cerebrospinal fluid proteins


Summary: Proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid, normally albumin and globulin present in the ratio of 8 to 1. Increases in protein levels are of diagnostic value in neurological diseases. (Brain and Bannister's Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p221)

Top Publications

  1. Fonteh A, Harrington R, Huhmer A, Biringer R, Riggins J, Harrington M. Identification of disease markers in human cerebrospinal fluid using lipidomic and proteomic methods. Dis Markers. 2006;22:39-64 pubmed
    ..Combining lipidomics and proteomics will enhance existing knowledge of disease pathology and increase the likelihood of discovering specific markers and biochemical mechanisms of brain diseases. ..
  2. Schutzer S, Angel T, Liu T, Schepmoes A, Clauss T, Adkins J, et al. Distinct cerebrospinal fluid proteomes differentiate post-treatment lyme disease from chronic fatigue syndrome. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17287 pubmed publisher
    ..Distinguishing nPTLS and CFS permits more focused study of each condition, and can lead to novel diagnostics and therapeutic interventions. ..
  3. Yuan X, Desiderio D. Human cerebrospinal fluid peptidomics. J Mass Spectrom. 2005;40:176-81 pubmed
    ..This analytical method is effective for the analysis of the human lumbar CSF peptidome. ..
  4. Conti A, Sanchez Ruiz Y, Bachi A, Beretta L, Grandi E, Beltramo M, et al. Proteome study of human cerebrospinal fluid following traumatic brain injury indicates fibrin(ogen) degradation products as trauma-associated markers. J Neurotrauma. 2004;21:854-63 pubmed
    ..The presence of these markers could correlate with a post-traumatic local increase in fibrinolysis as well as to an inflammatory event following CNS tissue injury. ..
  5. Bonsu B, Harper M. Differentiating acute bacterial meningitis from acute viral meningitis among children with cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis: a multivariable regression model. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2004;23:511-7 pubmed
    ..In this study, we estimate the accuracy of a simple new model with potentially broader applicability...
  6. Stoop M, Dekker L, Titulaer M, Burgers P, Sillevis Smitt P, Luider T, et al. Multiple sclerosis-related proteins identified in cerebrospinal fluid by advanced mass spectrometry. Proteomics. 2008;8:1576-85 pubmed publisher
    ..CSF chromogranin A levels were confirmed to be significantly elevated in the MScl group using an ELISA. ..
  7. Puchades M, Hansson S, Nilsson C, Andreasen N, Blennow K, Davidsson P. Proteomic studies of potential cerebrospinal fluid protein markers for Alzheimer's disease. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003;118:140-6 pubmed
    ..The levels of 37 proteins spots were altered in AD patients. One of the identified proteins, alpha-2-HS glycoprotein, has not previously been linked to AD. Our study shows that several glycoproteins are altered in AD. ..
  8. Reiber H. Proteins in cerebrospinal fluid and blood: barriers, CSF flow rate and source-related dynamics. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2003;21:79-96 pubmed
  9. Yang Y, Liu S, Qin Z, Liu F, Qin Y, Bai S, et al. Comparative proteomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2008;28:737-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These identified proteins may be involved in the pathophysiological process of GBS and call for further studying the role of these proteins in the pathogenesis of the disease...

More Information


  1. Ray P, Badarou Acossi G, Viallon A, Boutoille D, Arthaud M, Trystram D, et al. Accuracy of the cerebrospinal fluid results to differentiate bacterial from non bacterial meningitis, in case of negative gram-stained smear. Am J Emerg Med. 2007;25:179-84 pubmed
    ..05 vs CRP), respectively. CSF results have a modest role in distinguishing BM from NBM in a negative Gram stain for bacteria. PCT serum levels seem to be an excellent predictor of BM. ..
  2. Yuan X, Desiderio D. Proteomics analysis of prefractionated human lumbar cerebrospinal fluid. Proteomics. 2005;5:541-50 pubmed
    ..The prefractionation of CSF proteins with SPE, followed by proteomics analysis, provides a new method to explore low-abundance, disease-specific CSF proteins. ..
  3. Martinez Pena y Valenzuela I, Carmona Calero E, Perez Gonzalez H, Ormazabal Ramos C, Fernández Rodriguez P, Gonzalez Marrero I, et al. Alterations of the cerebrospinal fluid proteins and subcommissural organ secretion in the arterial hypertension and ventricular dilatation. A study in SHR rats. Histol Histopathol. 2006;21:179-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate that hydrocephalus and hypertension are interconnected in this kind of rat which produce alterations in SCO secretions and some proteins of the CSF. ..
  4. Lescuyer P, Allard L, Zimmermann Ivol C, Burgess J, Hughes Frutiger S, Burkhard P, et al. Identification of post-mortem cerebrospinal fluid proteins as potential biomarkers of ischemia and neurodegeneration. Proteomics. 2004;4:2234-41 pubmed
    ..We recently showed that H-FABP, a protein highly homologous to E-FABP and A-FABP identified in this study, is a potential marker of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and stroke. ..
  5. Ogata Y, Charlesworth M, Higgins L, Keegan B, Vernino S, Muddiman D. Differential protein expression in male and female human lumbar cerebrospinal fluid using iTRAQ reagents after abundant protein depletion. Proteomics. 2007;7:3726-34 pubmed
    ..We also examined the levels of ceruloplasmin in each individual patient sample which constituted the pooled CSF using Western blot analysis which confirmed the lower expression levels of ceruloplasmin in male CSF. ..
  6. Zougman A, Pilch B, Podtelejnikov A, Kiehntopf M, Schnabel C, Kumar C, et al. Integrated analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid peptidome and proteome. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:386-99 pubmed
    ..The CSF proteome has only partial overlap with the plasma proteome, thus it is produced locally rather than deriving from plasma. Our work offers insights into CSF composition and origin. ..
  7. Gonzalez Quevedo A, Carriera R, O Farrill Z, Luis I, Becquer R, Luis Gonzalez R. An appraisal of blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier dysfunction during the course of Guillain Barré syndrome. Neurol India. 2009;57:288-94 pubmed publisher
  8. You J, Gelfanova V, Knierman M, Witzmann F, Wang M, Hale J. The impact of blood contamination on the proteome of cerebrospinal fluid. Proteomics. 2005;5:290-6 pubmed
    ..This analysis was aimed at identification of proteins found primarily in CSF, those found primarily in blood and assessment of the impact of blood contamination on those proteins found in both fluids. ..
  9. Perrin R, Craig Schapiro R, Malone J, Shah A, Gilmore P, Davis A, et al. Identification and validation of novel cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for staging early Alzheimer's disease. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e16032 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies will be required to validate this panel and evaluate its potential for distinguishing AD from other dementing conditions. ..
  10. Xu J, Chen J, Peskind E, Jin J, Eng J, Pan C, et al. Characterization of proteome of human cerebrospinal fluid. Int Rev Neurobiol. 2006;73:29-98 pubmed
  11. Pasinetti G, Ungar L, Lange D, Yemul S, Deng H, Yuan X, et al. Identification of potential CSF biomarkers in ALS. Neurology. 2006;66:1218-22 pubmed
    ..Additional application of a "three-protein" biomarker model to current diagnostic criteria may provide an objective biomarker pattern to help identify patients with ALS. ..
  12. Pennington C, Chohan G, MacKenzie J, Andrews M, Will R, Knight R, et al. The role of cerebrospinal fluid proteins as early diagnostic markers for sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Neurosci Lett. 2009;455:56-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that CSF protein markers are effective tests in the early stages of sCJD. ..
  13. Nigrovic L, Kuppermann N, Malley R. Development and validation of a multivariable predictive model to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis in children in the post-Haemophilus influenzae era. Pediatrics. 2002;110:712-9 pubmed
    ..The BMS accurately identifies children at low (BMS = 0) or high (BMS > or =2) risk of bacterial meningitis. Outpatient management may be considered for children in the low-risk group. ..
  14. Choe L, Dutt M, Relkin N, Lee K. Studies of potential cerebrospinal fluid molecular markers for Alzheimer's disease. Electrophoresis. 2002;23:2247-51 pubmed
    ..The use of panels of molecular markers derived from proteomic analysis may offer the best prospect for developing molecular diagnostic tests for complex neurodegenerative disorders such as AD. ..
  15. Brettschneider J, Riepe M, Petereit H, Ludolph A, Tumani H. Meningeal derived cerebrospinal fluid proteins in different forms of dementia: is a meningopathy involved in normal pressure hydrocephalus?. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2004;75:1614-6 pubmed
  16. Tumani H, Lehmensiek V, Rau D, Guttmann I, Tauscher G, Mogel H, et al. CSF proteome analysis in clinically isolated syndrome (CIS): candidate markers for conversion to definite multiple sclerosis. Neurosci Lett. 2009;452:214-7 pubmed publisher
    ..CIS-CIS. For Fetuin-A, our findings could be confirmed by ELISA. The pathophysiological role as well as clinical relevance of these candidate proteins in CIS remains to be further clarified by future studies. ..
  17. Chiasserini D, Di Filippo M, Candeliere A, Susta F, Orvietani P, Calabresi P, et al. CSF proteome analysis in multiple sclerosis patients by two-dimensional electrophoresis. Eur J Neurol. 2008;15:998-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results confirm the presence of CSF proteome changes in MS patients. Future research should be aimed to investigate the role of these candidate CSF markers in larger cohorts of CIS and MS patients. ..
  18. Liu S, Bai S, Qin Z, Yang Y, Cui Y, Qin Y. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with multiple sclerosis. J Cell Mol Med. 2009;13:1586-603 pubmed publisher
  19. Turck C, Maccarrone G, Sayan Ayata E, Jacob A, Ditzen C, Kronsbein H, et al. The quest for brain disorder biomarkers. J Med Invest. 2005;52 Suppl:231-5 pubmed
    ..Our biomarker identification efforts range from classical proteomics approaches such as two dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to phage display screens with cerebrospinal fluid antibodies. ..
  20. Huhmer A, Biringer R, Amato H, Fonteh A, Harrington M. Protein analysis in human cerebrospinal fluid: Physiological aspects, current progress and future challenges. Dis Markers. 2006;22:3-26 pubmed
    ..We also discuss necessary development in methodology in order to have the highest impact on the study of the molecular composition of CSF proteins. ..
  21. Pan S, Zhu D, Quinn J, Peskind E, Montine T, Lin B, et al. A combined dataset of human cerebrospinal fluid proteins identified by multi-dimensional chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Proteomics. 2007;7:469-73 pubmed
    ..In total, 2594 proteins were identified in well-characterized pooled human CSF samples using stringent proteomics criteria. This report summarizes our efforts to comprehensively characterize the human CSF proteome to date. ..
  22. Simonsen A, Bahl J, Danborg P, Lindström V, Larsen S, Grubb A, et al. Pre-analytical factors influencing the stability of cerebrospinal fluid proteins. J Neurosci Methods. 2013;215:234-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Standardised CSF sampling, handling and storage for biomarker research are essential for accurately comparing the results obtained by different studies and institutions. ..
  23. Korolainen M, Nyman T, Nyyssönen P, Hartikainen E, Pirttila T. Multiplexed proteomic analysis of oxidation and concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid proteins in Alzheimer disease. Clin Chem. 2007;53:657-65 pubmed
    ..In this pilot study, we estimated the concentrations and carbonylation of the most abundant cerebrospinal fluid proteins in aging women and men, both AD patients suffering from mild dementia and individuals exhibiting no ..
  24. Fernández Carriera R, Gonzalez Quevedo A, Lara Rodríguez R, León Ortiz M, Gonzalez Garcia S, Vicente Valdés I. [Electrophoresis of cerebrospinal fluid proteins in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease]. Rev Neurol. 2002;35:908-12 pubmed
    ..BBBD is more frequent in infarctions than in TIA, and is predominant in men with thrombotic cerebral infarction. ..
  25. Martin C, Bueno D, Alonso M, Moro J, Callejo S, Parada C, et al. FGF2 plays a key role in embryonic cerebrospinal fluid trophic properties over chick embryo neuroepithelial stem cells. Dev Biol. 2006;297:402-16 pubmed
  26. Choe L, D Ascenzo M, Relkin N, Pappin D, Ross P, Williamson B, et al. 8-plex quantitation of changes in cerebrospinal fluid protein expression in subjects undergoing intravenous immunoglobulin treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Proteomics. 2007;7:3651-60 pubmed
    ..One conclusion aided by the visualization tool is that there are differences in considering peptide-based observations versus protein-based observations from quantitative shotgun proteomics studies. ..
  27. Mandybur G, Miyagi Y, Yin W, Perkins E, Zhang J. Cytotoxicity of ventricular cerebrospinal fluid from Parkinson patients: correlation with clinical profiles and neurochemistry. Neurol Res. 2003;25:104-11 pubmed
    ..The cytotoxic effect of PD-vCSF did not directly correlate with any clinical profiles studied or energy metabolism of PD brain. ..
  28. Lehmensiek V, Sussmuth S, Tauscher G, Brettschneider J, Felk S, Gillardon F, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid proteome profile in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2007;13:840-9 pubmed
    ..Though the pathophysiological role of these proteins still remains to be elucidated in detail and further validation is needed, these findings may have a relevant impact on the identification of disease-specific markers. ..
  29. Dayon L, Hainard A, Licker V, Turck N, Kuhn K, Hochstrasser D, et al. Relative quantification of proteins in human cerebrospinal fluids by MS/MS using 6-plex isobaric tags. Anal Chem. 2008;80:2921-31 pubmed publisher
    ..ELISA for these proteins confirmed their elevated concentration in PM CSF. This work demonstrates the validity and robustness of the tandem mass tag (TMT) approach for quantitative MS-based proteomics. ..
  30. Choe L, Green A, Knight R, Thompson E, Lee K. Apolipoprotein E and other cerebrospinal fluid proteins differentiate ante mortem variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease from ante mortem sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Electrophoresis. 2002;23:2242-6 pubmed
    ..Analysis of ante mortem CSF may help to differentiate patients with vCJD from those patients with spCJD. ..
  31. Whitin J, Jang T, Merchant M, Yu T, Lau K, Recht B, et al. Alterations in cerebrospinal fluid proteins in a presymptomatic primary glioma model. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e49724 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of increased albumin, fragments of cerebrospinal fluid proteins, and glutathione breakdown in temporal association with the development of cellular hyperplasia, ..
  32. Zhang J, Goodlett D, Peskind E, Quinn J, Zhou Y, Wang Q, et al. Quantitative proteomic analysis of age-related changes in human cerebrospinal fluid. Neurobiol Aging. 2005;26:207-27 pubmed
    ..These data not only expand substantially our current knowledge regarding human CSF proteins, but also supply the necessary information to appropriately interpret protein biomarkers of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  33. Gato A, Moro J, Alonso M, Bueno D, de la Mano A, Martin C. Embryonic cerebrospinal fluid regulates neuroepithelial survival, proliferation, and neurogenesis in chick embryos. Anat Rec A Discov Mol Cell Evol Biol. 2005;284:475-84 pubmed
    ..These data strongly suggest that E-CSF is involved in the regulation of neuroepithelial cells behavior, supporting the hypothesis that this fluid plays a key role during the early development of the central nervous system. ..
  34. Pan S, Rush J, Peskind E, Galasko D, Chung K, Quinn J, et al. Application of targeted quantitative proteomics analysis in human cerebrospinal fluid using a liquid chromatography matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer (LC MALDI TOF/TOF) platform. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:720-30 pubmed publisher
  35. Collins S, Boyd A, Fletcher A, Gonzales M, McLean C, Byron K, et al. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease: diagnostic utility of 14-3-3 protein immunodetection in cerebrospinal fluid. J Clin Neurosci. 2000;7:203-8 pubmed
  36. Sickmann A, Dormeyer W, Wortelkamp S, Woitalla D, Kuhn W, Meyer H. Identification of proteins from human cerebrospinal fluid, separated by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Electrophoresis. 2000;21:2721-8 pubmed
    ..To date we have been able to identify more than 65 spots from 2-D gels using matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. ..
  37. Hsich G, Kenney K, Gibbs C, Lee K, Harrington M. The 14-3-3 brain protein in cerebrospinal fluid as a marker for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. N Engl J Med. 1996;335:924-30 pubmed
    ..This finding, however, does not support the use of the test in patients without clinically evident dementia. ..
  38. Strojnik T, Zidanik B, Kos J, Lah T. Cathepsins B and L are markers for clinically invasive types of meningiomas. Neurosurgery. 2001;48:598-605 pubmed
    ..Specifically, cathepsin B may be used as a diagnostic marker to distinguish histomorphologically benign but invasive meningiomas from histomorphologically clear benign tumors. ..
  39. Manabe T, Miyamoto H, Inoue K, Nakatsu M, Arai M. Separation of human cerebrospinal fluid proteins by capillary isoelectric focusing in the absence of denaturing agents. Electrophoresis. 1999;20:3677-83 pubmed
    ..The results of CIEF analysis of CSF samples suggested that the technique will be useful as a survey method to detect specific proteins in CSF, which might relate to disorders in the central nervous system. ..
  40. Viallon A, Zeni F, Lambert C, Pozzetto B, Tardy B, Venet C, et al. High sensitivity and specificity of serum procalcitonin levels in adults with bacterial meningitis. Clin Infect Dis. 1999;28:1313-6 pubmed
    ..2 ng/mL had a sensitivity and specificity of up to 100% in the diagnosis of bacterial meningitis. Serum procalcitonin levels seem to be the best marker in differentiating between bacterial and viral meningitis in adults. ..
  41. Colombo J, Napp M. Cerebrospinal fluid from L-dopa-treated Parkinson's disease patients is dystrophic for various neural cell types ex vivo: effects of astroglia. Exp Neurol. 1998;154:452-63 pubmed
    ..The suggestion is made that CSF testing prior to transplantation may aid in anticipating its possible outcome. Cotransplantation of neuronal cells with subcultured astroglia may foster survival and growth of the former cells. ..
  42. Schoch B, Regel J, Nierhaus A, Wichert M, Mueller O, Sandalcioglu I, et al. Predictive value of intrathecal interleukin-6 for ventriculostomy-related Infection. Zentralbl Neurochir. 2008;69:80-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that IL-6 (CSF) is a reliable marker for predicting VRI prior to clinically manifest meningitis, one day earlier than the common diagnostic criteria of CSF infection (CC (CSF), total protein (CSF), clinical symptoms). ..
  43. Ropper A, Ayata C, Adelman L. Vasculitis of the spinal cord. Arch Neurol. 2003;60:1791-4 pubmed
    ..The magnetic resonance imaging scan of the spinal cord may be normal. ..
  44. Spitzer C, Wessels T, Block F. [Extraordinary high cerebrospinal fluid protein in two cases of intracranial hypotension syndrome]. Nervenarzt. 2004;75:1222-5 pubmed
    ..3 g/l and 9.63 g/l). On the basis of these findings, the putative causes of elevated CSF protein contents are discussed. ..
  45. Rinker J, Trinkaus K, Naismith R, Cross A. Higher IgG index found in African Americans versus Caucasians with multiple sclerosis. Neurology. 2007;69:68-72 pubmed
    ..AAs also progress to ambulatory assistance earlier than CAs, but high immunoglobulin G index does not predict earlier progression to the disability endpoint. ..
  46. Mouton Barbosa E, Roux Dalvai F, Bouyssie D, Berger F, Schmidt E, Righetti P, et al. In-depth exploration of cerebrospinal fluid by combining peptide ligand library treatment and label-free protein quantification. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2010;9:1006-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, using a dedicated bioinformatics analytical work flow, we found that the method is reproducible and applicable for label-free quantification of series of samples processed in parallel. ..
  47. García Rodríguez S, Castilla S, Machado A, Ayala A. Comparison of methods for sample preparation of individual rat cerebrospinal fluid samples prior to two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Biotechnol Lett. 2003;25:1899-903 pubmed
    ..Acetone precipitation following incubation with DTT gave the highest protein recovery (72%) and the largest number of protein spots (92 +/- 4) as well as minimizing the time taken. ..
  48. Piubelli C, Fiorini M, Zanusso G, Milli A, Fasoli E, Monaco S, et al. Searching for markers of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in cerebrospinal fluid by two-dimensional mapping. Proteomics. 2006;6 Suppl 1:S256-61 pubmed
  49. Blennow K, Nellgård B. Amyloid beta 1-42 and tau in cerebrospinal fluid after severe traumatic brain injury. Neurology. 2004;62:159; author reply 159-60 pubmed
  50. Roche Lanquetot M, Ader F, Durand M, Carlier R, Defferriere H, Dinh A, et al. [Results of a prospective standardized study of 30 patients with chronic neurological and cognitive disorders after tick bites]. Med Mal Infect. 2008;38:543-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A large and standardized evaluation should be made for each patient to improve the management and probably the treatment of these complex chronic symptoms observed after tick bites. ..
  51. Caruso R, Marrocco L, Wierzbiki V. Papilledema and tumours of the cauda equina: a case report. Clin Ter. 2008;159:83-5 pubmed
    ..If there is a bilateral papilledema and the cerebral MRI does not show any endocranial pathology, there is the need for the examination of any spinal disorders. ..
  52. Marquardt G, Setzer M, Lang J, Seifert V. Delayed hydrocephalus after resection of supratentorial malignant gliomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2002;144:227-31; discussion 231 pubmed
    ..Outcome in relation to hydrocephalus is favourable in cases of mere communicating hydrocephalus, occurrence of multiloculated hydrocephalus, however, heralds a poor prognosis. ..
  53. Baird C, Farner S, Mohr C, Pittman T. The effects of protein, red blood cells and whole blood on PS valve function. Pediatr Neurosurg. 2002;37:186-93 pubmed
  54. Ramamohan P, Gourie Devi M, Nalini A, Shobha K, Ramamohan Y, Joshi P, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients causes fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus in the neonatal rat spinal cord. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. 2007;8:79-82 pubmed
    ..Thus, we suggest that the putative toxin(s) present in ALS-CSF may cause impairment in the protein processing leading to motor neuron death. ..
  55. Thomas S, Tan J, Lawden M, Sampath R. Optic nerve sheath fenestration for intracranial hypertension associated with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;20:325-7 pubmed
    ..68 to 4.51 g/L), as was the cerebro-spinal fluid opening pressure (27 to 40 cm H2O). A unilateral optic nerve sheath fenestration proved to be effective in preserving vision, and the papilledema resolved completely. ..
  56. Ludvig N, Tang H, Baptiste S, Medveczky G, Vaynberg J, Vazquez DeRose J, et al. Long-term behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical monitoring of the safety of an experimental antiepileptic implant, the muscimol-delivering Subdural Pharmacotherapy Device in monkeys. J Neurosurg. 2012;117:162-75 pubmed publisher
    ..If further improved and successfully adapted for use in humans, the SPD can be used for the treatment of intractable focal neocortical epilepsy affecting approximately 150,000 patients in the US. ..
  57. Axthelm M, Bourdette D, Marracci G, Su W, Mullaney E, Manoharan M, et al. Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis: a spontaneous multiple sclerosis-like disease in a nonhuman primate. Ann Neurol. 2011;70:362-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Elucidating the pathogenesis of JME may shed new light on MS and other human demyelinating diseases. ..
  58. Poljansky S, Ibach B, Hirschberger B, Männer P, Klunemann H, Hajak G, et al. A visual [18F]FDG-PET rating scale for the differential diagnosis of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2011;261:433-46 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with FTD were correctly attributed to a diagnosis of FTLD with a sensitivity of 89%. This visual rating scale may facilitate the differential diagnosis of FTLD in clinical routine. ..
  59. Sander H, Hedley Whyte E. Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 6-2003. A nine-year-old girl with progressive weakness and areflexia. N Engl J Med. 2003;348:735-43 pubmed
  60. Barber A, Lovato J, Hill G, McLean T. Measurement of cerebrospinal fluid protein is unnecessary in children with leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2008;51:428-30 pubmed publisher
    ..In no case did an abnormal CSF protein impact patient management. We conclude that routine measurement of CSF protein is not indicated in children with acute leukemia. ..
  61. May D, Law W, Fitzgibbon M, Fang Q, McIntosh M. Software platform for rapidly creating computational tools for mass spectrometry-based proteomics. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:3212-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We present this toolkit's capability to rapidly develop new computational tools by presenting an example application, Qurate, a graphical tool for manually curating isotopically labeled peptide quantitative events. ..
  62. Sinha A, Srivastava N, Singh S, Singh A, Bhushan S, Shukla R, et al. Identification of differentially displayed proteins in cerebrospinal fluid of Parkinson's disease patients: a proteomic approach. Clin Chim Acta. 2009;400:14-20 pubmed publisher
  63. Aubart Cohen F, Klein I, Alexandra J, Bodaghi B, Doan S, Fardeau C, et al. Long-term outcome in Susac syndrome. Medicine (Baltimore). 2007;86:93-102 pubmed
    ..Our main finding was that the course of Susac syndrome is not self-limited as previously thought, since isolated retinal arteriolar involvement may occur as a very late manifestation. ..
  64. Ansong A, Smith P, Clark R, Li J, Cotten C, Mangum B, et al. Group B streptococcal meningitis: cerebrospinal fluid parameters in the era of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. Early Hum Dev. 2009;85:S5-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Group B streptococcal meningitis occurs in the presence of negative blood cultures. In hospitalized infants who undergo a lumbar puncture, Group B streptococcal sepsis is frequently complicated by GBS meningitis. ..
  65. Ishida C, Kakishima A, Okino S, Furukawa Y, Kano M, Oda Y, et al. Sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease with MM1-type prion protein and plaques. Neurology. 2003;60:514-7 pubmed
  66. Music M. [Correlation between levels of blood glucose and cerebrospinal fluid glucose and proteins in diabetes mellitus]. Med Arh. 2004;58:31-3 pubmed
    ..Blood brain barrier permeability changes in the patients with ICV as well as in the patients without ICV correlate with the values of diabetes mellitus in blood. ..