of MEF2 transcriptional program reveals synaptic target genes and neuronal activity-dependent polyadenylation site selection. Neuron. 2008;60:1022-38 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these analyses suggest that the ubiquitously expressed transcription factor MEF2 regulates an intricate transcriptional program in neurons that controls synapse development. ..
  51. Feng L, Gao L, Guan Q, Hou X, Wan Q, Wang X, et al. Long-term moderate ethanol consumption restores insulin sensitivity in high-fat-fed rats by increasing SLC2A4 (GLUT4) in the adipose tissue by AMP-activated protein kinase activation. J Endocrinol. 2008;199:95-104 pubmed publisher
  52. Liopeta K, Boubali S, Virgilio L, Thyphronitis G, Mavrothalassitis G, Dimitracopoulos G, et al. cAMP regulates IL-10 production by normal human T lymphocytes at multiple levels: a potential role for MEF2. Mol Immunol. 2009;46:345-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of cAMP on IL-10 production by normal peripheral T lymphocytes is cell type and stimulus specific, exerted on multiple levels and involves MEF2 transcription factor. ..
  53. Khiem D, Cyster J, Schwarz J, Black B. A p38 MAPK-MEF2C pathway regulates B-cell proliferation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:17067-72 pubmed publisher
    ..p38 directly phosphorylates MEF2C via three residues in the C-terminal transactivation domain, establishing MEF2C as a direct transcriptional effector of BCR signaling via p38 MAPK. ..
  54. Wei J, Shehadeh L, Mitrani J, Pessanha M, Slepak T, Webster K, et al. Quantitative control of adaptive cardiac hypertrophy by acetyltransferase p300. Circulation. 2008;118:934-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific reduction of p300 content or activity may diminish stress-induced hypertrophy and forestall the development of heart failure. ..
  55. Qian L, Huang Y, Spencer C, Foley A, Vedantham V, Liu L, et al. In vivo reprogramming of murine cardiac fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes. Nature. 2012;485:593-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that cardiac fibroblasts can be reprogrammed into cardiomyocyte-like cells in their native environment for potential regenerative purposes. ..
  56. Gekas C, Rhodes K, Gereige L, Helgadottir H, Ferrari R, Kurdistani S, et al. Mef2C is a lineage-restricted target of Scl/Tal1 and regulates megakaryopoiesis and B-cell homeostasis. Blood. 2009;113:3461-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, this work identifies Mef2C as an integral member of hematopoietic transcription factors with distinct upstream regulatory mechanisms and functional requirements in megakaryocyte and B-lymphoid lineages. ..
  57. Hsu L, Chang C, Teng M, Semon Wu -, Hu C, Chang W, et al. CAG repeat polymorphism of the MEF2A gene is not associated with the risk of coronary artery disease among Taiwanese. Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2010;16:301-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data suggest that there is no evidence of an association between the MEF2A exon 11 (CAG)n polymorphism and the risk of coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction in the Chinese population in Taiwan. ..
  58. Hinits Y, Osborn D, Hughes S. Differential requirements for myogenic regulatory factors distinguish medial and lateral somitic, cranial and fin muscle fibre populations. Development. 2009;136:403-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Myogenic regulatory factors of the Myod family (MRFs) are transcription factors essential for mammalian skeletal myogenesis...
  59. He J, Ye J, Cai Y, Riquelme C, Liu J, Liu X, et al. Structure of p300 bound to MEF2 on DNA reveals a mechanism of enhanceosome assembly. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011;39:4464-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also support a model wherein p300 promotes the assembly of a higher-order enhanceosome by simultaneous interactions with multiple DNA-bound transcription factors. ..
  60. Savage J, Conley A, Blais A, Skerjanc I. SOX15 and SOX7 differentially regulate the myogenic program in P19 cells. Stem Cells. 2009;27:1231-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results show that both Sox7 and Sox15 are able to induce the early stages of myogenesis, but only Sox7 is sufficient to initiate the formation of fully differentiated skeletal myocytes. ..
  61. Gordon J, Pagiatakis C, Salma J, Du M, Andreucci J, Zhao J, et al. Protein kinase A-regulated assembly of a MEF2{middle dot}HDAC4 repressor complex controls c-Jun expression in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:19027-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Regulation of this molecular "switch" on the c-jun promoter may thus prove critical for toggling between the activated and quiescent VSMC phenotypes. ..
  62. Takemori H, Katoh Hashimoto Y, Nakae J, Olson E, Okamoto M. Inactivation of HDAC5 by SIK1 in AICAR-treated C2C12 myoblasts. Endocr J. 2009;56:121-30 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that GSK-3 beta and SIK1 may play important roles in the regulation of PGC-1alpha gene expression by inactivating HDAC5 followed by activation of MEF2C. ..
  63. Young A, Wagers A. Pax3 induces differentiation of juvenile skeletal muscle stem cells without transcriptional upregulation of canonical myogenic regulatory factors. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2632-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although Pax3 controls embryonic myogenesis through regulation of the canonical myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) Myf-5, MyoD, myogenin and Mrf4, we find that in postnatal muscle stem cells, ectopic Pax3 ..
  64. Ropka Molik K, Eckert R, Piórkowska K. The expression pattern of myogenic regulatory factors MyoD, Myf6 and Pax7 in postnatal porcine skeletal muscles. Gene Expr Patterns. 2011;11:79-83 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression level of Myf6 gene does not indicate significant differences between muscles, ages and breeds. ..
  65. Pagiatakis C, Gordon J, Ehyai S, McDermott J. A novel RhoA/ROCK-CPI-17-MEF2C signaling pathway regulates vascular smooth muscle cell gene expression. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:8361-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These data constitute evidence of a novel signaling cascade that links RhoA-mediated calcium sensitivity to MEF2-dependent myocardin expression in VSMCs through a mechanism involving p38 MAPK, PP1?, and CPI-17. ..
  66. Voronova A, Al Madhoun A, Fischer A, Shelton M, Karamboulas C, Skerjanc I. Gli2 and MEF2C activate each other's expression and function synergistically during cardiomyogenesis in vitro. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012;40:3329-47 pubmed publisher
    ..This model links Shh signalling to MEF2C function during cardiomyogenesis and offers mechanistic insight into their in vivo functions. ..
  67. Magli A, Angelelli C, Ganassi M, Baruffaldi F, Matafora V, Battini R, et al. Proline isomerase Pin1 represses terminal differentiation and myocyte enhancer factor 2C function in skeletal muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34518-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these findings reveal a novel role for Pin1 as a regulator of muscle terminal differentiation and suggest that Pin1-mediated repression of MEF2C function could contribute to this function. ..
  68. Juszczuk Kubiak E, Flisikowski K, Wicinska K. Nucleotide sequence and variations of the bovine myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) gene promoter in Bos taurus cattle. Mol Biol Rep. 2011;38:1269-76 pubmed publisher
    ..2913A>G, g.2962G>T and g.3014A>G. No polymorphism was found within sequence of the exon 1 (5'UTR). These polymorphisms were identified for first time using these sequences and were confirmed by RFLP or MSSCP methods. ..
  69. Kawashima T, Okuno H, Nonaka M, Adachi Morishima A, Kyo N, Okamura M, et al. Synaptic activity-responsive element in the Arc/Arg3.1 promoter essential for synapse-to-nucleus signaling in activated neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:316-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our work uncovers a novel transcriptional mechanism by which a critical 100-bp element, SARE, mediates a predominant component of the synapse-to-nucleus signaling in ensembles of Arc/Arg-3.1-positive activated neurons. ..
  70. Wu Y, Dey R, Han A, Jayathilaka N, Philips M, Ye J, et al. Structure of the MADS-box/MEF2 domain of MEF2A bound to DNA and its implication for myocardin recruitment. J Mol Biol. 2010;397:520-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The apo structure presented here can also serve as a target for virtual screening and soaking studies of small molecules that can modulate the function of MEF2 as research tools and therapeutic leads. ..
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