transferrin receptors


Summary: Membrane glycoproteins found in high concentrations on iron-utilizing cells. They specifically bind iron-bearing transferrin, are endocytosed with its ligand and then returned to the cell surface where transferrin without its iron is released.

Top Publications

  1. Desclozeaux M, Venturato J, Wylie F, Kay J, Joseph S, Le H, et al. Active Rab11 and functional recycling endosome are required for E-cadherin trafficking and lumen formation during epithelial morphogenesis. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2008;295:C545-56 pubmed publisher
    ..This final effect demonstrated an early and critical interdependence of Rab11 and the RE for E-cadherin targeting, apical membrane formation, and cell polarity in cysts. ..
  2. Phiri K, Calis J, Siyasiya A, Bates I, Brabin B, van Hensbroek M. New cut-off values for ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor for the assessment of iron deficiency in children in a high infection pressure area. J Clin Pathol. 2009;62:1103-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In areas with a high infection pressure, the TfR-F index best predicted iron deficiency. However, in settings where diagnostic tests are limited, MCHC may be an acceptable alternative screening test. ..
  3. Zhu X, Zhang H, Lin Y, Chen P, Min J, Wang Z, et al. Mechanisms of gambogic acid-induced apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cells in relation to transferrin receptors. J Chemother. 2009;21:666-72 pubmed
    ..Our study examined the expression of transferrin receptors (TFR) on the cell surface of human lung SPC-A1 and SK-MES-1 cells and measured their GA-induced apoptosis ..
  4. Singh A, Mohan M, Isaac A, Luo X, Petrak J, Vyoral D, et al. Prion protein modulates cellular iron uptake: a novel function with implications for prion disease pathogenesis. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4468 pubmed publisher
  5. Ortiz Sanchez E, Daniels T, Helguera G, Martinez Maza O, Bonavida B, Penichet M. Enhanced cytotoxicity of an anti-transferrin receptor IgG3-avidin fusion protein in combination with gambogic acid against human malignant hematopoietic cells: functional relevance of iron, the receptor, and reactive oxygen species. Leukemia. 2009;23:59-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that these two compounds may be effective, alone or in combination, for the treatment of human hematopoietic malignancies. ..
  6. Das N, Biswas S, Solanki S, Mukhopadhyay C. Leishmania donovani depletes labile iron pool to exploit iron uptake capacity of macrophage for its intracellular growth. Cell Microbiol. 2009;11:83-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased intracellular LD growth by holo-transferrin supplementation and inhibited growth by iron chelator treatment confirm the significance of this modulated iron uptake pathway of host in favour of the parasite. ..
  7. Richardson D, Kalinowski D, Lau S, Jansson P, Lovejoy D. Cancer cell iron metabolism and the development of potent iron chelators as anti-tumour agents. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1790:702-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This review examines the alterations in Fe metabolism in tumour cells and the systematic development of novel aroylhydrazone and thiosemicarbazone Fe chelators for cancer treatment. ..
  8. Nokes R, Fields I, Collins R, FOLSCH H. Rab13 regulates membrane trafficking between TGN and recycling endosomes in polarized epithelial cells. J Cell Biol. 2008;182:845-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we show that Rab13 partially colocalizes with TGN38 at the TGN and transferrin receptors in RE...
  9. Abraham J, Kwong J, Albarino C, Lu J, Radoshitzky S, Salazar Bravo J, et al. Host-species transferrin receptor 1 orthologs are cellular receptors for nonpathogenic new world clade B arenaviruses. PLoS Pathog. 2009;5:e1000358 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Gao J, Chen J, Kramer M, Tsukamoto H, Zhang A, Enns C. Interaction of the hereditary hemochromatosis protein HFE with transferrin receptor 2 is required for transferrin-induced hepcidin expression. Cell Metab. 2009;9:217-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the HFE alpha3 domain interacts with TfR2, these results supported our finding that TfR2/HFE complex is required for transcriptional regulation of hepcidin by holo-Tf. ..
  2. Cancino J, Torrealba C, Soza A, Yuseff M, Gravotta D, Henklein P, et al. Antibody to AP1B adaptor blocks biosynthetic and recycling routes of basolateral proteins at recycling endosomes. Mol Biol Cell. 2007;18:4872-84 pubmed
  3. Flanagan M, Oldenburg J, Reignier T, Holt N, Hamilton G, Martin V, et al. New world clade B arenaviruses can use transferrin receptor 1 (TfR1)-dependent and -independent entry pathways, and glycoproteins from human pathogenic strains are associated with the use of TfR1. J Virol. 2008;82:938-48 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, the ability to use TfR1 may be a useful tool to predict the likelihood that any existing or newly discovered viruses in this family could infect humans...
  4. Nagabhushana A, Chalasani M, Jain N, Radha V, Rangaraj N, Balasubramanian D, et al. Regulation of endocytic trafficking of transferrin receptor by optineurin and its impairment by a glaucoma-associated mutant. BMC Cell Biol. 2010;11:4 pubmed publisher
    ..These results also have implications for the pathogenesis of glaucoma caused by the E50K mutation because endocytic recycling is vital for maintaining homeostasis. ..
  5. Behan A, Byrne C, Dunn M, Cagney G, Cotter D. Proteomic analysis of membrane microdomain-associated proteins in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder reveals alterations in LAMP, STXBP1 and BASP1 protein expression. Mol Psychiatry. 2009;14:601-13 pubmed publisher
    ..This study, through proteomic assessments of MM in dlpfc and validation in two brain series, strongly implicates LAMP, STXBP1 and BASP1 in SCZ and supports the view of a neuritic and synaptic dysfunction in the neuropathology of SCZ. ..
  6. Kalyanaraman B. Iron signaling and oxidant damage. Cardiovasc Toxicol. 2007;7:92-4 pubmed
    ..In this brief essay we discuss the interrelationship between the cellular signaling effects induced by extracellular and intracellular ROS and nitric oxide in the context of doxorubicin (DOX) toxicity. ..
  7. Deborde S, Perret E, Gravotta D, Deora A, Salvarezza S, Schreiner R, et al. Clathrin is a key regulator of basolateral polarity. Nature. 2008;452:719-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results demonstrate a broad requirement for clathrin in basolateral protein trafficking in epithelial cells...
  8. Callens C, Moura I, Lepelletier Y, Coulon S, Renand A, Dussiot M, et al. Recent advances in adult T-cell leukemia therapy: focus on a new anti-transferrin receptor monoclonal antibody. Leukemia. 2008;22:42-8 pubmed
    ..The antibody efficacy was confirmed in animal models. We are currently developing strategies to use A24 in clinical trials. ..
  9. Duarte T, Jones G. Vitamin C modulation of H2O2-induced damage and iron homeostasis in human cells. Free Radic Biol Med. 2007;43:1165-75 pubmed
    ..We suggest that AA may exacerbate the deleterious effects of metals in vivo and promote normal tissue injury in situations associated with elevated ROS production. ..
  10. Radoshitzky S, Kuhn J, Spiropoulou C, Albarino C, Nguyen D, Salazar Bravo J, et al. Receptor determinants of zoonotic transmission of New World hemorrhagic fever arenaviruses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105:2664-9 pubmed publisher
  11. Henry L, Sheff D. Rab8 regulates basolateral secretory, but not recycling, traffic at the recycling endosome. Mol Biol Cell. 2008;19:2059-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The data are consistent with a model in which Rab8 functions in regulating the delivery of TGN-derived cargo to REs. ..
  12. Vendt N, Talvik T, Leedo S, Tomberg K, Kool P, Tillmann V, et al. The reference limits and cut-off value for serum soluble transferrin receptors for diagnosing iron deficiency in infants. Int J Lab Hematol. 2009;31:440-6 pubmed publisher
    Serum soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR) concentration is a useful test in the diagnosis of childhood iron deficiency (ID)...
  13. Ganz T. Iron homeostasis: fitting the puzzle pieces together. Cell Metab. 2008;7:288-90 pubmed publisher
  14. Pynaert I, De Bacquer D, Matthys C, Delanghe J, Temmerman M, De Backer G, et al. Determinants of ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors as iron status parameters in young adult women. Public Health Nutr. 2009;12:1775-82 pubmed publisher
    ..e. serum ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR). Cross-sectional design. Fe status parameters were determined on a fasting venous blood sample...
  15. Moos T, Rosengren Nielsen T, Skjørringe T, Morgan E. Iron trafficking inside the brain. J Neurochem. 2007;103:1730-40 pubmed
    ..The demonstration of transferrin receptors on brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) more than 20 years ago provided the evidence for the now ..
  16. Koulaouzidis A, Said E, Cottier R, Saeed A. Soluble transferrin receptors and iron deficiency, a step beyond ferritin. A systematic review. J Gastrointestin Liver Dis. 2009;18:345-52 pubmed
    ..The validity of measurement of soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR) as a surrogate marker of BM iron stores has been the subject of various studies so far...
  17. Ying H, Shen X, Park B, Yue B. Posttranslational modifications, localization, and protein interactions of optineurin, the product of a glaucoma gene. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e9168 pubmed publisher
  18. Wirth G, Schandelmaier K, Smith V, Burger A, Fiebig H. Microarrays of 41 human tumor cell lines for the characterization of new molecular targets: expression patterns of cathepsin B and the transferrin receptor. Oncology. 2006;71:86-94 pubmed
    ..Western blotting confirmed the results obtained by immunohistochemistry. Using these cell line microarrays, cell lines overexpressing a target of interest can be selected for in vitro evaluation of specific inhibitors. ..
  19. Mierzwa G, Augustyńska B, Czerwionka Szaflarska M, Tyrakowski T. [Iron status with particular consideration of soluble transferrin receptors in children and youth with gastritis, with or without Helicobacter pylori infection]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2006;21:235-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of the study. was to asses iron status in aspect of plasmatic transferrin receptors concentration among children and youth with chronic gastritis with or without Helicobacter pylori ..
  20. Luo H, Nakatsu F, Furuno A, Kato H, Yamamoto A, Ohno H. Visualization of the post-Golgi trafficking of multiphoton photoactivated transferrin receptors. Cell Struct Funct. 2006;31:63-75 pubmed
    ..the precise trafficking routes followed by the newly synthesized plasma membrane proteins, such as transferrin receptors (TfRs), after exit from the TGN remain unclear...
  21. Calzolari A, Raggi C, Deaglio S, Sposi N, Stafsnes M, Fecchi K, et al. TfR2 localizes in lipid raft domains and is released in exosomes to activate signal transduction along the MAPK pathway. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4486-98 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the present study indicates that TfR2 localizes in LDTI microdomains, where it promotes cell signalling, and is exported out of the cells through the exosome pathway, where it acts as an intercellular messenger. ..
  22. Radoshitzky S, Abraham J, Spiropoulou C, Kuhn J, Nguyen D, Li W, et al. Transferrin receptor 1 is a cellular receptor for New World haemorrhagic fever arenaviruses. Nature. 2007;446:92-6 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that TfR1 is a cellular receptor for New World haemorrhagic fever arenaviruses...
  23. Lepelletier Y, Camara Clayette V, Jin H, Hermant A, Coulon S, Dussiot M, et al. Prevention of mantle lymphoma tumor establishment by routing transferrin receptor toward lysosomal compartments. Cancer Res. 2007;67:1145-54 pubmed
    ..Therefore, A24-based therapies alone or in association with classic chemotherapies could provide a new alternative strategy against MCL, particularly in relapsing cases. ..
  24. Gravotta D, Deora A, Perret E, Oyanadel C, Soza A, Schreiner R, et al. AP1B sorts basolateral proteins in recycling and biosynthetic routes of MDCK cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:1564-9 pubmed
    ..TfR utilizes a direct route from Golgi to basolateral membrane that is established as the epithelial monolayer matures. ..
  25. Hayashi H, Wakusawa S, Motonishi S, Miyamoto K, Okada H, Inagaki Y, et al. Genetic background of primary iron overload syndromes in Japan. Intern Med. 2006;45:1107-11 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the genetic backgrounds of Japanese patients with primary iron overload syndromes were partially clarified, showing some phenotype-genotype correlations. ..
  26. Daniels T, Delgado T, Helguera G, Penichet M. The transferrin receptor part II: targeted delivery of therapeutic agents into cancer cells. Clin Immunol. 2006;121:159-76 pubmed
    ..In this review we summarize the strategies of targeting the TfR in order to deliver therapeutic agents into tumor cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. ..
  27. Daniels T, Delgado T, Rodriguez J, Helguera G, Penichet M. The transferrin receptor part I: Biology and targeting with cytotoxic antibodies for the treatment of cancer. Clin Immunol. 2006;121:144-58 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the efficacy of targeting the TfR using cytotoxic antibodies that inhibit cell growth and/or induce apoptosis in targeted malignant cells. ..
  28. Goswami T, Andrews N. Hereditary hemochromatosis protein, HFE, interaction with transferrin receptor 2 suggests a molecular mechanism for mammalian iron sensing. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:28494-8 pubmed
    ..We propose a new model for the mechanism of iron status sensing that results in the regulation of iron homeostasis. ..
  29. Park B, Shen X, Samaraweera M, Yue B. Studies of optineurin, a glaucoma gene: Golgi fragmentation and cell death from overexpression of wild-type and mutant optineurin in two ocular cell types. Am J Pathol. 2006;169:1976-89 pubmed
    ..01). This study highlights a possible role of OPTN in vesicle trafficking and Golgi integrity. It also provides in-sights into the possible mechanisms why E50K would exhibit a propensity toward the development of glaucoma. ..
  30. Palermo L, Hafenstein S, Parrish C. Purified feline and canine transferrin receptors reveal complex interactions with the capsids of canine and feline parvoviruses that correspond to their host ranges. J Virol. 2006;80:8482-92 pubmed
    ..parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) are controlled by their capsid interactions with the transferrin receptors (TfR) on their host cells...
  31. Lespagnol A, Duflaut D, Beekman C, Blanc L, Fiucci G, Marine J, et al. Exosome secretion, including the DNA damage-induced p53-dependent secretory pathway, is severely compromised in TSAP6/Steap3-null mice. Cell Death Differ. 2008;15:1723-33 pubmed publisher
    ..The results presented here provide the first genetic demonstration that exosome formation is a tightly controlled biological process dependent of TSAP6. ..
  32. Schiza V, Giapros V, Pantou K, Theocharis P, Challa A, Andronikou S. Serum transferrin receptor, ferritin, and reticulocyte maturity indices during the first year of life in 'large' preterm infants. Eur J Haematol. 2007;79:439-46 pubmed
    ..Iron depletion is common in formula-fed preterm (32-36 wk GA) infants between month 3 and 12 of life. STfr appears to be an indicator of iron status in preterm infants during the first year of life. ..
  33. Guo S, Frazer D, Anderson G. Iron homeostasis: transport, metabolism, and regulation. Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2016;19:276-81 pubmed publisher
  34. Li J, Paragas N, Ned R, Qiu A, Viltard M, Leete T, et al. Scara5 is a ferritin receptor mediating non-transferrin iron delivery. Dev Cell. 2009;16:35-46 pubmed publisher
    ..These data implicate cell type-specific mechanisms of iron traffic in organogenesis, which alternatively utilize transferrin or non-transferrin iron delivery pathways. ..
  35. Sauvage F, Barratt G, Herfindal L, Vergnaud Gauduchon J. The Use of Nanocarriers in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia Therapy: Challenges and Current Status. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2016;17:30-41 pubmed
    ..Finally, by attaching suitable ligands to the nanocarrier surface, specific targeting to AML cells can be achieved. In this review, we give examples of successful targeting to folate and transferrin receptors against AML.
  36. Cao P, Leng D, Li Y, Zhang Z, Liu L, Li X. [Progress on anti-tumor molecular mechanisms of dihydroartemisinin]. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban. 2016;45:501-507 pubmed
    ..Since tumor cells need more Fe3+ than normal cells, there are a large number of transferrin receptors on the tumor cell membrane...
  37. Matak P, Matak A, Moustafa S, Aryal D, Benner E, Wetsel W, et al. Disrupted iron homeostasis causes dopaminergic neurodegeneration in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016;113:3428-35 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that loss of transferrin receptor 1, but not loss of ferroportin, can cause neurodegeneration in a subset of dopaminergic neurons in mice. ..
  38. Dupradeau F, Pissard S, Coulhon M, Cadet E, Foulon K, Fourcade C, et al. An unusual case of hemochromatosis due to a new compound heterozygosity in HFE (p.[Gly43Asp;His63Asp]+[Cys282Tyr]): structural implications with respect to binding with transferrin receptor 1. Hum Mutat. 2008;29:206 pubmed
    ..We conclude that the occurrence of complex alleles may be an alternative explanation for the variability of the phenotype in individuals who are compound heterozygous for c.[187C>G]+[845G>A] (p.[His63Asp]+[Cys282Tyr]). ..
  39. Worwood M. The laboratory assessment of iron status--an update. Clin Chim Acta. 1997;259:3-23 pubmed
  40. Wang J, Tian S, Petros R, Napier M, DeSimone J. The complex role of multivalency in nanoparticles targeting the transferrin receptor for cancer therapies. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:11306-13 pubmed publisher
  41. Molyneux K, Wimbury D, Pawluczyk I, Muto M, Bhachu J, Mertens P, et al. ?1,4-galactosyltransferase 1 is a novel receptor for IgA in human mesangial cells. Kidney Int. 2017;92:1458-1468 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, ?-1,4-galactosyltransferase is a constitutively expressed mesangial cell IgA receptor with an important role in both mesangial IgA clearance and the initial response to IgA deposition. ..
  42. Chen S, Wang Y, Telen M, Chi J. The genomic analysis of erythrocyte microRNA expression in sickle cell diseases. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2360 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the global analysis of microRNA expression in circulating erythrocytes can provide mechanistic insights into the disease phenotypes of erythrocyte diseases. ..
  43. Fujita M, Wander K. A test of the optimal iron hypothesis among breastfeeding Ariaal mothers in northern Kenya. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2017;164:586-597 pubmed publisher
    ..Iron deficiency may interact in important ways with other forms of malnutrition that are known to affect immune protection. ..
  44. Poller B, Gutmann H, Krahenbuhl S, Weksler B, Romero I, Couraud P, et al. The human brain endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3 as a human blood-brain barrier model for drug transport studies. J Neurochem. 2008;107:1358-68 pubmed
    ..The results of this study demonstrate the usefulness of the hCMEC/D3 cell line as an in vitro model to study drug transport at the level of the human blood-brain barrier. ..
  45. Grisouard J, Li S, Kubovcakova L, Rao T, Meyer S, Lundberg P, et al. JAK2 exon 12 mutant mice display isolated erythrocytosis and changes in iron metabolism favoring increased erythropoiesis. Blood. 2016;128:839-51 pubmed publisher
  46. Zhou Z, Koglin A, Wang Y, McMahon A, Walsh C. An eight residue fragment of an acyl carrier protein suffices for post-translational introduction of fluorescent pantetheinyl arms in protein modification in vitro and in vivo. J Am Chem Soc. 2008;130:9925-30 pubmed publisher
  47. Parsi S, Smith P, Goupil C, Dorval V, Hébert S. Preclinical Evaluation of miR-15/107 Family Members as Multifactorial Drug Targets for Alzheimer's Disease. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2015;4:e256 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our data suggest that miR-16 is a good candidate for future drug development by targeting simultaneously endogenous regulators of AD biomarkers (i.e., Aβ and Tau), inflammation, and oxidative stress. ..
  48. Stehling O, Netz D, Niggemeyer B, Rösser R, Eisenstein R, Puccio H, et al. Human Nbp35 is essential for both cytosolic iron-sulfur protein assembly and iron homeostasis. Mol Cell Biol. 2008;28:5517-28 pubmed publisher
  49. Gruszczyk J, Kanjee U, Chan L, Menant S, Malleret B, Lim N, et al. Transferrin receptor 1 is a reticulocyte-specific receptor for Plasmodium vivax. Science. 2018;359:48-55 pubmed publisher
    ..vivax entry into reticulocytes. These data show that TfR1-PvRBP2b invasion pathway is critical for the recognition of reticulocytes during P. vivax invasion. ..
  50. Morizono K, Xie Y, Helguera G, Daniels T, Lane T, Penichet M, et al. A versatile targeting system with lentiviral vectors bearing the biotin-adaptor peptide. J Gene Med. 2009;11:655-63 pubmed publisher
    ..We have now developed a more stable conjugation strategy utilizing the interaction between avidin and biotin...
  51. Robach P, Recalcati S, Girelli D, Gelfi C, Aachmann Andersen N, Thomsen J, et al. Alterations of systemic and muscle iron metabolism in human subjects treated with low-dose recombinant erythropoietin. Blood. 2009;113:6707-15 pubmed publisher
  52. Roodman G. Osteoclasts pump iron. Cell Metab. 2009;9:405-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent work on osteoclast differentiation and activity highlights an important role for mitochondrial biogenesis and explores the role of iron transferrin in generating a positive osteoclastogenic feedback loop. ..
  53. Puri C. Loss of myosin VI no insert isoform (NoI) induces a defect in clathrin-mediated endocytosis and leads to caveolar endocytosis of transferrin receptor. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:34998-5014 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover the clathrin adaptor protein, AP-2, necessary for TfR internalization, follows the receptor and relocalizes in caveolae in Snell's waltzer fibroblasts. ..
  54. Tan Y, Chiow K, Huang D, Wong S. Andrographolide regulates epidermal growth factor receptor and transferrin receptor trafficking in epidermoid carcinoma (A-431) cells. Br J Pharmacol. 2010;159:1497-510 pubmed publisher
    ..The down-regulation of EGFR from the cell surface also indicates a new mechanism by which andrographolide may induce cancer cell death. ..
  55. Huang X, Fung E, Yip C, Zeleniuch Jacquotte A. Serum prohepcidin is associated with soluble transferrin receptor-1 but not ferritin in healthy post-menopausal women. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2008;41:265-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The interrelationships between sTfR1 and prohepcidin or between ferritin and hepcidin suggest that ferritin- and sTfR1-sensed hepcidin conversion system exist in human body and maybe regulated at the post-translational level. ..
  56. Moura I, Benhamou M, Launay P, Vrtovsnik F, Blank U, Monteiro R. The glomerular response to IgA deposition in IgA nephropathy. Semin Nephrol. 2008;28:88-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This review therefore details the functional consequences of IgA/receptor interactions and discusses proposed mechanisms to explain the development and chronicity of the disease. ..
  57. Xu X, Sutak R, Richardson D. Iron chelation by clinically relevant anthracyclines: alteration in expression of iron-regulated genes and atypical changes in intracellular iron distribution and trafficking. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;73:833-44 pubmed
    ..Despite increased TfR1 and Ndrg1 mRNA after DOX treatment, this agent decreased TfR1 and Ndrg1 protein expression. Hence, the effects of DOX on iron metabolism were complex because of its multiple effector mechanisms. ..
  58. Williamson R, Thompson A, Abu M, Hye A, Usardi A, Lynham S, et al. Isolation of detergent resistant microdomains from cultured neurons: detergent dependent alterations in protein composition. BMC Neurosci. 2010;11:120 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that appropriate selection of detergent for raft isolation is an important consideration for investigating raft protein composition of cultured neurons. ..
  59. Wallace D, Subramaniam V. Non-HFE haemochromatosis. World J Gastroenterol. 2007;13:4690-8 pubmed
    ..The study of these disorders and the molecules involved has been invaluable in improving our understanding of the mechanisms involved in the regulation of iron metabolism. ..
  60. Pinto J, Ramos P, de Almeida S, Oliveira S, Breda L, Michalak M, et al. Protective role of calreticulin in HFE hemochromatosis. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;44:99-108 pubmed
    ..The data show that expression of C282Y HFE triggers a stress-protective response in HepG2 cells and suggest a role for calreticulin as a modifier of the clinical expression of HH. ..
  61. Kaur C, Ling E. Periventricular white matter damage in the hypoxic neonatal brain: role of microglial cells. Prog Neurobiol. 2009;87:264-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Challenges for the future include in-depth investigation of crosstalk between microglia and immature oligodendrocytes as well as other glial cells and vascular endothelial cells. ..
  62. Emmanouilidou E, Melachroinou K, Roumeliotis T, Garbis S, Ntzouni M, Margaritis L, et al. Cell-produced alpha-synuclein is secreted in a calcium-dependent manner by exosomes and impacts neuronal survival. J Neurosci. 2010;30:6838-51 pubmed publisher
  63. Periasamy A, Wallrabe H, Chen Y, Barroso M. Chapter 22: Quantitation of protein-protein interactions: confocal FRET microscopy. Methods Cell Biol. 2008;89:569-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The assays described are applicable to many other biological applications. ..
  64. Shiba Y, Römer W, Mardones G, Burgos P, Lamaze C, Johannes L. AGAP2 regulates retrograde transport between early endosomes and the TGN. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:2381-90 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of other intracellular trafficking pathways are not affected under these conditions. These results establish that Arf1 and AGAP2 have key trafficking functions at the interface between early endosomes and the TGN. ..
  65. Nakamura R, Teshima R, Hachisuka A, Sato Y, Takagi K, Nakamura R, et al. Effects of developmental hypothyroidism induced by maternal administration of methimazole or propylthiouracil on the immune system of rats. Int Immunopharmacol. 2007;7:1630-8 pubmed
    ..Most of the above-described changes had recovered to normal levels at PNW11. These results suggest that ATDs might have temporal immunomodulatory effects on the developing immune system. ..
  66. Krieger M, Eckstein N, Schneider V, Koch M, Royer H, Jaehde U, et al. Overcoming cisplatin resistance of ovarian cancer cells by targeted liposomes in vitro. Int J Pharm. 2010;389:10-7 pubmed publisher
    ..We prepared PEGylated cisplatin-containing liposomes with diameters of about 110 nm and targetability to transferrin receptors (TfR) to correlate cisplatin cell uptake with cytotoxicity in sensitive and cisplatin resistant ovarian ..
  67. Wang H, Wang Y, Leung K, Au D, Xuan S, Chak C, et al. Durable mesenchymal stem cell labelling by using polyhedral superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Chemistry. 2009;15:12417-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The noncytotoxic polyhedral SPIO@SiO(2)-NH(2) nanoparticle-labelled MSCs were successfully implanted in rabbit brain and erector spinae muscle, and demonstrated long-lasting, durable MRI labelling efficacy after 8-12 weeks. ..
  68. Otto G, Razi M, Morvan J, Stenner F, Tooze S. A novel syntaxin 6-interacting protein, SHIP164, regulates syntaxin 6-dependent sorting from early endosomes. Traffic. 2010;11:688-705 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus,we propose that SHIP164 functions in trafficking through the early/recycling endosomal system. ..
  69. Sun Q, Ma J, Rifai N, Franco O, Rexrode K, Hu F. Excessive body iron stores are not associated with risk of coronary heart disease in women. J Nutr. 2008;138:2436-41 pubmed publisher
    ..05 (0.62, 1.77), 1.19 (0.69, 2.03), and 1.05 (0.60, 1.85; P-trend = 0.90) across quartiles. Our data do not support the hypothesis that excessive body iron stores are associated with risk of CHD. ..
  70. Abo Krysha N, Rashed L. The role of iron dysregulation in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis: an Egyptian study. Mult Scler. 2008;14:602-8 pubmed publisher
  71. Lecube A, Hernandez C, Pelegri D, Simo R. Factors accounting for high ferritin levels in obesity. Int J Obes (Lond). 2008;32:1665-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that ferritin should not be used as a reliable index of iron overload in obese patients with diabetes. ..
  72. Jiang Y, Tang G, Hong M, Zhu S, Fang C, Shi B, et al. Active tumor-targeted delivery of PEG-protein via transferrin-transferrin-receptor system. J Drug Target. 2007;15:672-83 pubmed
    ..Such design of the Tf conjugate would suggest a promising approach for active tumor targeting of therapeutic proteins or peptides to target cells...
  73. Boado R, Zhou Q, Lu J, Hui E, Pardridge W. Pharmacokinetics and brain uptake of a genetically engineered bifunctional fusion antibody targeting the mouse transferrin receptor. Mol Pharm. 2010;7:237-44 pubmed publisher
    ..06 +/- 0.01% ID/g. These studies demonstrate that therapeutic MAbs may be re-engineered as fusion proteins with BBB molecular Trojan horses for targeted delivery across the BBB in vivo. ..
  74. Lu Q, Teng G, Zhang Y, Niu H, Zhu G, An Y, et al. Enhancement of p53 gene transfer efficiency in hepatic tumor mediated by transferrin receptor through trans-arterial delivery. Cancer Biol Ther. 2008;7:218-24 pubmed
  75. Tang W, Wu S, Wong T, Chung S, Chung S. Polyol pathway mediates iron-induced oxidative injury in ischemic-reperfused rat heart. Free Radic Biol Med. 2008;45:602-10 pubmed publisher
    ..This was confirmed by the fact that administration of the iron chelator deferoxamine attenuated the I/R-induced myocardial infarction. ..