Genomes and Genes
equilibrative nucleoside transport proteins
Summary: A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.
- Yao S, Sundaram M, Chomey E, Cass C, Baldwin S, Young J. Identification of Cys140 in helix 4 as an exofacial cysteine residue within the substrate-translocation channel of rat equilibrative nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR)-insensitive nucleoside transporter rENT2. Biochem J. 2001;353:387-93 pubmed..TM4 has been shown previously to be within a structural domain (TMs 3-6) responsible for interactions with NBMPR, vasoactive drugs and nucleobases. ..
- Xia L, Zhou M, Kalhorn T, Ho H, Wang J. Podocyte-specific expression of organic cation transporter PMAT: implication in puromycin aminonucleoside nephrotoxicity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;296:F1307-13 pubmed publisher..Decynium 22, a potent PMAT inhibitor, abolished PAN toxicity in PMAT-expressing cells. Together, our data suggest that PMAT is specifically expressed in podocytes and may play an important role in PAN-induced kidney injury. ..
- Frame I, Merino E, Schramm V, Cassera M, Akabas M. Malaria parasite type 4 equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENT4) are purine transporters with distinct substrate specificity. Biochem J. 2012;446:179-90 pubmed publisher..Its role in parasite physiology remains uncertain, but is likely to be significant because of the strong conservation of ENT4 homologues in Plasmodia genomes. ..
- Haenisch B, Bonisch H. Interaction of the human plasma membrane monoamine transporter (hPMAT) with antidepressants and antipsychotics. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2010;381:33-9 pubmed publisher..Thus, inhibition of the hPMAT by these CNS drugs may not (or only marginally) contribute to their therapeutic effects. ..
- Engel K, Wang J. Interaction of organic cations with a newly identified plasma membrane monoamine transporter. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;68:1397-407 pubmed..These functional properties of PMAT are strikingly similar to those of the OCTs. We therefore conclude that PMAT can function as a polyspecific organic cation transporter, which may play a role in organic cation transport in vivo. ..
- Hyde R, Cass C, Young J, Baldwin S. The ENT family of eukaryote nucleoside and nucleobase transporters: recent advances in the investigation of structure/function relationships and the identification of novel isoforms. Mol Membr Biol. 2001;18:53-63 pubmed..This paper summarizes current knowledge of the family and reports on the identification of a novel mammalian ENT isoform, designated ENT3, from mouse and human tissues. ..
- Casanello P, Escudero C, Sobrevia L. Equilibrative nucleoside (ENTs) and cationic amino acid (CATs) transporters: implications in foetal endothelial dysfunction in human pregnancy diseases. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2007;5:69-84 pubmed
- Rauchwerger D, Firby P, Hedley D, Moore M. Equilibrative-sensitive nucleoside transporter and its role in gemcitabine sensitivity. Cancer Res. 2000;60:6075-9 pubmed..This was also associated with a significant increase in es-NT levels caused by the TS inhibitors. Thus, modulation of the es-NT by pretreatment with TS inhibitors may have the potential to improve the therapeutic benefit of gemcitabine. ..
- Ham M, Mizumori M, Watanabe C, Wang J, Inoue T, Nakano T, et al. Endogenous luminal surface adenosine signaling regulates duodenal bicarbonate secretion in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;335:607-13 pubmed publisher..Luminal ADO stimulates DBS via A(2B) receptors and CFTR. ATP release, ecto-phosphohydrolases, ADA, and concentrative NT may coordinately regulate luminal surface ADO concentration to modulate ADO-P1 receptor signaling in rat duodenum. ..
- Westermeier F, Puebla C, Vega J, Farias M, Escudero C, Casanello P, et al. Equilibrative nucleoside transporters in fetal endothelial dysfunction in diabetes mellitus and hyperglycaemia. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2009;7:435-49 pubmed
- Zhou M, Xia L, Engel K, Wang J. Molecular determinants of substrate selectivity of a novel organic cation transporter (PMAT) in the SLC29 family. J Biol Chem. 2007;282:3188-95 pubmed..In summary, our results suggest that Glu(206) functions as a critical charge sensor for cationic substrates and TM5 forms part of the substrate permeation pathway in PMAT. ..
- Sinclair C, Powell A, Xiong W, LaRivière C, Baldwin S, Cass C, et al. Nucleoside transporter subtype expression: effects on potency of adenosine kinase inhibitors. Br J Pharmacol. 2001;134:1037-44 pubmed..Thus, cellular and tissue differences in expression of nucleoside transporter subtypes may affect the pharmacological actions of some AK inhibitors. ..
- Ho H, Xia L, Wang J. Residue Ile89 in human plasma membrane monoamine transporter influences its organic cation transport activity and sensitivity to inhibition by dilazep. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;84:383-90 pubmed publisher..Located at the extracellular end of transmembrane domain 1 of PMAT, I89 may occupy an important position close to the substrate permeation pathway and may be involved in direct interaction with the vasodilator dilazep. ..
- Redzic Z, Hasan F, Al Sarraf H. Effects of omeprazole treatment on nucleoside transporter expression and adenosine uptake in rat gastric mucosa. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2009;87:402-10 pubmed publisher..In conclusion, the possible modification of nucleoside transport activities by changes in intraluminal acidity may have significance as part of a purinergic regulatory feedback mechanism in the control of gastric acid secretion. ..
- Yoshikawa T, Naganuma F, Iida T, Nakamura T, Harada R, Mohsen A, et al. Molecular mechanism of histamine clearance by primary human astrocytes. Glia. 2013;61:905-16 pubmed publisher..These findings might indicate that PMAT, OCT3 and HNMT in human astrocytes play a role in the regulation of extraneuronal histamine concentration and the activities of histaminergic neurons. ..
- Temmink O, Bijnsdorp I, Prins H, Losekoot N, Adema A, Smid K, et al. Trifluorothymidine resistance is associated with decreased thymidine kinase and equilibrative nucleoside transporter expression or increased secretory phospholipase A2. Mol Cancer Ther. 2010;9:1047-57 pubmed publisher..Mol Cancer Ther; 9(4); 1047-57. (c)2010 AACR. ..
- Cass C, Young J, Baldwin S. Recent advances in the molecular biology of nucleoside transporters of mammalian cells. Biochem Cell Biol. 1998;76:761-70 pubmed
- Molina Arcas M, Casado F, Pastor Anglada M. Nucleoside transporter proteins. Curr Vasc Pharmacol. 2009;7:426-34 pubmed..Finally, several polymorphisms have been described in CNT and ENT proteins that could affect nucleoside homeostasis, adenosine signalling events or nucleoside-derived drug cytotoxicity or pharmacokinetics. ..
- Lu Q, Newton J, Hsiao V, Shamirian P, Blackburn M, Pedroza M. Sustained adenosine exposure causes lung endothelial barrier dysfunction via nucleoside transporter-mediated signaling. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2012;47:604-13 pubmed publisher..Our data further suggest that sustained adenosine exposure may cause mitochondrial oxidative stress, leading to activation of p38, JNK, and RhoA in mitochondria and resulting in EC barrier dysfunction. ..
- Young J, Yao S, Baldwin J, Cass C, Baldwin S. The human concentrative and equilibrative nucleoside transporter families, SLC28 and SLC29. Mol Aspects Med. 2013;34:529-47 pubmed publisher..This review describes the molecular and functional properties of the two transporter families, with a particular focus on their physiological roles in humans and relevance to disease treatment. ..
- Sinclair C, LaRivière C, Young J, Cass C, Baldwin S, Parkinson F. Purine uptake and release in rat C6 glioma cells: nucleoside transport and purine metabolism under ATP-depleting conditions. J Neurochem. 2000;75:1528-38 pubmed
- Huber Ruano I, Pastor Anglada M. Transport of nucleoside analogs across the plasma membrane: a clue to understanding drug-induced cytotoxicity. Curr Drug Metab. 2009;10:347-58 pubmed
- Del Santo B, Valdes R, Mata J, Felipe A, Casado F, Pastor Anglada M. Differential expression and regulation of nucleoside transport systems in rat liver parenchymal and hepatoma cells. Hepatology. 1998;28:1504-11 pubmed..This is consistent with its putative role as a growth factor-induced delayed early response gene. ..
- Sundaram M, Yao S, Ng A, Griffiths M, Cass C, Baldwin S, et al. Chimeric constructs between human and rat equilibrative nucleoside transporters (hENT1 and rENT1) reveal hENT1 structural domains interacting with coronary vasoactive drugs. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:21519-25 pubmed..Since these drugs function as competitive inhibitors of nucleoside transport and NBMPR binding, TMs 3-6 are likely to form part of the substrate-binding site. ..
- Hansson S, Bottalico B, Noskova V, Casslén B. Monoamine transporters in human endometrium and decidua. Hum Reprod Update. 2009;15:249-60 pubmed publisher..New knowledge about monoamine metabolism in the endometrium during menstruation and pregnancy will increase understanding of infertility problems and may offer new pharmacological approaches to optimize assisted reproduction. ..
- Leisewitz A, Zimmerman E, Jones S, Yang J, Graves L. Imatinib-resistant CML cells have low ENT activity but maintain sensitivity to gemcitabine. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2008;27:779-86 pubmed publisher..Although, imatinib-resistant cells showed decreased levels of both ENT1 and ENT2 activity and expression, these cells remained sensitive to gemcitabine, suggesting that nucleoside analogs can be used as adjunctive therapy. ..
- Li H, Smolen G, Beers L, Xia L, Gerald W, Wang J, et al. Adenosine transporter ENT4 is a direct target of EWS/WT1 translocation product and is highly expressed in desmoplastic small round cell tumor. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2353 pubmed publisher..Furthermore, identification of ENT4 as a highly expressed transcript in DSRCT may represent an attractive pathway for targeting chemotherapeutic drugs into DSRCT. ..
- Duan H, Wang J. Selective transport of monoamine neurotransmitters by human plasma membrane monoamine transporter and organic cation transporter 3. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010;335:743-53 pubmed publisher..hPMAT, on the other hand, is a major uptake(2) transporter for 5-HT and dopamine and may play a more important role in transporting these two neurotransmitters in the central nervous system. ..
- Guallar J, Cano Soldado P, Aymerich I, Domingo J, Alegre M, Domingo P, et al. Altered expression of nucleoside transporter genes (SLC28 and SLC29) in adipose tissue from HIV-1-infected patients. Antivir Ther. 2007;12:853-63 pubmed..Nucleoside transporter proteins (NTs) encoded by members of the SLC28 and SLC29 gene families contribute to nucleoside and nucleobase recycling but also modulate extracellular adenosine levels and thus adenosine-regulated metabolic targets...
- Wang C, Lin W, Playa H, Sun S, Cameron K, Buolamwini J. Dipyridamole analogs as pharmacological inhibitors of equilibrative nucleoside transporters. Identification of novel potent and selective inhibitors of the adenosine transporter function of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 4 (hENT4). Biochem Pharmacol. 2013;86:1531-40 pubmed publisher..Also, the new hENT4-expressing PK15 cell line established will serve as a useful screening tool for the discovery and design of hENT4 ligands. ..
- Zhou M, Xia L, Wang J. Metformin transport by a newly cloned proton-stimulated organic cation transporter (plasma membrane monoamine transporter) expressed in human intestine. Drug Metab Dispos. 2007;35:1956-62 pubmed..Taken together, our results suggest that PMAT transports metformin, is expressed in human intestine, and may play a role in the intestinal absorption of metformin and possibly other cationic drugs. ..
- Liu T, Fujita T, Kawasaki Y, Kumamoto E. Regulation by equilibrative nucleoside transporter of adenosine outward currents in adult rat spinal dorsal horn neurons. Brain Res Bull. 2004;64:75-83 pubmed..Considering that intrathecally-administered adenosine analogues produce antinociception, the regulatory systems of adenosine may serve as targets for antinociceptive drugs. ..
- Acimovic Y, Coe I. Molecular evolution of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter family: identification of novel family members in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Mol Biol Evol. 2002;19:2199-210 pubmed..Finally, we propose an evolutionary history for the ENT family which clarifies the origin(s) of multiple isoforms in different taxa. ..
- Martin R, Henry R, Abbey J, Clements J, Kirk K. The 'permeome' of the malaria parasite: an overview of the membrane transport proteins of Plasmodium falciparum. Genome Biol. 2005;6:R26 pubmed..The malaria parasite possesses substantially more membrane transport proteins than was originally thought, and the analyses presented here provide a range of novel insights into the physiology of this important human pathogen. ..
- Hirose N, Makita N, Yamaya T, Sakakibara H. Functional characterization and expression analysis of a gene, OsENT2, encoding an equilibrative nucleoside transporter in rice suggest a function in cytokinin transport. Plant Physiol. 2005;138:196-206 pubmed
- Musa H, Dobrzynski H, Berry Z, Abidi F, Cass C, Young J, et al. Immunocytochemical demonstration of the equilibrative nucleoside transporter rENT1 in rat sinoatrial node. J Histochem Cytochem. 2002;50:305-9 pubmed
- Pardo F, Arroyo P, Salomon C, Westermeier F, Salsoso R, Saez T, et al. Role of equilibrative adenosine transporters and adenosine receptors as modulators of the human placental endothelium in gestational diabetes mellitus. Placenta. 2013;34:1121-7 pubmed publisher..This phenomenon is altered in the feto-placental vasculature, which could be crucial for understanding GDM deleterious effects in fetal growth and development. ..
- Sundaram M, Yao S, Ng A, Cass C, Baldwin S, Young J. Equilibrative nucleoside transporters: mapping regions of interaction for the substrate analogue nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR) using rat chimeric proteins. Biochemistry. 2001;40:8146-51 pubmed..Since NBMPR is a nucleoside analogue and functions as a competitive inhibitor of zero-trans nucleoside influx, TMs 3-6 are likely to form parts of the substrate translocation channel. ..
- Yao S, Ng A, Muzyka W, Griffiths M, Cass C, Baldwin S, et al. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR)-sensitive (es) and NBMPR-insensitive (ei) equilibrative nucleoside transporter proteins (rENT1 and rENT2) from rat tissues. J Biol Chem. 1997;272:28423-30 pubmed..These observations demonstrate that es and ei nucleoside transport activities are mediated by separate, but homologous, proteins and establish a function for the HNP36 gene product. ..
- Kiss A, Farah K, Kim J, Garriock R, Drysdale T, Hammond J. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of inhibitor-sensitive (mENT1) and inhibitor-resistant (mENT2) equilibrative nucleoside transporters from mouse brain. Biochem J. 2000;352 Pt 2:363-72 pubmed..Adenosine inhibited both systems with a similar potency, as did a range of other purine and pyrimidine nucleosides. These results are compatible with the known characteristics of the native mENT1 and mENT2 transporters. ..
- Bottalico B, Noskova V, Pilka R, Larsson I, Domanski H, Casslén B, et al. The organic cation transporters (OCT1, OCT2, EMT) and the plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) show differential distribution and cyclic expression pattern in human endometrium and early pregnancy decidua. Mol Reprod Dev. 2007;74:1303-11 pubmed..Taken together with our previous finding of VMAT2 mRNA in epithelial cells, we suggest a paracrine interaction between stromal and epithelial cells, which may modulate certain steps of the reproductive process. ..
- Govindarajan R, Bakken A, Hudkins K, Lai Y, Casado F, Pastor Anglada M, et al. In situ hybridization and immunolocalization of concentrative and equilibrative nucleoside transporters in the human intestine, liver, kidneys, and placenta. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2007;293:R1809-22 pubmed..These data are critical for a better understanding of the role of nucleoside transporters in the physiological and pharmacological effects of nucleosides and nucleoside drugs, respectively. ..
- Costello E, Greenhalf W, Neoptolemos J. New biomarkers and targets in pancreatic cancer and their application to treatment. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012;9:435-44 pubmed publisher..We provide an overview of current treatments and, finally, we discuss novel therapeutic approaches, including the role of biomarkers in therapy for pancreatic cancer. ..
- Ramakers B, Riksen N, Stal T, Heemskerk S, van den Broek P, Peters W, et al. Dipyridamole augments the antiinflammatory response during human endotoxemia. Crit Care. 2011;15:R289 pubmed publisher..ClinicalTrials (NCT): NCT01091571. ..
- Bock A, Dong H, Trope C, Staff A, Risberg B, Davidson B. Nucleoside transporters are widely expressed in ovarian carcinoma effusions. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2012;69:467-75 pubmed publisher..The role of ENT2 as a prognostic marker in this disease, as well as the role of these molecules in determining chemoresponse in patients treated by nucleoside analogs, merits further research. ..
- Silva I, Costa A, Moreira S, Ferreirinha F, Magalhães Cardoso M, Calejo I, et al. Inhibition of cholinergic neurotransmission by ?3-adrenoceptors depends on adenosine release and A1-receptor activation in human and rat urinary bladders. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2017;313:F388-F403 pubmed publisher
- Wall M, Atterbury A, Dale N. Control of basal extracellular adenosine concentration in rat cerebellum. J Physiol. 2007;582:137-51 pubmed..The increased spatial and temporal resolution of the purine biosensor measurements has revealed the complexity of the control of adenosine and purine tone in the cerebellum. ..
- Marshman E, Taylor G, Thomas H, Newell D, Curtin N. Hypoxanthine transport in human tumour cell lines: relationship to the inhibition of hypoxanthine rescue by dipyridamole. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001;61:477-84 pubmed
- Yamashita A, Ohnishi T, Ohno S. [mRNA surveillance]. Tanpakushitsu Kakusan Koso. 2002;47:101-12 pubmed
- Melendez R, Kalivas P. Last call for adenosine transporters. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:795-6 pubmed
- Lu H, Chen C, Klaassen C. Tissue distribution of concentrative and equilibrative nucleoside transporters in male and female rats and mice. Drug Metab Dispos. 2004;32:1455-61 pubmed..However, a few important species and gender differences do exist, which could be responsible for related differences in efficacy and toxicity of substrates for these transporters. ..
- Huang M, Wang Y, Mitchell B, Graves L. Regulation of equilibrative nucleoside uptake by protein kinase inhibitors. Nucleosides Nucleotides Nucleic Acids. 2004;23:1445-50 pubmed
- Surratt C, Ukairo O, Ramanujapuram S. Recognition of psychostimulants, antidepressants, and other inhibitors of synaptic neurotransmitter uptake by the plasma membrane monoamine transporters. AAPS J. 2005;7:E739-51 pubmed
- Machado J, Abdulla P, Hanna W, Hilliker A, Coe I. Genomic analysis of nucleoside transporters in Diptera and functional characterization of DmENT2, a Drosophila equilibrative nucleoside transporter. Physiol Genomics. 2007;28:337-47 pubmed..These data represent the first complete genomic analysis of Dipteran NTs and the first report of the functional characterization of any Dipteran NT. ..
- Purcet S, Minuesa G, Molina Arcas M, Erkizia I, Casado F, Clotet B, et al. 3'-Azido-2',3'-dideoxythymidine (zidovudine) uptake mechanisms in T lymphocytes. Antivir Ther. 2006;11:803-11 pubmed
- Young J, Yao S, Sun L, Cass C, Baldwin S. Human equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT) family of nucleoside and nucleobase transporter proteins. Xenobiotica. 2008;38:995-1021 pubmed..4. By regulating the concentration of adenosine available to cell surface receptors, mammalian ENTs additionally influence physiological processes ranging from cardiovascular activity to neurotransmission. ..
- Reyes G, Naydenova Z, Abdulla P, Chalsev M, Villani A, Rose J, et al. Characterization of mammalian equilibrative nucleoside transporters (ENTs) by mass spectrometry. Protein Expr Purif. 2010;73:1-9 pubmed publisher..This proteomic approach will allow for a more detailed analysis of the structure, function and regulation of ENTs in the future. ..
- Zhou M, Duan H, Engel K, Xia L, Wang J. Adenosine transport by plasma membrane monoamine transporter: reinvestigation and comparison with organic cations. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:1798-805 pubmed publisher..Functionally, PMAT should be viewed as a polyspecific organic cation transporter rather than an archetypical nucleoside transporter. ..
- Endo Y, Obata T, Murata D, Ito M, Sakamoto K, Fukushima M, et al. Cellular localization and functional characterization of the equilibrative nucleoside transporters of antitumor nucleosides. Cancer Sci. 2007;98:1633-7 pubmed..These data suggest that hENT3 and hENT4, which are mainly located in the intracellular organelles, are not prominent nucleoside transporters like hENT1 and hENT2, which are responsible for antitumor nucleoside uptake. ..
- Plotnik D, Emerick L, Krohn K, Unadkat J, Schwartz J. Different modes of transport for 3H-thymidine, 3H-FLT, and 3H-FMAU in proliferating and nonproliferating human tumor cells. J Nucl Med. 2010;51:1464-71 pubmed publisher..Transport mechanisms are not the same for (3)H-thymidine, (3)H-FLT, and (3)H-FMAU. Levels of hENT1, an important transporter of (3)H-FLT and (3)H-thymidine, increase as proliferating cells enter the cell cycle. ..
- Alanko L, Porkka Heiskanen T, Soinila S. Localization of equilibrative nucleoside transporters in the rat brain. J Chem Neuroanat. 2006;31:162-8 pubmed..Both transporters were present in practically all neurons. Some astrocytes showed equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 staining, while equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 staining on astrocytes was observed only sporadically. ..
- Duan H, Wang J. Impaired monoamine and organic cation uptake in choroid plexus in mice with targeted disruption of the plasma membrane monoamine transporter (Slc29a4) gene. J Biol Chem. 2013;288:3535-44 pubmed publisher..By removing its substrates from the CSF, PMAT may play an important role in protecting the brain from cationic neurotoxins and other potentially toxic organic cations. ..
- Bernard C, Traub M, Kunz H, Hach S, Trentmann O, Möhlmann T. Equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (ENT1) is critical for pollen germination and vegetative growth in Arabidopsis. J Exp Bot. 2011;62:4627-37 pubmed publisher..This indicates that ENT1-mediated nucleosides, especially adenosine transport, is important for nucleotide metabolism, thus influencing growth and pollen germination. ..
- Li R, Yang C, Sit A, Lin S, Ho E, Leung G. Physiological and pharmacological roles of vascular nucleoside transporters. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2012;59:10-5 pubmed publisher..In addition to their original pharmacological actions, it is believed that the drugs mentioned above may regulate vascular functions through potentiation of the effects of adenosine. ..
- Ohashi A, Sugawara Y, Mamada K, Harada Y, Sumi T, Anzai N, et al. Membrane transport of sepiapterin and dihydrobiopterin by equilibrative nucleoside transporters: a plausible gateway for the salvage pathway of tetrahydrobiopterin biosynthesis. Mol Genet Metab. 2011;102:18-28 pubmed publisher..The significance of the gateway was discussed in terms of BH(2) uptake for BH(4) accumulation and the release for modifying the intracellular BH(2)/BH(4) ratio. ..
- Genter M, Krishan M, Augustine L, Cherrington N. Drug transporter expression and localization in rat nasal respiratory and olfactory mucosa and olfactory bulb. Drug Metab Dispos. 2010;38:1644-7 pubmed publisher..OATP3 immunoreactivity was high in olfactory epithelium and olfactory nerve bundles, which suggests that substrates transported by OATP3 may be candidates for intranasal administration...
- Naganuma F, Yoshikawa T, Nakamura T, Iida T, Harada R, Mohsen A, et al. Predominant role of plasma membrane monoamine transporters in monoamine transport in 1321N1, a human astrocytoma-derived cell line. J Neurochem. 2014;129:591-601 pubmed publisher..These results might indicate that PMAT and OCT3 in human astrocytes are involved in monoamine clearance. ..
- Ho H, Wang J. Tyrosine 112 is essential for organic cation transport by the plasma membrane monoamine transporter. Biochemistry. 2010;49:7839-46 pubmed publisher..Our analyses also suggest the involvement of transmembrane domains 1 and 2 in forming the substrate permeation pathway of PMAT. ..