maturation promoting factor


Summary: Protein kinase that drives both the mitotic and meiotic cycles in all eukaryotic organisms. In meiosis it induces immature oocytes to undergo meiotic maturation. In mitosis it has a role in the G2/M phase transition. Once activated by CYCLINS; MPF directly phosphorylates some of the proteins involved in nuclear envelope breakdown, chromosome condensation, spindle assembly, and the degradation of cyclins. The catalytic subunit of MPF is PROTEIN P34CDC2.

Top Publications

  1. Marangos P, Carroll J. The dynamics of cyclin B1 distribution during meiosis I in mouse oocytes. Reproduction. 2004;128:153-62 pubmed
    ..These studies show that GVBD in mouse oocytes is sensitive to cyclin B1 abundance and that the changes in distribution of cyclin B1 contribute to progression through MI. ..
  2. Janssen G, Morales J, Schipper A, Labbe J, Mulner Lorillon O, Belle R, et al. A major substrate of maturation promoting factor identified as elongation factor 1 beta gamma delta in Xenopus laevis. J Biol Chem. 1991;266:14885-8 pubmed
    ..Presumably the phosphorylation of EF-1 gamma, which associates with tubulin at least in vitro, is important in processes following the onset of meiosis which is accompanied by a rise of protein synthesis. ..
  3. Shenoy S, Choi J, Bagrodia S, Copeland T, Maller J, Shalloway D. Purified maturation promoting factor phosphorylates pp60c-src at the sites phosphorylated during fibroblast mitosis. Cell. 1989;57:763-74 pubmed
    ..sites lie in consensus sequences for phosphorylation by p34cdc2, the catalytic component of maturation promoting factor (MPF)...
  4. Tani T, Kato Y, Tsunoda Y. Reprogramming of bovine somatic cell nuclei is not directly regulated by maturation promoting factor or mitogen-activated protein kinase activity. Biol Reprod. 2003;69:1890-4 pubmed
    ..The present study demonstrates that the process of nuclear reprogramming is not directly regulated by maturation promoting factor or mitogen-activated protein kinase activity...
  5. Belle R, Derancourt J, Poulhe R, Capony J, Ozon R, Mulner Lorillon O. A purified complex from Xenopus oocytes contains a p47 protein, an in vivo substrate of MPF, and a p30 protein respectively homologous to elongation factors EF-1 gamma and EF-1 beta. FEBS Lett. 1989;255:101-4 pubmed
    ..From polypeptide sequencing, we now show that the p30 and the p47 correspond to elongation factor EF-1 beta and EF-1 gamma. Furthermore, the p30 and p36 proteins were phosphorylated in vitro by casein kinase II. ..
  6. Gordo A, He C, Smith S, Fissore R. Mitogen activated protein kinase plays a significant role in metaphase II arrest, spindle morphology, and maintenance of maturation promoting factor activity in bovine oocytes. Mol Reprod Dev. 2001;59:106-14 pubmed
    ..I (MI), and arrest at MII, is triggered and regulated by the coordinated action of two kinases, maturation promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)...
  7. Josefsberg L, Kaufman O, Galiani D, Kovo M, Dekel N. Inactivation of M-phase promoting factor at exit from first embryonic mitosis in the rat is independent of cyclin B1 degradation. Biol Reprod. 2001;64:871-8 pubmed
    ..They also provide the first evidence that MPF inactivation at this stage of development is not solely dependent upon cyclin B1 degradation and is insufficient to allow the formation of the 2-cell embryo. ..
  8. Han S, Chen R, Paronetto M, Conti M. Wee1B is an oocyte-specific kinase involved in the control of meiotic arrest in the mouse. Curr Biol. 2005;15:1670-6 pubmed
    ..Activation of the Cdc2-kinase component of maturation promoting factor (MPF) triggers germinal vesicle breakdown after the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge and reentry into the ..
  9. He X, Patterson T, Sazer S. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe spindle checkpoint protein mad2p blocks anaphase and genetically interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:7965-70 pubmed

More Information


  1. Baran I. Calcium and cell cycle progression: possible effects of external perturbations on cell proliferation. Biophys J. 1996;70:1198-213 pubmed
  2. Ishibashi R, Komaru A. Abortive second meiosis detected in cytochalasin-treated eggs in androgenetic diploid Corbicula fluminea. Dev Growth Differ. 2006;48:277-82 pubmed
    ..The pronuclei became the metaphase chromosomes on the spindle for the first cleavage. The present study suggests that second meiosis regulating factors may be abortive in androgenetic diploid C. fluminea. ..
  3. Burrows A, Sceurman B, Kosinski M, Richie C, Sadler P, Schumacher J, et al. The C. elegans Myt1 ortholog is required for the proper timing of oocyte maturation. Development. 2006;133:697-709 pubmed
    b>Maturation promoting factor (MPF), a complex of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 and cyclin B, drives oocyte maturation in all animals...
  4. Pardo L, Brüggemann A, Camacho J, Stuhmer W. Cell cycle-related changes in the conducting properties of r-eag K+ channels. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:767-75 pubmed
    ..The combined data obtained from mammalian cells and oocytes strongly suggest that the permeability properties of r-eag K+ channels are modulated during cell cycle-related processes. ..
  5. Kovo M, Schillace R, Galiani D, Josefsberg L, Carr D, Dekel N. Expression and modification of PKA and AKAPs during meiosis in rat oocytes. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2002;192:105-13 pubmed
    ..AKAP140 phosphorylation is sensitive to p34cdc2 kinase inhibitors. We hypothesize that AKAP140 and its phosphorylation state may influence the translocation of the R subunits of PKA throughout resumption of meiosis. ..
  6. Offner N, Derancourt J, Lozano J, Schatt P, Picard A, Peaucellier G. Cybip, a starfish cyclin B-binding protein, is involved in meiotic M-phase exit. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;300:121-7 pubmed
    ..Finally, we show that the microinjection of GST-cybip, and of anti-cybip antibody, in maturing starfish oocytes, inhibits H1 kinase and MPF inactivation, and first polar body emission. ..
  7. Prigent C, Hunt T. Oocyte maturation and cell cycle control: a farewell symposium for Pr Marcel Dorée. Biol Cell. 2004;96:181-5 pubmed
  8. Fujinami N, Hosoi Y, Kato H, Matsumoto K, Saeki K, Iritani A. Activation with ethanol improves embryo development of ICSI-derived oocytes by regulation of kinetics of MPF activity. J Reprod Dev. 2004;50:171-8 pubmed
    ..In this study, we investigated effects of artificial activation with ethanol on kinetics of maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity (p34(cdc2) kinase activity) and development of bovine oocytes following ICSI...
  9. Bogliolo L, Leoni G, Ledda S, Zedda M, Bonelli P, Madau L, et al. M-phase promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) activities of domestic cat oocytes matured in vitro and in vivo. Cloning Stem Cells. 2004;6:15-23 pubmed
    ..Moreover, it shows that MPF and MPK activity is higher in in vivo matured oocytes than in in vitro matured oocytes, suggesting a possible incomplete cytoplasmic maturation after culture. ..
  10. Matsuyama M, Onozato S, Kashiwagi M. Endocrine control of diurnal oocyte maturation in the kyusen wrasse, Halichoeres poecilopterus. Zoolog Sci. 2002;19:1045-53 pubmed
    ..An endogenous GTH surge likely occurs between 12:00 and 15:00 hr, and this daily pre-maturational GTH surge probably controls the diurnal maturation cycles of kyusen wrasse oocytes. ..
  11. Kikuchi K, Naito K, Noguchi J, Kaneko H, Tojo H. Maturation/M-phase promoting factor regulates aging of porcine oocytes matured in vitro. Cloning Stem Cells. 2002;4:211-22 pubmed
    ..We expect those ideas will be applied practically to pig cloning. ..
  12. Badouel C, Körner R, Frank Vaillant M, Couturier A, Nigg E, Tassan J. M-phase MELK activity is regulated by MPF and MAPK. Cell Cycle. 2006;5:883-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, phosphorylation by MPF and MAPK enhances MELK activity in vitro. Taken together our results indicate that MELK phosphorylation by MPF and MAPK enhance its activity during M-phase. ..
  13. Jessus C, Haccard O. Fertilization: calcium's double punch. Nature. 2007;449:297-8 pubmed
  14. Ajduk A, Ciemerych M, Nixon V, Swann K, Maleszewski M. Fertilization differently affects the levels of cyclin B1 and M-phase promoting factor activity in maturing and metaphase II mouse oocytes. Reproduction. 2008;136:741-52 pubmed publisher
    ..This idea is supported by the finding that oocytes fused with thymocytes rather than spermatozoa also showed a transient decrease in MPF activity. ..
  15. Sanchez Toranzo G, Lopez L, Martínez J, Bühler M, Buhler M. Involvement of the dehydroleucodine alpha-methylene-gamma-lactone function in GVBD inhibition in Bufo arenarum oocytes. Zygote. 2010;18:41-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of 2H-DhL in the maturation promoting factor (MPF) amplification experiments by injection of both cytoplasm with active MPF and of germinal vesicle ..
  16. Jackman M, Firth M, Pines J. Human cyclins B1 and B2 are localized to strikingly different structures: B1 to microtubules, B2 primarily to the Golgi apparatus. EMBO J. 1995;14:1646-54 pubmed
  17. Isom S, Prather R, Rucker III E. Enhanced developmental potential of heat-shocked porcine parthenogenetic embryos is related to accelerated mitogen-activated protein kinase dephosphorylation. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2009;21:892-900 pubmed publisher
    ..HS) and non-HS embryos were manifest as early as 3 h after activation, suggesting involvement of maturation promoting factor (MPF) and/or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)...
  18. You J, Lee J, Kim J, Park J, Lee E. Post-fusion treatment with MG132 increases transcription factor expression in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos in pigs. Mol Reprod Dev. 2010;77:149-57 pubmed publisher
    ..treatment of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) oocytes with the proteasomal inhibitor MG132 on maturation promoting factor (MPF) activity, nuclear remodeling, embryonic development, and gene expression of cloned pig embryos...
  19. Stricker S, Smythe T. Differing mechanisms of cAMP- versus seawater-induced oocyte maturation in marine nemertean worms I. The roles of serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases. Mol Reprod Dev. 2006;73:1578-90 pubmed
    ..Additional differences in cAMP- versus SW-induced oocyte maturation are also described in the accompanying study that deals with the roles of tyrosine kinase signaling during GVBD. ..
  20. Jackson P. The hunt for cyclin. Cell. 2008;134:199-202 pubmed publisher
    ..It is 25 years since Tim Hunt discovered cyclin, the oscillating protein that drives activation of cyclin-dependent kinases and entry into mitosis (Evans et al., 1983). ..
  21. Du F, Xu J, Zhang J, Gao S, Carter M, He C, et al. Beneficial effect of young oocytes for rabbit somatic cell nuclear transfer. Cloning Stem Cells. 2009;11:131-40 pubmed publisher
    ..7 % (n = 117) (Experiment 4). These results demonstrated that NT utilizing relatively young rabbit oocytes, harvested at 10-12 h after hCG injection, was beneficial for the development of NT embryos. ..
  22. Aaltonen V, Peltonen J. PKCalpha/beta I inhibitor Go6976 induces dephosphorylation of constitutively hyperphosphorylated Rb and G1 arrest in T24 cells. Anticancer Res. 2010;30:3995-9 pubmed
    ..Subsequent G(0/1) arrest and reduced proliferation rates were observed. The results show that Go6976 can be used to restore constantly hyperphosphorylated and therefore constantly inactive Rb function in cancer cells. ..
  23. Voronina E, Wessel G. The regulation of oocyte maturation. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2003;58:53-110 pubmed
  24. Gotoh Y, Moriyama K, Matsuda S, Okumura E, Kishimoto T, Kawasaki H, et al. Xenopus M phase MAP kinase: isolation of its cDNA and activation by MPF. EMBO J. 1991;10:2661-8 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that MAP kinase functions as an intermediate between MPF and the interphase-M phase transition of microtubule organization. ..
  25. Yew N, Strobel M, Vande Woude G. Mos and the cell cycle: the molecular basis of the transformed phenotype. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1993;3:19-25 pubmed
    ..Inappropriate expression of its M-phase activity during interphase of the cell cycle may be responsible for its transforming activity. ..
  26. Goto S, Naito K, Ohashi S, Sugiura K, Naruoka H, Iwamori N, et al. Effects of spindle removal on MPF and MAP kinase activities in porcine matured oocytes. Mol Reprod Dev. 2002;63:388-93 pubmed
  27. O Connell M, Osmani A, Morris N, Osmani S. An extra copy of nimEcyclinB elevates pre-MPF levels and partially suppresses mutation of nimTcdc25 in Aspergillus nidulans. EMBO J. 1992;11:2139-49 pubmed
    ..We also demonstrate that correct cell cycle regulation by the p34cdc2 protein kinase pathway is essential for correct developmental progression in A.nidulans. ..
  28. Moor R, Dai Y. Maturation of pig oocytes in vivo and in vitro. Reprod Suppl. 2001;58:91-104 pubmed
    ..In summary, we emphasize that the quality of the dictyate oocyte and the provision of appropriate signals in vitro are the principal determinants of maturational success. ..
  29. Draetta G, Luca F, Westendorf J, Brizuela L, Ruderman J, Beach D. Cdc2 protein kinase is complexed with both cyclin A and B: evidence for proteolytic inactivation of MPF. Cell. 1989;56:829-38 pubmed
    ..We suggest that in addition to the cdc2 protein kinase, the cyclins are further components of the M phase promoting factor and that cyclin proteolysis provides the mechanism of MPF inactivation and thus exit from mitosis. ..
  30. Kotani T, Yoshida N, Mita K, Yamashita M. Requirement of cyclin B2, but not cyclin B1, for bipolar spindle formation in frog (Rana japonica) oocytes. Mol Reprod Dev. 2001;59:199-208 pubmed
    ..These results provide evidence of the requirement of cyclin B2, but not cyclin B1, for organizing the bipolar spindle, though either cyclin B1 or B2 is redundant for inducing GVBD and chromosome condensation. ..
  31. Brunet S, Maro B. Cytoskeleton and cell cycle control during meiotic maturation of the mouse oocyte: integrating time and space. Reproduction. 2005;130:801-11 pubmed
    ..between the cytoskeleton and the cell cycle machinery in mouse oocytes, with an emphasis on the two major activities that control meiotic maturation in vertebrates, MPF (Maturation promoting factor) and CSF (Cytostatic factor).
  32. Schmitt A, Nebreda A. Signalling pathways in oocyte meiotic maturation. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:2457-9 pubmed
  33. Miao Y, Liu X, Qiao T, Miao D, Luo M, Tan J. Cumulus cells accelerate aging of mouse oocytes. Biol Reprod. 2005;73:1025-31 pubmed
    ..The results strongly suggested that CCs accelerated the aging progression of both in vivo-matured and in vitro-matured mouse oocytes. ..
  34. Vigneron C, Perreau C, Dalbies Tran R, Joly C, Humblot P, Uzbekova S, et al. Protein synthesis and mRNA storage in cattle oocytes maintained under meiotic block by roscovitine inhibition of MPF activity. Mol Reprod Dev. 2004;69:457-65 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, results of this study revealed that the use of roscovitine did not prevent all the events related to maturation of bovine oocytes. ..
  35. Beckhelling C, Chang P, Chevalier S, Ford C, Houliston E. Pre-M phase-promoting factor associates with annulate lamellae in Xenopus oocytes and egg extracts. Mol Biol Cell. 2003;14:1125-37 pubmed
    ..This association may explain why nuclei and centrosomes stimulate MPF activation and provide a mechanism for targeting of MPF to some of its key substrates. ..
  36. Sanfins A, Plancha C, Overstrom E, Albertini D. Meiotic spindle morphogenesis in in vivo and in vitro matured mouse oocytes: insights into the relationship between nuclear and cytoplasmic quality. Hum Reprod. 2004;19:2889-99 pubmed
  37. Yu B, Zheng J, Yu A, Shi X, Liu Y, Wu D, et al. Effects of protein kinase C on M-phase promoting factor in early development of fertilized mouse eggs. Cell Biochem Funct. 2004;22:291-8 pubmed
    ..These results clearly indicate that PKC may affect the progression of the cell cycle through post-translational modification of MPF activity. ..
  38. Hansen E, Even Y, Geneviere A. The alpha, beta, gamma, delta-unsaturated aldehyde 2-trans-4-trans-decadienal disturbs DNA replication and mitotic events in early sea urchin embryos. Toxicol Sci. 2004;81:190-7 pubmed
  39. Tani T, Kato Y, Tsunoda Y. Aberrant spindle assembly checkpoint in bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer oocytes. Front Biosci. 2007;12:2693-705 pubmed
  40. Mulner Lorillon O, Poulhe R, Cormier P, Labbe J, Doree M, Belle R. Purification of a p47 phosphoprotein from Xenopus laevis oocytes and identification as an in vivo and in vitro p34cdc2 substrate. FEBS Lett. 1989;251:219-24 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the purified p47, already described as a marker of MPF activity, is the first reported in vivo substrate for the cell division control kinase. ..
  41. Meijer L, Borgne A, Mulner O, Chong J, Blow J, Inagaki N, et al. Biochemical and cellular effects of roscovitine, a potent and selective inhibitor of the cyclin-dependent kinases cdc2, cdk2 and cdk5. Eur J Biochem. 1997;243:527-36 pubmed
    ..Through its unique selectivity for some cyclin-dependent kinases, roscovitine provides a useful antimitotic reagent for cell cycle studies and may prove interesting to control cells with deregulated cdc2, cdk2 or cdk5 kinase activities. ..
  42. Niinaka Y, Paku S, Haga A, Watanabe H, Raz A. Expression and secretion of neuroleukin/phosphohexose isomerase/maturation factor as autocrine motility factor by tumor cells. Cancer Res. 1998;58:2667-74 pubmed
  43. Wehrend A, Meinecke B. Kinetics of meiotic progression, M-phase promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) activities during in vitro maturation of porcine and bovine oocytes: species specific differences in the length of the meiotic stages. Anim Reprod Sci. 2001;66:175-84 pubmed
    ..3h for metaphase I, 1.6h for anaphase I and 1.9h for telophase I. These results indicate that the duration of the meiotic stages differs between the species and that MAP kinase is activated before MPF and GVBD in porcine oocytes. ..
  44. Kovo M, Kandli Cohen M, Ben Haim M, Galiani D, Carr D, Dekel N. An active protein kinase A (PKA) is involved in meiotic arrest of rat growing oocytes. Reproduction. 2006;132:33-43 pubmed
  45. Anger M, Klima J, Kubelka M, Prochazka R, Motlik J, Schultz R. Timing of Plk1 and MPF activation during porcine oocyte maturation. Mol Reprod Dev. 2004;69:11-6 pubmed
    ..We find that Plk1 is activated before MPF, which is consistent with its role in activating MPF in mammalian oocytes. ..
  46. Castro A, Peter M, Lorca T, Mandart E. c-Mos and cyclin B/cdc2 connections during Xenopus oocyte maturation. Biol Cell. 2001;93:15-25 pubmed
    ..We also discuss our recent results concerning the dispensability of cyclin B degradation in meiosis I-meiosis II transition and the stabilization of c-Mos through its direct phosphorylation by cyclin B/cdc2. ..
  47. Lee J, Campbell K. Effects of enucleation and caffeine on maturation-promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activities in ovine oocytes used as recipient cytoplasts for nuclear transfer. Biol Reprod. 2006;74:691-8 pubmed
    ..The results show that caffeine can increase MPF and MAPK activities in ovine oocytes and that this may contribute to an increased reprogramming in NT embryos. ..
  48. Yueh W, Thomas P, Chang C. Identification of 17,20beta,21-trihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one as an oocyte maturation-inducing steroid in black porgy, Acanthopagrus schlegeli. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2005;140:184-91 pubmed
    ..Plasma 20beta-S concentrations increased significantly during the oocyte maturation after injection with a LHRH analog. The present data suggest that 20beta-S is the MIS in black porgy. ..
  49. Bogliolo L, Ariu F, Fois S, Rosati I, Zedda M, Leoni G, et al. Morphological and biochemical analysis of immature ovine oocytes vitrified with or without cumulus cells. Theriogenology. 2007;68:1138-49 pubmed
    ..of cytochalasin B treatment before vitrification; (iv) chromatin and spindle organization; (v) the maturation promoting factor (MPF) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity of vitrified oocytes after in vitro ..
  50. Scott A, Inbaraj R, Vermeirssen E. Use of a radioimmunoassay which detects C21 steroids with a 17, 20beta-dihydroxyl configuration to identify and measure steroids involved in final oocyte maturation in female plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 1997;105:62-70 pubmed
  51. Tang Y, Reed S. The Cdk-associated protein Cks1 functions both in G1 and G2 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Genes Dev. 1993;7:822-32 pubmed
    ..It is likely, therefore, that Cks1 mediates a more specialized function of the Cdc28 kinase such as its ability to form specific multimeric complexes or to localize properly in cellular compartments. ..
  52. Jiménez Macedo A, Izquierdo D, Urdaneta A, Anguita B, Paramio M. Effect of roscovitine on nuclear maturation, MPF and MAP kinase activity and embryo development of prepubertal goat oocytes. Theriogenology. 2006;65:1769-82 pubmed
    ..ROS did not affect fertilization or total embryos but ROS showed a negative effect on blastocyst development. ..
  53. Dätwyler D, Magyar J, Weikert C, Wightman L, Wagner E, Eppenberger H. Reactivation of the mitosis-promoting factor in postmitotic cardiomyocytes. Cells Tissues Organs. 2003;175:61-71 pubmed
    ..This will be of importance to design novel strategies to overcome the proliferation arrest in adult cardiomyocytes. ..