Summary: A serpin family member that binds to and transports GLUCOCORTICOIDS in the BLOOD.

Top Publications

  1. Richard E, Helbling J, Tridon C, Desmedt A, Minni A, Cador M, et al. Plasma transcortin influences endocrine and behavioral stress responses in mice. Endocrinology. 2010;151:649-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent genetic studies have suggested that the glucocorticoid carrier transcortin, also called corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG), may have an important role in stress response...
  2. Heo J, Kattesh H, Roberts M, Morrow J, Dailey J, Saxton A. Hepatic corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) messenger RNA expression and plasma CBG concentrations in young pigs in response to heat and social stress. J Anim Sci. 2005;83:208-15 pubmed
  3. Cameron A, Henley D, Carrell R, Zhou A, Clarke A, Lightman S. Temperature-responsive release of cortisol from its binding globulin: a protein thermocouple. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:4689-95 pubmed publisher
    ..This has major implications for our understanding of cortisol regulation in febrile patients. ..
  4. Ho J, Al Musalhi H, Chapman M, Quach T, Thomas P, Bagley C, et al. Septic shock and sepsis: a comparison of total and free plasma cortisol levels. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91:105-14 pubmed
    ..The attenuated cortisol increment after tetracosactrin in RAI is not due to low cortisol-binding proteins. Free cortisol levels can be determined reliably using total cortisol and CBG levels. ..
  5. Torpy D, Bachmann A, Grice J, Fitzgerald S, Phillips P, Whitworth J, et al. Familial corticosteroid-binding globulin deficiency due to a novel null mutation: association with fatigue and relative hypotension. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:3692-700 pubmed
    ..As idiopathic fatigue disorders are associated with relatively low plasma cortisol, abnormalities of corticosteroid-binding globulin may be pathogenic. ..
  6. Emptoz Bonneton A, Cousin P, Seguchi K, Avvakumov G, Bully C, Hammond G, et al. Novel human corticosteroid-binding globulin variant with low cortisol-binding affinity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85:361-7 pubmed
  7. Torpy D, Lundgren B, Ho J, Lewis J, Scott H, Mericq V. CBG Santiago: a novel CBG mutation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E151-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The association with fatigue and idiopathic pain is again noted and may relate to altered stress system function. Variability of the phenotype may relate to other genetic variations of the CBG gene or environmental factors. ..
  8. Kattesh H, Baumbach G, Gillespie B, Schneider J, Murai J. Distribution between protein-bound and free forms of plasma cortisol in the gilt and fetal pig near term. Biol Neonate. 1997;72:192-200 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the developmental patterns of plasma cortisol and CBG in the prenatal pig are directly related and highly similar to those of another precocious species, the sheep. ..
  9. Hammond G, Smith C, Goping I, Underhill D, Harley M, Reventos J, et al. Primary structure of human corticosteroid binding globulin, deduced from hepatic and pulmonary cDNAs, exhibits homology with serine protease inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987;84:5153-7 pubmed

More Information


  1. Pawluski J, Charlier T, Lieblich S, Hammond G, Galea L. Reproductive experience alters corticosterone and CBG levels in the rat dam. Physiol Behav. 2009;96:108-14 pubmed publisher
  2. Pawluski J, Brain U, Underhill C, Hammond G, Oberlander T. Prenatal SSRI exposure alters neonatal corticosteroid binding globulin, infant cortisol levels, and emerging HPA function. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012;37:1019-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research is warranted on the long-term functional implications of the effect of prenatal SSRI exposure on fetal hepatic CBG gene expression and the developing HPA system. ..
  3. Zhou A, Wei Z, Stanley P, Read R, Stein P, Carrell R. The S-to-R transition of corticosteroid-binding globulin and the mechanism of hormone release. J Mol Biol. 2008;380:244-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The change in the hormone binding affinity results from a change in the flexibility or plasticity of the connecting loop, which modulates the configuration of the binding site. ..
  4. Fernandez Real J, Grasa M, Casamitjana R, Pugeat M, Barret C, Ricart W. Plasma total and glycosylated corticosteroid-binding globulin levels are associated with insulin secretion. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84:3192-6 pubmed
    ..As high plasma CBG levels have been associated with increased incidence of type 2 diabetes, this important issue merits further investigations. ..
  5. Lin H, Underhill C, Gardill B, Muller Y, Hammond G. Residues in the human corticosteroid-binding globulin reactive center loop that influence steroid binding before and after elastase cleavage. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:884-96 pubmed publisher
  6. Sumer Bayraktar Z, Kolarich D, Campbell M, Ali S, Packer N, Thaysen Andersen M. N-glycans modulate the function of human corticosteroid-binding globulin. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2011;10:M111.009100 pubmed publisher
    ..This confirms that N-glycans are involved in the CBG:receptor interaction and indicates that the modulation is performed by steric and/or electrostatic means through the terminal NeuAc residues. ..
  7. Lin H, Muller Y, Hammond G. Molecular and structural basis of steroid hormone binding and release from corticosteroid-binding globulin. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;316:3-12 pubmed publisher
  8. Fernandez Real J, Pugeat M, Grasa M, Broch M, Vendrell J, Brun J, et al. Serum corticosteroid-binding globulin concentration and insulin resistance syndrome: a population study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87:4686-90 pubmed
  9. Mihrshahi R, Lewis J, Ali S. Hormonal effects on the secretion and glycoform profile of corticosteroid-binding globulin. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2006;101:275-85 pubmed
    ..Stimulation with E2 resulted in the synthesis of additional isoforms of increased acidity, which may represent a type of CBG only seen during pregnancy in vivo. Possible physiological implications of these findings are discussed. ..
  10. Gagliardi L, Ho J, Torpy D. Corticosteroid-binding globulin: the clinical significance of altered levels and heritable mutations. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2010;316:24-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies may clarify the functions of CBG, and clinical observations may validate and/or extend the phenotypic features of various CBG mutations. ..
  11. Lewis J, Bagley C, Elder P, Bachmann A, Torpy D. Plasma free cortisol fraction reflects levels of functioning corticosteroid-binding globulin. Clin Chim Acta. 2005;359:189-94 pubmed
    ..The proportion of free cortisol measured in plasma thus reflects a simple measure of functional corticosteroid-binding globulin. ..
  12. Perogamvros I, Underhill C, Henley D, Hadfield K, Newman W, Ray D, et al. Novel corticosteroid-binding globulin variant that lacks steroid binding activity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:E142-50 pubmed publisher
  13. Metz T, Qian W, Jacobs J, Gritsenko M, Moore R, Polpitiya A, et al. Application of proteomics in the discovery of candidate protein biomarkers in a diabetes autoantibody standardization program sample subset. J Proteome Res. 2008;7:698-707 pubmed
  14. Klieber M, Underhill C, Hammond G, Muller Y. Corticosteroid-binding globulin, a structural basis for steroid transport and proteinase-triggered release. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:29594-603 pubmed
  15. van der Vange N, Blankenstein M, Kloosterboer H, Haspels A, Thijssen J. Effects of seven low-dose combined oral contraceptives on sex hormone binding globulin, corticosteroid binding globulin, total and free testosterone. Contraception. 1990;41:345-52 pubmed
    ..Irrespective of the effect on total testosterone, which varies between the preparations, the absolute free testosterone level decreased to a comparable degree for all preparations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) ..
  16. Gardill B, Vogl M, Lin H, Hammond G, Muller Y. Corticosteroid-binding globulin: structure-function implications from species differences. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e52759 pubmed publisher
    ..This observation cautions against drawing general conclusions about molecular mechanisms by comparing and merging structural data from different species. ..
  17. Lin H, Underhill C, Lei J, Helander Claesson A, Lee H, Gardill B, et al. High frequency of SERPINA6 polymorphisms that reduce plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin activity in Chinese subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012;97:E678-86 pubmed publisher
    ..The high frequency of CBG A51V will allow clinical consequences of CBG deficiencies to be assessed for the first time in large patient populations. ..
  18. Pawluski J, Charlier T, Fillet M, Houbart V, Crispin H, Steinbusch H, et al. Chronic fluoxetine treatment and maternal adversity differentially alter neurobehavioral outcomes in the rat dam. Behav Brain Res. 2012;228:159-68 pubmed publisher
  19. Qi X, Loiseau F, Chan W, Yan Y, Wei Z, Milroy L, et al. Allosteric modulation of hormone release from thyroxine and corticosteroid-binding globulins. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:16163-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the coordinated movements of the reactive loop, hD, and the hormone binding site allow the allosteric regulation of hormone release, as with the modulation demonstrated here in response to changes in temperature. ..
  20. Droste S, Gesing A, Ulbricht S, Muller M, Linthorst A, Reul J. Effects of long-term voluntary exercise on the mouse hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Endocrinology. 2003;144:3012-23 pubmed
    ..These changes seem to underlie the differential responsiveness of the HPA axis to physical vs. emotional challenges. ..
  21. Breuner C, Orchinik M, Hahn T, Meddle S, Moore I, Owen Ashley N, et al. Differential mechanisms for regulation of the stress response across latitudinal gradients. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;285:R594-600 pubmed
    ..These differences could lead to dramatically different physiological and behavioral responses to stress. ..
  22. McCormick C, Linkroum W, Sallinen B, Miller N. Peripheral and central sex steroids have differential effects on the HPA axis of male and female rats. Stress. 2002;5:235-47 pubmed
  23. Cornelius J, Perfito N, Zann R, Breuner C, Hahn T. Physiological trade-offs in self-maintenance: plumage molt and stress physiology in birds. J Exp Biol. 2011;214:2768-77 pubmed publisher
  24. Gill A, Leiter E, Powell J, Chapman H, Yen T. Dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia in obese Avy/a (viable yellow) female mice entails preferential induction of a hepatic estrogen sulfotransferase. Diabetes. 1994;43:999-1004 pubmed
    ..In summary, dex-induced hyperglycemia in Avy/a females was associated with increased catabolism of hepatic estrogens mediated by induction of EST. ..
  25. Pripp U, Schenck Gustafsson K, Landgren B, Carlstrom K. Circulating concentrations of hemostatic factors and two "steroid sensitive proteins" during oral hormone replacement therapy in women with coronary heart disease. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2004;64:659-65 pubmed
    ..e. decreased PAI-1 values. SHBG or CBG could not be used as predictors of increased cardiovascular risk during postmenopausal oral HRT. ..
  26. Teves M, Guidobaldi H, Uñates D, Sanchez R, Miska W, Giojalas L. Progesterone sperm chemoattraction may be modulated by its corticosteroid-binding globulin carrier protein. Fertil Steril. 2010;93:2450-2 pubmed publisher
    ..By means of videomicroscopy and image analysis, we observed that corticosteroid-binding globulin modulates the chemotactic activity of P, when a solution of corticosteroid-binding globulin + P is at the nanomolar range. ..
  27. Otten W, Kanitz E, Couret D, Veissier I, Prunier A, Merlot E. Maternal social stress during late pregnancy affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function and brain neurotransmitter systems in pig offspring. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2010;38:146-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, our data indicate that repeated social stress during pregnancy has long-lasting consequences on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and hippocampal neurotransmitter activity in the offspring of pigs. ..
  28. Deuschle M, Schweiger U, Standhardt H, Weber B, Heuser I. Corticosteroid-binding globulin is not decreased in depressed patients. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1996;21:645-9 pubmed
    ..However, the exaggerated activity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenocortical system in healthy and depressed females is associated with an increase in plasma CBG. ..
  29. Kojima C, Kattesh H, Roberts M, Sun T. Physiological and immunological responses to weaning and transport in the young pig: modulation by administration of porcine somatotropin. J Anim Sci. 2008;86:2913-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Circulating neutrophils increased in pST-treated pigs 4 h after the final pST injection. Improved immune function in weaned pigs by pST may lead to greater health and growth in a commercial setting. ..
  30. Nicolas Robin A, Barouk J, Darnal E, Riou B, Langeron O. Free cortisol and accuracy of total cortisol measurements in the diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency in brain-dead patients. Anesthesiology. 2011;115:568-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Total baseline cortisol measurement is accurate and sufficient to diagnose AI in brain-dead patients, even if albumin or corticosteroid-binding globulin concentrations are low. ..
  31. Kumsta R, Entringer S, Hellhammer D, Wust S. Cortisol and ACTH responses to psychosocial stress are modulated by corticosteroid binding globulin levels. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2007;32:1153-7 pubmed
    ..Investigations of the consequences of long-lasting OC intake on the neuroendocrine stress regulation in women might be warranted. ..
  32. Roberts M, Kattesh H, Baumbach G, Gillespie B, Godkin J, Schneider J, et al. Age-related changes in porcine corticosteroid-binding globulin (pCBG) as determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Domest Anim Endocrinol. 2003;24:323-39 pubmed
  33. Miska W, Pena P, Villegas J, Sanchez R. Detection of a CBG-like protein in human Fallopian tube tissue. Andrologia. 2004;36:41-6 pubmed
    ..Our investigations strongly indicate that human Fallopian tube cells actively express and secrete a CBG-like progesterone-binding protein, which might play a role in the in vivo modulation of human sperm AR. ..
  34. Lynn S, Stamplis T, Barrington W, Weida N, Hudak C. Food, stress, and reproduction: short-term fasting alters endocrine physiology and reproductive behavior in the zebra finch. Horm Behav. 2010;58:214-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Fasting also inhibited reproductive behavior. We suggest that zebra finches exhibit physiological and behavioral flexibility that makes them an excellent model system for studying interactions of acute stress and reproduction. ..
  35. Lewis J, Borowski K, Shand B, George P, Scott R. Plasma sex hormone-binding globulin, corticosteroid-binding globulin, cortisol, and free cortisol levels in outpatients attending a lipid disorders clinic: a cross-sectional study of 1137 subjects. Horm Metab Res. 2010;42:274-9 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the aetiological role of CBG and cortisol in insulin resistance is uncertain, although in males, cortisol and CBG could be subtly related to the degree of insulin resistance. ..
  36. Chan W, Carrell R, Zhou A, Read R. How changes in affinity of corticosteroid-binding globulin modulate free cortisol concentration. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013;98:3315-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of CBG to modulate free cortisol levels in blood must be considered in the understanding and management of disease processes, as illustrated here with predictable changes in inflammation and fever. ..
  37. Charlier T, Underhill C, Hammond G, Soma K. Effects of aggressive encounters on plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin and its ligands in white-crowned sparrows. Horm Behav. 2009;56:339-47 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this small change is unlikely to increase free testosterone levels, because of the large number of seemingly unoccupied CBG binding sites in these subjects. ..
  38. Kanitz E, Otten W, Tuchscherer M, Manteuffel G. Effects of prenatal stress on corticosteroid receptors and monoamine concentrations in limbic areas of suckling piglets (Sus scrofa) at different ages. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med. 2003;50:132-9 pubmed
  39. Agrimonti F, Frairia R, Fornaro D, Torta M, Borretta G, Trapani G, et al. Circadian and circaseptan rhythmicities in corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) binding activity of human milk. Chronobiologia. 1982;9:281-90 pubmed
    It has been demonstrated that human milk contains a corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG, transcortin) which is very similar to that isolated from plasma...
  40. Tinnikov A. Responses of serum corticosterone and corticosteroid-binding globulin to acute and prolonged stress in the rat. Endocrine. 1999;11:145-50 pubmed
    ..It is proposed that the need for substantial mobilization of spare fuel (as it takes place during physical exercise or fasting) is critical in involving CBG in the stress response. ..
  41. Yanovski J, Miller K, Kino T, Friedman T, Chrousos G, Tsigos C, et al. Endocrine and metabolic evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with evidence of protease inhibitor-associated lipodystrophy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84:1925-31 pubmed
    ..The cause remains to be elucidated. ..
  42. Krupenko S, Kolesnik O, Krupenko N, Strel chyonok O. Organization of the transcortin-binding domain on placental plasma membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1995;1235:387-94 pubmed
    Complex formation between transcortin (corticosteroid-binding globulin) and 20 kDa sialoglycoprotein from human syncytiotrophoblast plasma membranes (presumably a transcortin-recognizing subunit of the transcortin membrane receptor) was ..
  43. Smith C, Hammond G. Rat corticosteroid binding globulin: primary structure and messenger ribonucleic acid levels in the liver under different physiological conditions. Mol Endocrinol. 1989;3:420-6 pubmed
    ..Southern analysis of rat genomic DNA suggests the presence of a single gene for CBG. ..
  44. Malisch J, Satterlee D, Cockrem J, Wada H, Breuner C. How acute is the acute stress response? Baseline corticosterone and corticosteroid-binding globulin levels change 24h after an acute stressor in Japanese quail. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2010;165:345-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate for the first time in an avian species that exposure to an acute stressor can affect CBG and CORT 24h later. ..
  45. Sivukhina E, Schäfer H, Jirikowski G. Differences in colocalization of corticosteroid-binding globulin and glucocorticoid receptor immunoreactivity in the rat brain. Ann Anat. 2013;195:219-24 pubmed publisher
  46. Dölz W, Eitner A, Caldwell J, Jirikowski G. Expression of corticosteroid binding globulin in the rat olfactory system. Acta Histochem. 2013;115:376-81 pubmed publisher
    ..CBG encoding transcripts were confirmed by RT-PCR in homogenates of the olfactory mucosa and VNO. Olfactory CBG may be significant for uptake, accumulation and transport of glucocorticoids, including aerosolic cortisol. ..
  47. Misao R, Nakanishi Y, Fujimoto J, Ichigo S, Hori M, Tamaya T. Expression of corticosteroid-binding globulin mRNA in human uterine endometrial cancers. Steroids. 1995;60:720-4 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that dedifferentiation of endometrial cancers induces a reduction in intracellular CBG synthesis. ..
  48. Orchinik M, Hastings N, Witt D, McEwen B. High-affinity binding of corticosterone to mammalian neuronal membranes: possible role of corticosteroid binding globulin. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 1997;60:229-36 pubmed
    ..Whether these binding phenomena represent a technical artifact or a regulatory mechanism for corticosteroid action has yet to be determined. ..
  49. Jones B, Sarrieau A, Reed C, Azar M, Mormede P. Contribution of sex and genetics to neuroendocrine adaptation to stress in mice. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1998;23:505-17 pubmed
    ..These findings lend preliminary evidence for involvement of sex and genetics as sources of individual differences in bioadaptation to stress. ..
  50. Grasa M, Cabot C, Balada F, Virgili J, Sanchis D, Monserrat C, et al. Corticosterone binding to tissues of adrenalectomized lean and obese Zucker rats. Horm Metab Res. 1998;30:699-704 pubmed
    ..This interpretation agrees with the postulated role of CBG modulating the availability of glucocorticoids to target cells. ..
  51. Zelena D, Barna I, Pinter O, Klausz B, Varga J, Makara G. Congenital absence of vasopressin and age-dependent changes in ACTH and corticosterone stress responses in rats. Stress. 2011;14:420-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The serum transcortin level was higher in adults than pups, with the di/di pups having higher transcortin levels than controls...
  52. Sloboda D, Newnham J, Challis J. Repeated maternal glucocorticoid administration and the developing liver in fetal sheep. J Endocrinol. 2002;175:535-43 pubmed
    ..We speculate that this could affect expression of glucocorticoid-dependent hepatic enzymes involved with the regulation of glucose production and HPA responsiveness. ..
  53. Müller C, Almasi B, Roulin A, Breuner C, Jenni Eiermann S, Jenni L. Effects of corticosterone pellets on baseline and stress-induced corticosterone and corticosteroid-binding-globulin. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2009;160:59-66 pubmed publisher
    ..The resulting peak-like elevation of circulating corticosterone, the concomitant elevation of CBG capacity, and the absence of an endogenous corticosterone response to an acute stressor have to be taken into account. ..