cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein


Summary: A nucleocytoplasmic transport protein that binds to ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN inside the CELL NUCLEUS and participates in their export into CYTOPLASM. It is also associated with the regulation of APOPTOSIS and microtubule assembly.

Top Publications

  1. Wellmann A, Flemming P, Behrens P, Wuppermann K, Lang H, Oldhafer K, et al. High expression of the proliferation and apoptosis associated CSE1L/CAS gene in hepatitis and liver neoplasms: correlation with tumor progression. Int J Mol Med. 2001;7:489-94 pubmed
    ..Since the degree of CAS-expression correlates with the grade of tumor dedifferentiation, we suggest that CAS should also be further investigated as prognostic marker for hepatic neoplasms. ..
  2. Bera T, Bera J, Brinkmann U, Tessarollo L, Pastan I. Cse1l is essential for early embryonic growth and development. Mol Cell Biol. 2001;21:7020-4 pubmed
    ..5. This implicates with high significance (P < 0.0001, Pearson chi-square test) an embryonically lethal phenotype of homozygous murine CSE1 deficiency and suggests that Cse1l plays a critical role in early embryonic development. ..
  3. Liao C, Luo S, Shen T, Lin C, Chien J, Du S, et al. CSE1L/CAS, a microtubule-associated protein, inhibits taxol (paclitaxel)-induced apoptosis but enhances cancer cell apoptosis induced by various chemotherapeutic drugs. BMB Rep. 2008;41:210-6 pubmed
    CSE1L/CAS, a microtubule-associated, cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein, is highly expressed in various cancers. Microtubules are the target of paclitaxel-induced apoptosis...
  4. Izaguirre M, Vergara M, Casco V. CAS role in the brain apoptosis of Bufo arenarum induced by cypermethrin. Biocell. 2006;30:309-20 pubmed
    ..These results suggest a dual role of CAS in the cellular cycle control during the CY-induced apoptosis: induction of cell proliferation and stabilization of the cell-cell junctions by modulating CAMs expression...
  5. Tung J, Tsao T, Chen S, Tai C, Shen S, Cheng Y, et al. Presence of secretory cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein in cerebrospinal fluids of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage caused by stroke and neurotrauma. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2010;31:390-8 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that CSE1L plays a role in regulating MMP-2-mediated BBB breakdown and it may be a target for control of BBB permeability in intracerebral brain hemorrhage disorders. ..
  6. Jiang M, Luo S, Li L, Lin C, Du S, Lin C, et al. Synergic CSE1L/CAS, TNFR-1, and p53 apoptotic pathways in combined interferon-gamma/adriamycin-induced apoptosis of Hep G2 hepatoma cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2007;26:91-9 pubmed
    ..Interferon-y increased TNFR-1, CSE1L/CAS (cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein), Bax, and Bad levels. Adriamycin increased p53 and Bax, but not TNFR- 1 and CAS levels...
  7. Peiro G, Diebold J, Löhrs U. CAS (cellular apoptosis susceptibility) gene expression in ovarian carcinoma: Correlation with 20q13.2 copy number and cyclin D1, p53, and Rb protein expression. Am J Clin Pathol. 2002;118:922-9 pubmed
    ..05). In OC, alteration of CAS and ZNF217 genes, both located at 20q13, is frequent and relevant prognostically. Cyclin D1, Rb, and p53 seem to have a secondary role. ..
  8. Jiang M, Lin T, Lee T, Huang H, Lin C, Liao C. IRF-1-mediated CAS expression enhances interferon-gamma-induced apoptosis of HT-29 colon adenocarcinoma cells. Mol Cell Biol Res Commun. 2001;4:353-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that tumor cells highly expressing CAS may be more susceptible to apoptosis induced by reagents that are capable of inducing CAS expression. Thus, CAS may be a target for the elimination of tumors. ..
  9. Tai C, Shen S, Lee W, Liao C, Deng W, Chiou H, et al. Increased cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CSE1L/CAS) protein expression promotes protrusion extension and enhances migration of MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Exp Cell Res. 2010;316:2969-81 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that CSE1L plays a role in regulating the extension of cell protrusions and promotes the migration of cancer cells. ..

More Information


  1. Kodiha M, Tran D, Qian C, Morogan A, Presley J, Brown C, et al. Oxidative stress mislocalizes and retains transport factor importin-alpha and nucleoporins Nup153 and Nup88 in nuclei where they generate high molecular mass complexes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1783:405-18 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our studies link oxidative stress to the proper localization of soluble transport factors and nucleoporins and to changes in the interactions between these proteins. ..
  2. Tanaka T, Ohkubo S, Tatsuno I, Prives C. hCAS/CSE1L associates with chromatin and regulates expression of select p53 target genes. Cell. 2007;130:638-50 pubmed
    ..We report here that the human cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (hCAS/CSE1L) associates with a subset of p53 target promoters, including PIG3, in a p53-..
  3. Herold A, Truant R, Wiegand H, Cullen B. Determination of the functional domain organization of the importin alpha nuclear import factor. J Cell Biol. 1998;143:309-18 pubmed
    ..Importantly, the SV-40 T NLS proved able to specifically inhibit the interaction of Imp alpha with CAS in vitro, thus explaining why the SV-40 T NLS is unable to also function as a nuclear export signal. ..
  4. Jiang M, Liao C. CSE1/CAS overexpression inhibits the tumorigenicity of HT-29 colon cancer cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2004;23:325-32 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that CAS inhibits the tumorigenicity of HT-29 human colon cancer cells and, thus, it is worthwhile to further study CAS's possible role in the control of human colon cancer. ..
  5. Kutay U, Bischoff F, Kostka S, Kraft R, Gorlich D. Export of importin alpha from the nucleus is mediated by a specific nuclear transport factor. Cell. 1997;90:1061-71 pubmed
    ..Importin alpha is released from this complex in the cytoplasm by the combined action of RanBP1 and RanGAP1. CAS binds preferentially to NLS-free importin alpha, explaining why import substrates stay in the nucleus. ..
  6. Ouellet V, Guyot M, Le Page C, Filali Mouhim A, Lussier C, Tonin P, et al. Tissue array analysis of expression microarray candidates identifies markers associated with tumor grade and outcome in serous epithelial ovarian cancer. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:599-607 pubmed
    ..001, 0.03, respectively). The application of these biomarkers in both the initial diagnosis and prognostic attributes of patients with epithelial ovarian tumors should prove to be useful in patient management. ..
  7. Jiang M, Liao C, Tai C. CAS/CSE 1 stimulates E-cadhrin-dependent cell polarity in HT-29 human colon epithelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;294:900-5 pubmed
    ..We report herein that CAS (CAS/CSE 1), the human cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein, interacts with E-cadherin and stimulates polarization of HT-29 human colon epithelial cells...
  8. Tung M, Tsai C, Tung J, Tsao T, Chen H, Yeh K, et al. Higher prevalence of secretory CSE1L/CAS in sera of patients with metastatic cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2009;18:1570-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Herein, we report that secretory CSE1L/CAS, a cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein, is a new marker for metastatic cancer...
  9. Tsao T, Tsai C, Tung J, Chen S, Yue C, Liao C, et al. Function of CSE1L/CAS in the secretion of HT-29 human colorectal cells and its expression in human colon. Mol Cell Biochem. 2009;327:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that CAS regulates the secretion of colorectal cells and may regulate the metastasis of colorectal cancer. ..
  10. Brinkmann U, Brinkmann E, Gallo M, Scherf U, Pastan I. Role of CAS, a human homologue to the yeast chromosome segregation gene CSE1, in toxin and tumor necrosis factor mediated apoptosis. Biochemistry. 1996;35:6891-9 pubmed
    ..The observation that CAS antisense can interfere with apoptosis mediated by TNF and ADP-ribosylating toxins suggests that CAS may play a role in selected pathways of apoptosis. ..
  11. Liao C, Luo S, Li L, Lin C, Chen Y, Jiang M. CSE1L/CAS, the cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein, enhances invasion and metastasis but not proliferation of cancer cells. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2008;27:15 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that CAS increases the invasion but not the proliferation of cancer cells. Thus, CAS plus ECM-degradation proteinases may be used as the markers for predicting the advance of tumour metastasis. ..
  12. Brustmann H. Expression of cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein in serous ovarian carcinoma: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study. Gynecol Oncol. 2004;92:268-76 pubmed
    This study investigated the expression of cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS) in serous ovarian carcinoma by immunohistochemistry and compared it with topoisomerase IIalpha (topo IIalpha), bcl-2, bcl-x, the frequency of ..
  13. Shiraki K, Fujikawa K, Ito T, Yamanaka T, Suzuki M, Yoneda K, et al. Cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein and proliferation in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Mol Med. 2006;18:77-81 pubmed
    The cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS) is the human homologue of the product of the essential yeast chromosome segregation gene, CSE1, and has important roles in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced apoptosis and cell ..
  14. Brinkmann U, Brinkmann E, Gallo M, Pastan I. Cloning and characterization of a cellular apoptosis susceptibility gene, the human homologue to the yeast chromosome segregation gene CSE1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995;92:10427-31 pubmed
    ..Thus, CAS appears to play an important role in both toxin and tumor necrosis factor-mediated cell death, as well as in cell proliferation. ..
  15. Uen W, Tai C, Shen S, Lee W, Tsao T, Deng W, et al. Differential distributions of CSE1L/CAS and E-cadherin in the polarized and non-polarized epithelial glands of neoplastic colorectal epithelium. J Mol Histol. 2010;41:259-66 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that examination of CSE1L and E-cadherin distribution in colorectal epithelium glands may be valuable for evaluating the malignance of colorectal disease. ..
  16. Brinkmann U, Gallo M, Polymeropoulos M, Pastan I. The human CAS (cellular apoptosis susceptibility) gene mapping on chromosome 20q13 is amplified in BT474 breast cancer cells and part of aberrant chromosomes in breast and colon cancer cell lines. Genome Res. 1996;6:187-94 pubmed
    ..BT-474 cells have up to 12 additional CAS copies that we separated from nearby telomeric and centromeric probes on 20q and that are translocated to abnormal chromosomes. ..
  17. Liao C, Lin S, Chen H, Tai C, Chang C, Li L, et al. CSE1L, a novel microvesicle membrane protein, mediates Ras-triggered microvesicle generation and metastasis of tumor cells. Mol Med. 2012;18:1269-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the novel microvesicle membrane protein, CSE1L, may have clinical utility in cancer diagnosis and targeted cancer therapy. ..
  18. Peiro G, Diebold J, Baretton G, Kimmig R, Löhrs U. Cellular apoptosis susceptibility gene expression in endometrial carcinoma: correlation with Bcl-2, Bax, and caspase-3 expression and outcome. Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2001;20:359-67 pubmed
    ..In addition, CAS and caspase-3 protein levels may be useful markers in predicting the outcome of the patients. ..
  19. Behrens P, Brinkmann U, Fogt F, Wernert N, Wellmann A. Implication of the proliferation and apoptosis associated CSE1L/CAS gene for breast cancer development. Anticancer Res. 2001;21:2413-7 pubmed
    ..Alteration of CAS-activity, possibly via MEKl-inhibition, might therefore be a possible option for breast cancer therapy. ..
  20. Stella Tsai C, Chen H, Tung J, Tsou S, Tsao T, Liao C, et al. Serum cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein is a potential prognostic marker for metastatic colorectal cancer. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:1619-28 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that assay of serum CSE1L may facilitate diagnosis of colorectal cancer lymphatic metastases; furthermore, CSE1L is a possible therapeutic target...
  21. Bar Shira A, Pinthus J, Rozovsky U, Goldstein M, Sellers W, Yaron Y, et al. Multiple genes in human 20q13 chromosomal region are involved in an advanced prostate cancer xenograft. Cancer Res. 2002;62:6803-7 pubmed
    ..Our data suggest these genes to be involved in advanced stages of prostate tumorigenesis and as such, they may serve as markers for tumor progression. ..
  22. Behrens P, Brinkmann U, Wellmann A. CSE1L/CAS: its role in proliferation and apoptosis. Apoptosis. 2003;8:39-44 pubmed
  23. Tai C, Liao C, Su T, Shen K, Chang C, Lin S, et al. Presence of CSE1L protein in urine of patients with urinary bladder urothelial carcinomas. Int J Biol Markers. 2012;27:e280-4 pubmed publisher
    ..No CSE1L was detected in urine of healthy controls (p<0.01). Our results suggest that urinary CSE1L deserves further evaluation for the screening of bladder cancer...
  24. Lee W, Shen S, Wu P, Chou C, Shih Y, Yeh C, et al. CSE1L Links cAMP/PKA and Ras/ERK pathways and regulates the expressions and phosphorylations of ERK1/2, CREB, and MITF in melanoma cells. Mol Carcinog. 2016;55:1542-1552 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus CSE1L may be a potential target for treating melanomas that harbor Ras mutations or are resistant to drugs targeting Raf/MEK/ERK. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. ..
  25. Brabek J, Constancio S, Shin N, Pozzi A, Weaver A, Hanks S. CAS promotes invasiveness of Src-transformed cells. Oncogene. 2004;23:7406-15 pubmed
    ..Thus, elevated CAS-associated tyrosine phosphorylation signaling events occurring at sites of integrin-mediated cell adhesion can have a major role in the development of an invasive cell phenotype. ..
  26. Bruce Staskal P, Weidow C, Gibson J, Bouton A. Cas, Fak and Pyk2 function in diverse signaling cascades to promote Yersinia uptake. J Cell Sci. 2002;115:2689-700 pubmed
    ..pseudotuberculosis. Importantly, these findings also contribute to a better understanding of other cellular processes that involve actin remodeling, including the host response to other microbial pathogens, cell adhesion and migration. ..
  27. Pupure J, Isajevs S, Skapare E, Rumaks J, Svirskis S, Svirina D, et al. Neuroprotective properties of mildronate, a mitochondria-targeted small molecule. Neurosci Lett. 2010;470:100-5 pubmed publisher
    ..alterations in mouse brain tissue: it normalized the increase in caspase-3, cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS) and iNOS expression assessed by quantitative and semi-quantitative analysis...
  28. Fonseca P, Shin N, Brabek J, Ryzhova L, Wu J, Hanks S. Regulation and localization of CAS substrate domain tyrosine phosphorylation. Cell Signal. 2004;16:621-9 pubmed
  29. Montagna L, Ivanov M, Bliska J. Identification of residues in the N-terminal domain of the Yersinia tyrosine phosphatase that are critical for substrate recognition. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5005-11 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that the substrate- and SycH-binding activities of the YopH N-terminal domain can be separated and that the former activity is important for recognition and dephosphorylation of substrates by YopH in vivo. ..
  30. Chang C, Tai C, Su T, Shen K, Lin S, Yeh C, et al. The prognostic significance of nuclear CSE1L in urinary bladder urothelial carcinomas. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2012;16:362-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that nuclear CSE1L may play an oncogenic role in bladder tumor progression and that immunohistochemical staining of nuclear CSE1L may be useful for the prognosis of bladder urothelial carcinomas. ..
  31. Golemis E, Ochs M, Pugacheva E. Signal transduction driving technology driving signal transduction: factors in the design of targeted therapies. J Cell Biochem Suppl. 2001;Suppl 37:42-52 pubmed
  32. Natarajan K, Yin G, Berk B. Scaffolds direct Src-specific signaling in response to angiotensin II: new roles for Cas and GIT1. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;65:822-5 pubmed
  33. Stawerski P, Wagrowska Danilewicz M, Stasikowska O, Danilewicz M. Immunoexpression of CAS protein is augmented in high grade serous ovarian tumors. Pol J Pathol. 2010;61:219-23 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our data suggest that increased immunoexpression of CAS protein in serous ovarian tumors may be useful in identifying the patients with more aggressive disease. ..
  34. Sillars Hardebol A, Carvalho B, Belien J, de Wit M, Delis van Diemen P, Tijssen M, et al. CSE1L, DIDO1 and RBM39 in colorectal adenoma to carcinoma progression. Cell Oncol (Dordr). 2012;35:293-300 pubmed publisher
  35. Shen Y, Jia Z, Nagele R, Ichikawa H, Goldberg G. SRC uses Cas to suppress Fhl1 in order to promote nonanchored growth and migration of tumor cells. Cancer Res. 2006;66:1543-52 pubmed
  36. Ohmori T, Yatomi Y, Okamoto H, Miura Y, Rile G, Satoh K, et al. G(i)-mediated Cas tyrosine phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells stimulated with sphingosine 1-phosphate: possible involvement in cell motility enhancement in cooperation with Rho-mediated pathways. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:5274-80 pubmed
  37. Nishimura A, Zupunski V, Troakes C, Kathe C, Fratta P, Howell M, et al. Nuclear import impairment causes cytoplasmic trans-activation response DNA-binding protein accumulation and is associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Brain. 2010;133:1763-71 pubmed publisher
    ..82 proteins involved in nuclear transport and found that knockdowns of karyopherin-beta1 and cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein resulted in marked cytoplasmic accumulation of TDP-43...
  38. Tekotte H, Berdnik D, Torok T, Buszczak M, Jones L, Cooley L, et al. Dcas is required for importin-alpha3 nuclear export and mechano-sensory organ cell fate specification in Drosophila. Dev Biol. 2002;244:396-406 pubmed
    ..We propose that mutations in house keeping genes often cause specific developmental phenotypes, such as those observed in many human genetic disorders. ..
  39. Jiang M. CAS (CSE1L) signaling pathway in tumor progression and its potential as a biomarker and target for targeted therapy. Tumour Biol. 2016;37:13077-13090 pubmed
    CSE1L (chromosome segregation 1-like protein), also named as CAS (cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein), is highly expressed in most cancer types...
  40. Kim Y, Go H, Wu H, Jeon Y, Park S, Lee S. Immunohistochemical study identifying prognostic biomolecular markers in nasopharyngeal carcinoma treated by radiotherapy. Head Neck. 2011;33:1458-66 pubmed publisher
    ..No prognostic value was revealed in COX-2, nm23-H1, EGFR, p63, CSE1L, cathepsin-D, C-erbB2, p53, STAT3, STAT5, and LIN28. The combined score of these markers could be used to stratify biomolecular risk groups. ..
  41. Zang H, Zhao J, Ji D, Sun Y, Zhou G, Zhao Y, et al. [Expression of CAS in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues and its relationship with HBV infection]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi. 2012;26:285-7 pubmed
  42. Sugiura T, Noguchi Y, Sakurai K, Hattori C. Protein phosphatase 1H, overexpressed in colon adenocarcinoma, is associated with CSE1L. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008;7:285-92 pubmed
    ..PPM1H controls cell cycle and proliferation of cancer cells potentially through dephosphorylation of CSE1L and might be a new target of anticancer drugs. ..
  43. Kyaw M, Yoshizumi M, Tsuchiya K, Kagami S, Izawa Y, Fujita Y, et al. Src and Cas are essentially but differentially involved in angiotensin II-stimulated migration of vascular smooth muscle cells via extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. Mol Pharmacol. 2004;65:832-41 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that Src and Cas are essentially but differentially involved in Ang II-stimulated migration of VSMC through the activation of ERK1/2 and JNK. ..
  44. Kim J, Joo C. Involvement of cell-cell interactions in the rapid stimulation of Cas tyrosine phosphorylation and Src kinase activity by transforming growth factor-beta 1. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31938-48 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data suggest that rapid Cas phosphorylation and Src kinase activation may play a novel role in TGF-beta signal transduction. ..
  45. Bagnat M, Navis A, Herbstreith S, Brand Arzamendi K, Curado S, Gabriel S, et al. Cse1l is a negative regulator of CFTR-dependent fluid secretion. Curr Biol. 2010;20:1840-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This work demonstrates the importance of fluid homeostasis in development and establishes the zebrafish as a much-needed model system to study CFTR regulation in vivo. ..
  46. Watcharasit P, Tucholski J, Jope R. Src family kinase involvement in muscarinic receptor-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. Neurochem Res. 2001;26:809-16 pubmed
  47. Goldberg G, Alexander D, Pellicena P, Zhang Z, Tsuda H, Miller W. Src phosphorylates Cas on tyrosine 253 to promote migration of transformed cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:46533-40 pubmed
    ..Thus, a single phosphorylation site on this focal adhesion adaptor protein can effectively separate cell migration from other transformed growth characteristics. ..
  48. Li K, Yang L, Pang J, Chan A, Zhou L, Mao Y, et al. MIR-137 suppresses growth and invasion, is downregulated in oligodendroglial tumors and targets CSE1L. Brain Pathol. 2013;23:426-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data suggest that miR-137 regulates growth of glioma cells and targets CSE1L, providing further understanding in the tumorigenesis of gliomas. ..
  49. Lorenzato A, Martino C, Dani N, Oligschläger Y, Ferrero A, Biglia N, et al. The cellular apoptosis susceptibility CAS/CSE1L gene protects ovarian cancer cells from death by suppressing RASSF1C. FASEB J. 2012;26:2446-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that CAS/CSE1L protects ovarian cancer cells from death through transcriptional suppression of a proapoptotic gene and suggest that the localization of CAS/CSE1L dictates its function. ..
  50. Kodiha M, Tran D, Morogan A, Qian C, Stochaj U. Dissecting the signaling events that impact classical nuclear import and target nuclear transport factors. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e8420 pubmed publisher
    ..Our studies defined the complex regulation of classical nuclear import and identified key transport factors that are targeted by stress, MEK, and PI3 kinase signaling. ..
  51. Pujol G, Söderqvist H, Radu A. Age-associated reduction of nuclear protein import in human fibroblasts. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;294:354-8 pubmed
    ..The import reduction in old age is expected to lead to impaired activity of proteins whose functions depend on timely import into the nuclei. ..
  52. Lindsay M, Plafker K, Smith A, Clurman B, Macara I. Npap60/Nup50 is a tri-stable switch that stimulates importin-alpha:beta-mediated nuclear protein import. Cell. 2002;110:349-60 pubmed
    ..These results identify Npap60 as a cofactor for importin-alpha:beta nuclear import and as a previously unidentified subunit of the importin complex. ..
  53. Sundberg L, Galante L, Bill H, Mack C, Taylor J. An endogenous inhibitor of focal adhesion kinase blocks Rac1/JNK but not Ras/ERK-dependent signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem. 2003;278:29783-91 pubmed
  54. Faustino R, Cheung P, Richard M, Dibrov E, Kneesch A, Deniset J, et al. Ceramide regulation of nuclear protein import. J Lipid Res. 2008;49:654-62 pubmed
    ..Together, these data demonstrate, for the first time, the sphingolipid regulation of nuclear import that defines and expands the adaptive capacity of the nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery. ..
  55. Kohler M, Speck C, Christiansen M, Bischoff F, Prehn S, Haller H, et al. Evidence for distinct substrate specificities of importin alpha family members in nuclear protein import. Mol Cell Biol. 1999;19:7782-91 pubmed
    ..However, strikingly different substrate preferences of the various importin alpha proteins were revealed when two substrates were offered simultaneously. ..
  56. Hood J, Silver P. Cse1p is required for export of Srp1p/importin-alpha from the nucleus in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:35142-6 pubmed
    ..We show further that mutations in CSE1 and SRP1 have specific effects on their association and on the intracellular localization of Cse1p. ..
  57. De Miguel M, Centanni J, Gopalan G, Gilbert D, Copeland N, Jenkins N, et al. Cellular apoptosis susceptibility gene capts maps to mouse chromosome 2. Mamm Genome. 1998;9:411-2 pubmed
  58. Hölzer K, Drucker E, Oliver S, Winkler J, Eiteneuer E, Herpel E, et al. Cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS) is overexpressed in thyroid carcinoma and maintains tumor cell growth: A potential link to the BRAFV600E mutation. Int J Oncol. 2016;48:1679-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Targeting CAS could represent a potential therapeutic approach particularly in combination with BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E)-positive tumors. ..
  59. Voigt T, Gerding Reimers C, Ngoc Tran T, Bergmann S, Lachance H, Schölermann B, et al. A natural product inspired tetrahydropyran collection yields mitosis modulators that synergistically target CSE1L and tubulin. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013;52:410-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These compounds were termed tubulexins as they target the CSE1L protein and the vinca alkaloid binding site of tubulin. ..
  60. Tai C, Su T, Jiang M, Chen H, Shen S, Lee W, et al. Correlations between cytoplasmic CSE1L in neoplastic colorectal glands and depth of tumor penetration and cancer stage. J Transl Med. 2013;11:29 pubmed publisher
  61. Takeda E, Murakami T, Matsuda G, Murakami H, Zako T, Maeda M, et al. Nuclear exportin receptor CAS regulates the NPI-1-mediated nuclear import of HIV-1 Vpr. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27815 pubmed publisher
    ..This report is the first to show the requirement for and the regulation of CAS in the functioning of the Vpr-Imp? complex. ..
  62. Aoto H, Sasaki H, Ishino M, Sasaki T. Nuclear translocation of cell adhesion kinase beta/proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2. Cell Struct Funct. 2002;27:47-61 pubmed
    ..These findings on nuclear translocation of CAK beta imply that CAKbeta may regulate nuclear processes such as transcription, particularly because Hic-5 was recently shown to be a coactivator of nuclear receptors. ..
  63. Tai C, Hsu C, Shen S, Lee W, Jiang M. Cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CSE1L/CAS) protein in cancer metastasis and chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis. J Exp Clin Cancer Res. 2010;29:110 pubmed publisher
    ..In this paper, we review the expression of CSE1L in cancer and discuss why CSE1L regulates the invasion and metastasis rather than the proliferation of cancer. ..
  64. Shreeram S, Bulavin D. PPM1H--new kid on the block. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008;7:293-4 pubmed
  65. Alexandropoulos K, Donlin L, Xing L, Regelmann A. Sin: good or bad? A T lymphocyte perspective. Immunol Rev. 2003;192:181-95 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that Sin inhibits thymocyte development and T cell activation and is a novel negative regulator of T lymphocyte function. ..
  66. Liang H, Zhan H, Wang B, Pan Y, Hao X. [Expression change of apoptosis-associated genes after hyperthermia, chemotherapy and radiotherapy in human colon cancer-transplanted nude mice]. Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi. 2008;11:270-5 pubmed
    ..Hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy and/or radiation has a greater effect on down-regulation of P53 and Bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of Bax expression than any single therapy. ..
  67. Imoto Y, Ohguro N, Yoshida A, Tsujikawa M, Inoue Y, Tano Y. Effects of RGD peptides on cells derived from the human eye. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2003;47:444-53 pubmed
    ..Detached SLE and TRPE showed decreased levels of tyrosine phosphorylation in Cas. These results indicated that the signaling pathway through Cas played an important role in epithelial cell adhesion in the eye. ..
  68. Kukhtina N, Arefieva T, Krasnikova T. Intracellular signal cascade in CD4+ T-lymphocyte migration stimulated by interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2005;70:652-6 pubmed
  69. Guan T, Kehlenbach R, Schirmer E, Kehlenbach A, Fan F, Clurman B, et al. Nup50, a nucleoplasmically oriented nucleoporin with a role in nuclear protein export. Mol Cell Biol. 2000;20:5619-30 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that Nup50 has a direct role in nuclear protein export and probably serves as a binding site on the nuclear side of the pore complex for export receptor-cargo complexes. ..
  70. Praveen K, Leary J, Evans D, Jaso Friedmann L. Molecular cloning of cellular apoptosis susceptibility (CAS) gene in Oreochromis niloticus and its proposed role in regulation of non-specific cytotoxic cell (NCC) functions. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;20:647-55 pubmed
    ..As CAS expression is ubiquitous, we expect that these studies will help identify proliferating cells protected from apoptosis in additional tissues. ..
  71. Brinkmann U, Brinkmann E, Bera T, Wellmann A, Pastan I. Tissue-specific alternative splicing of the CSE1L/CAS (cellular apoptosis susceptibility) gene. Genomics. 1999;58:41-9 pubmed
    ..Western blot analyses of various human tissues and immunohistology of mouse embryos show a correlation of CAS transcripts and CAS protein in different tissues. CAS isoforms may control nuclear transport of tissue-specific proteins. ..
  72. Kim H, Jiang X, Du F, Wang X. PHAPI, CAS, and Hsp70 promote apoptosome formation by preventing Apaf-1 aggregation and enhancing nucleotide exchange on Apaf-1. Mol Cell. 2008;30:239-47 pubmed publisher
    ..We report here the identification of cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS) and heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) as mediators of PHAPI activity...
  73. Kodiha M, Bański P, Ho Wo Cheong D, Stochaj U. Dissection of the molecular mechanisms that control the nuclear accumulation of transport factors importin-alpha and CAS in stressed cells. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2008;65:1756-67 pubmed publisher
    ..As such, importin-alpha and cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS) accumulate in nuclei of heat-shocked cells; however, the mechanisms underlying this ..
  74. Ewings K, Ryan K. Hzf and hCAS/CSE1L: making the right choice in p53-mediated tumour suppression. Cell Res. 2007;17:829-31 pubmed
  75. Ingham R, Krebs D, Barbazuk S, Turck C, Hirai H, Matsuda M, et al. B cell antigen receptor signaling induces the formation of complexes containing the Crk adapter proteins. J Biol Chem. 1996;271:32306-14 pubmed
    ..In RAMOS cells, we found that the SH3 domains of Crk-L and Crk II bound C3G. Since C3G activates Rap, a negative regulator of the Ras pathway, Crk proteins may participate in regulation of Ras signaling by the BCR. ..
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    ..These results suggest that microtubule organization via CAS and small GTPases is important for the cell spike formation that is involved in collagen gel contraction and in wound retraction in skin. ..