atp translocases mitochondrial adp


Summary: A class of nucleotide translocases found abundantly in mitochondria that function as integral components of the inner mitochondrial membrane. They facilitate the exchange of ADP and ATP between the cytosol and the mitochondria, thereby linking the subcellular compartments of ATP production to those of ATP utilization.

Top Publications

  1. Machida K, Hayashi Y, Osada H. A novel adenine nucleotide translocase inhibitor, MT-21, induces cytochrome c release by a mitochondrial permeability transition-independent mechanism. J Biol Chem. 2002;277:31243-8 pubmed
    ..Therefore, MT-21 can be a powerful tool for studying the mechanism of PT-independent cytochrome c release from mitochondria. ..
  2. Fontanesi F, Palmieri L, Scarcia P, Lodi T, Donnini C, Limongelli A, et al. Mutations in AAC2, equivalent to human adPEO-associated ANT1 mutations, lead to defective oxidative phosphorylation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and affect mitochondrial DNA stability. Hum Mol Genet. 2004;13:923-34 pubmed
    ..cerevisiae is a suitable in vivo model to study the pathogenicity of the human ANT1 mutations and the pathophysiology leading to impairment of oxidative phosphorylation and damage of mtDNA integrity, as found in adPEO. ..
  3. Pebay Peyroula E, Dahout Gonzalez C, Kahn R, Trezeguet V, Lauquin G, Brandolin G. Structure of mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier in complex with carboxyatractyloside. Nature. 2003;426:39-44 pubmed
    ..Our structure, together with earlier biochemical results, suggests that transport substrates bind to the bottom of the cavity and that translocation results from a transient transition from a 'pit' to a 'channel' conformation. ..
  4. Leung A, Halestrap A. Recent progress in elucidating the molecular mechanism of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2008;1777:946-52 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that this is enhanced by an association of the PiC with the "c" conformation of the ANT. Agents that modulate pore opening may act on either or both the PiC and the ANT. ..
  5. Parker N, Affourtit C, Vidal Puig A, Brand M. Energization-dependent endogenous activation of proton conductance in skeletal muscle mitochondria. Biochem J. 2008;412:131-9 pubmed publisher
  6. Marzo I, Brenner C, Zamzami N, Jurgensmeier J, Susin S, Vieira H, et al. Bax and adenine nucleotide translocator cooperate in the mitochondrial control of apoptosis. Science. 1998;281:2027-31 pubmed
    ..Hence, the proapoptotic molecule Bax and the constitutive mitochondrial protein ANT cooperate within the PTPC to increase mitochondrial membrane permeability and to trigger cell death. ..
  7. Shimizu S, Narita M, Tsujimoto Y. Bcl-2 family proteins regulate the release of apoptogenic cytochrome c by the mitochondrial channel VDAC. Nature. 1999;399:483-7 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that the Bcl-2 family of proteins bind to the VDAC in order to regulate the mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c during apoptosis. ..
  8. Belzacq A, Vieira H, Verrier F, Vandecasteele G, Cohen I, Prevost M, et al. Bcl-2 and Bax modulate adenine nucleotide translocase activity. Cancer Res. 2003;63:541-6 pubmed
    ..Bcl-2 would maintain the translocase activity at high levels, whereas Bax would inhibit the translocase function of ANT. ..
  9. Robinson A, Kunji E. Mitochondrial carriers in the cytoplasmic state have a common substrate binding site. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:2617-22 pubmed
    ..It enables the substrate specificity of uncharacterized mitochondrial carriers to be predicted. ..

More Information


  1. Cadenas S, Buckingham J, St Pierre J, Dickinson K, Jones R, Brand M. AMP decreases the efficiency of skeletal-muscle mitochondria. Biochem J. 2000;351 Pt 2:307-11 pubmed
    ..AMP activation of ANT could be important for physiological regulation of metabolic rate. ..
  2. Echtay K, Pakay J, Esteves T, Brand M. Hydroxynonenal and uncoupling proteins: a model for protection against oxidative damage. Biofactors. 2005;24:119-30 pubmed
    ..This activation induces mild uncoupling and so diminishes mitochondrial superoxide production, hence protecting against disease and oxidative damage at the expense of energy production. ..
  3. Palmieri L, Alberio S, Pisano I, Lodi T, Meznaric Petrusa M, Zidar J, et al. Complete loss-of-function of the heart/muscle-specific adenine nucleotide translocator is associated with mitochondrial myopathy and cardiomyopathy. Hum Mol Genet. 2005;14:3079-88 pubmed
  4. Panneels V, Schüssler U, Costagliola S, Sinning I. Choline head groups stabilize the matrix loop regions of the ATP/ADP carrier ScAAC2. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003;300:65-74 pubmed
    ..Since in addition phosphatidylcholine was found to be tightly associated with the purified carrier, the matrix loop regions are likely to be associated to the membrane by phosphatidylcholine. ..
  5. Brand M, Pakay J, Ocloo A, Kokoszka J, Wallace D, Brookes P, et al. The basal proton conductance of mitochondria depends on adenine nucleotide translocase content. Biochem J. 2005;392:353-62 pubmed
    ..We conclude that half to two-thirds of the basal proton conductance of mitochondria is catalysed by the adenine nucleotide carrier, independently of its ATP/ADP exchange or fatty-acid-dependent proton-leak functions. ..
  6. Halestrap A. Biochemistry: a pore way to die. Nature. 2005;434:578-9 pubmed
  7. Talbot D, Duchamp C, Rey B, Hanuise N, Rouanet J, Sibille B, et al. Uncoupling protein and ATP/ADP carrier increase mitochondrial proton conductance after cold adaptation of king penguins. J Physiol. 2004;558:123-35 pubmed
  8. Brustovetsky N, Tropschug M, Heimpel S, Heidkämper D, Klingenberg M. A large Ca2+-dependent channel formed by recombinant ADP/ATP carrier from Neurospora crassa resembles the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Biochemistry. 2002;41:11804-11 pubmed
    ..The results show that the AAC can be a conducting component of the mPT pore, exhibiting similar characteristics as the mPT pore (response to Ca(2+), BKA, ADP), with a cyclophilin and pro-oxidant-sensitive gating at high voltage. ..
  9. Kunji E. The role and structure of mitochondrial carriers. FEBS Lett. 2004;564:239-44 pubmed
    ..The projection structure of the yeast ADP/ATP carrier by electron crystallography shows that carriers could form homo-dimers in the membrane. ..
  10. Khailova L, Prikhodko E, Dedukhova V, Mokhova E, Popov V, Skulachev V. Participation of ATP/ADP antiporter in oleate- and oleate hydroperoxide-induced uncoupling suppressed by GDP and carboxyatractylate. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2006;1757:1324-9 pubmed
    ..As to GDP recoupling, it cannot be regarded as a specific probe for uncoupling by UCPs since it can be mediated by the ATP/ADP antiporter. ..
  11. Crompton M, Virji S, Ward J. Cyclophilin-D binds strongly to complexes of the voltage-dependent anion channel and the adenine nucleotide translocase to form the permeability transition pore. Eur J Biochem. 1998;258:729-35 pubmed
  12. Woodfield K, Ruck A, Brdiczka D, Halestrap A. Direct demonstration of a specific interaction between cyclophilin-D and the adenine nucleotide translocase confirms their role in the mitochondrial permeability transition. Biochem J. 1998;336 ( Pt 2):287-90 pubmed
    ..Binding was prevented by pretreatment of the CyP-D with CsA, but not with cyclosporin H. Purified ANT also bound specifically to GST-CyP-D, but porin did not, even in the presence of ANT. ..
  13. Lou P, Hansen B, Olsen P, Tullin S, Murphy M, Brand M. Mitochondrial uncouplers with an extraordinary dynamic range. Biochem J. 2007;407:129-40 pubmed
  14. Parker N, Vidal Puig A, Brand M. Stimulation of mitochondrial proton conductance by hydroxynonenal requires a high membrane potential. Biosci Rep. 2008;28:83-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that both endogenous HNE production and high membrane potential are required before mild uncoupling will be triggered to attenuate mitochondrial ROS production. ..
  15. Halestrap A, Kerr P, Javadov S, Woodfield K. Elucidating the molecular mechanism of the permeability transition pore and its role in reperfusion injury of the heart. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1998;1366:79-94 pubmed
    ..Third we discuss how the MPT may be involved in determining whether cell death occurs by necrosis (extensive pore opening and ATP depletion) or apoptosis (transient pore opening with maintenance of ATP). ..
  16. Echtay K, Esteves T, Pakay J, Jekabsons M, Lambert A, Portero Otin M, et al. A signalling role for 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal in regulation of mitochondrial uncoupling. EMBO J. 2003;22:4103-10 pubmed
    ..Our findings indicate that hydroxynonenal is not merely toxic, but may be a biological signal to induce uncoupling through UCPs and ANT and thus decrease mitochondrial ROS production. ..
  17. Leung A, Varanyuwatana P, Halestrap A. The mitochondrial phosphate carrier interacts with cyclophilin D and may play a key role in the permeability transition. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:26312-23 pubmed publisher
    ..An interaction of the PiC with the ANT may enable agents that bind to either transporter to modulate pore opening...
  18. Vyssokikh M, Brdiczka D. The function of complexes between the outer mitochondrial membrane pore (VDAC) and the adenine nucleotide translocase in regulation of energy metabolism and apoptosis. Acta Biochim Pol. 2003;50:389-404 pubmed
    ..However, when, for example, free radicals cause dissociation of the octamer, VDAC interacts with the ANT with the same results as described above: Bax-dependent cytochrome c release and risk of permeability transition pore opening. ..
  19. Baines C. The molecular composition of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;46:850-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this review is to outline our current understanding of the molecular identity of the MPT pore and the many questions that still need to be answered. ..
  20. Baker A, Leaver C. Isolation and sequence analysis of a cDNA encoding the ATP/ADP translocator of Zea mays L. Nucleic Acids Res. 1985;13:5857-67 pubmed
    ..which encodes a polypeptide of molecular weight 40,519. This polypeptide exhibits a high degree of homology to the translocator polypeptides of beef heart and Neurospora crassa mitochondria. ..
  21. Vyssokikh M, Katz A, Rueck A, Wuensch C, Dorner A, Zorov D, et al. Adenine nucleotide translocator isoforms 1 and 2 are differently distributed in the mitochondrial inner membrane and have distinct affinities to cyclophilin D. Biochem J. 2001;358:349-58 pubmed
    ..This specific intra-mitochondrial distribution of the two ANT isotypes and cyclophilin D suggests specific functions of the peripheral and crista-forming parts of the inner membrane and the two ANT isotypes therein. ..
  22. Metelkin E, Demin O, Kovács Z, Chinopoulos C. Modeling of ATP-ADP steady-state exchange rate mediated by the adenine nucleotide translocase in isolated mitochondria. FEBS J. 2009;276:6942-55 pubmed publisher
  23. Sade H, Khandre N, Mathew M, Sarin A. The mitochondrial phase of the glucocorticoid-induced apoptotic response in thymocytes comprises sequential activation of adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT)-independent and ANT-dependent events. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:119-25 pubmed
  24. Ellison J, Salido E, Shapiro L. Genetic mapping of the adenine nucleotide translocase-2 gene (Ant2) to the mouse proximal X chromosome. Genomics. 1996;36:369-71 pubmed
    ..This map assignment further defines a region of conserved synteny between human Xq22-q25 and the mouse proximal X chromosome. ..
  25. Wang Q, Liao Y, Gong F, Mao H, Zhang J. Possible association of HLA-DRB1 gene with the autoantibody against myocardial mitochondria ADP/ATP carrier in dilated cardiomyopathy. J Huazhong Univ Sci Technolog Med Sci. 2002;22:231-2, 245 pubmed
    ..The other frequencies of HLA-DRB1 alleles have no significant difference in the antibody positive group and negative group. It is possible that a subset of DCM patients may exist in which autoimmunity is associated with genetic factors. ..
  26. Guderley H, Turner N, Else P, Hulbert A. Why are some mitochondria more powerful than others: insights from comparisons of muscle mitochondria from three terrestrial vertebrates. Comp Biochem Physiol B Biochem Mol Biol. 2005;142:172-80 pubmed
    ..We suggest that the numbers of CCO and ANT together with the poly-unsaturation of phospholipids explain the higher oxidative capacities in muscle mitochondria from rats and cane toads...
  27. Dmitriev L. Shortage of lipid-radical cycles in membranes as a possible prime cause of energetic failure in aging and Alzheimer disease. Neurochem Res. 2007;32:1278-91 pubmed
    ..While this fact is not widely appreciated it may be relevant to elucidation of new mechanisms of neurodegenerative diseases. ..
  28. Rey M, Man P, Clémençon B, Trezeguet V, Brandolin G, Forest E, et al. Conformational dynamics of the bovine mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier isoform 1 revealed by hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to mass spectrometry. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:34981-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These results are discussed with respect to the structural and biochemical data available on Ancp. ..
  29. Hatanaka T, Kihira Y, Shinohara Y, Majima E, Terada H. Characterization of loops of the yeast mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier facing the cytosol by site-directed mutagenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001;286:936-42 pubmed
    ..The effects of transport inhibitors on EMA labeling were also examined. From the results, the location and conformation of the region around mutated residues were discussed. ..
  30. Kucejova B, Li L, Wang X, Giannattasio S, Chen X. Pleiotropic effects of the yeast Sal1 and Aac2 carriers on mitochondrial function via an activity distinct from adenine nucleotide transport. Mol Genet Genomics. 2008;280:25-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, our data support the view that the V function is independent of adenine nucleotide transport associated with Sal1p and Aac2p and this evolutionarily conserved activity affects multiple processes in mitochondria. ..
  31. Baines C, Molkentin J. Adenine nucleotide translocase-1 induces cardiomyocyte death through upregulation of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2009;46:969-77 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data indicate that ANT mediates cell death, not through the MPT pore, but rather via a ROS-dependent upregulation and activation of Bax. ..
  32. Rikhy R, Ramaswami M, Krishnan K. A temperature-sensitive allele of Drosophila sesB reveals acute functions for the mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase in synaptic transmission and dynamin regulation. Genetics. 2003;165:1243-53 pubmed
  33. Haucke V, Schatz G. Reconstitution of the protein insertion machinery of the mitochondrial inner membrane. EMBO J. 1997;16:4560-7 pubmed
    ..The protein insertion machinery can thus operate independently of the energy-transducing Tim44p-mhsp70 complex. ..
  34. Harper M, Himms Hagen J. Mitochondrial efficiency: lessons learned from transgenic mice. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2001;1504:159-72 pubmed
    ..Many studies have also shown that genetic background can affect phenotypic outcomes, and that the upregulated expression of genes that are related to the modified gene often complicates the interpretation of findings. ..
  35. Wijmenga C, Winokur S, Padberg G, Skraastad M, Altherr M, Wasmuth J, et al. The human skeletal muscle adenine nucleotide translocator gene maps to chromosome 4q35 in the region of the facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy locus. Hum Genet. 1993;92:198-203 pubmed
    ..These data together exclude ANT1 as the primary candidate gene for FSHD. The most likely order of the loci on chromosome 4q35 is cen-ANT1-D4S171-F11-D4S187-D4S163-D4S139-+ ++FSHD-tel. ..
  36. Matsuba C, Uolevi Palo J, L Kuzmin S, Merilä J. Evidence for multiple retroposition events and gene evolution in the ADP/ATP translocase gene family in Ranid frogs. J Hered. 2007;98:300-10 pubmed
    ..neutral, purifying, and positive selection), and the evolutionary history of different AAT variants appears to differ even among different species. ..
  37. Petrosillo G, Casanova G, Matera M, Ruggiero F, Paradies G. Interaction of peroxidized cardiolipin with rat-heart mitochondrial membranes: induction of permeability transition and cytochrome c release. FEBS Lett. 2006;580:6311-6 pubmed
  38. Liu R, Strom A, Zhai J, Gal J, Bao S, Gong W, et al. Enzymatically inactive adenylate kinase 4 interacts with mitochondrial ADP/ATP translocase. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:1371-80 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that the interaction with the mitochondrial inner membrane protein ANT is important for AK4 to exert the protective benefits to cells under stress. ..
  39. Audia J, Roberts R, Winkler H. Cysteine-scanning mutagenesis and thiol modification of the Rickettsia prowazekii ATP/ADP translocase: characterization of TMs IV-VII and IX-XII and their accessibility to the aqueous translocation pathway. Biochemistry. 2006;45:2648-56 pubmed
  40. Johnston J, Khalid S, Sansom M. Conformational dynamics of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier: a simulation study. Mol Membr Biol. 2008;25:506-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the simulations support a transport mechanism in which flexibility about the proline hinges enables a transition between a 'closed' and an 'open' pore-like state of the carrier protein. ..
  41. Traba J, Froschauer E, Wiesenberger G, Satrustegui J, del Arco A. Yeast mitochondria import ATP through the calcium-dependent ATP-Mg/Pi carrier Sal1p, and are ATP consumers during aerobic growth in glucose. Mol Microbiol. 2008;69:570-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Whether this mechanism is used under similar settings in higher eukaryotes is an open question. ..
  42. Ciapaite J, van Eikenhorst G, Krab K. Application of modular control analysis to inhibition of the adenine nucleotide translocator by palmitoyl-CoA. Mol Biol Rep. 2002;29:13-6 pubmed
    ..A new method has been used to determine the fraction of ATP in the mitochondrial matrix. ..
  43. Yamaguchi N, Kasai M. Identification of 30 kDa calsequestrin-binding protein, which regulates calcium release from sarcoplasmic reticulum of rabbit skeletal muscle. Biochem J. 1998;335 ( Pt 3):541-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that AAT itself is expressed in the rabbit skeletal muscle SR and regulates the Ca2+ release from the SR; that is, excitation-contraction coupling of the skeletal muscle cell. ..
  44. Silva B, Oliveira P, Cristóvão A, Dias A, Malva J. Biapigenin modulates the activity of the adenine nucleotide translocator in isolated rat brain mitochondria. Neurotox Res. 2010;17:75-90 pubmed publisher
  45. Bof M, Brandolin G, Satre M, Klein G. The mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocator from Dictyostelium discoideum. Functional characterization and DNA sequencing. Eur J Biochem. 1999;259:795-800 pubmed
    ..Northern blot analysis revealed that the expression of the D. discoideum ant gene decreased rapidly during the first hours of multicellular development but the amount of protein remained stable throughout differentiation. ..
  46. Clémençon B, Rey M, Dianoux A, Trezeguet V, Lauquin G, Brandolin G, et al. Structure-function relationships of the C-terminal end of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADP/ATP carrier isoform 2. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:11218-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our results highlight the involvement of the Anc2p C-terminal region in nucleotide recognition, binding, and transport. ..
  47. Buchet K, Godinot C. Functional F1-ATPase essential in maintaining growth and membrane potential of human mitochondrial DNA-depleted rho degrees cells. J Biol Chem. 1998;273:22983-9 pubmed
    ..However, since the effects of bongkrekic acid and of aurovertin were additive, other electrogenic pumps should cooperate with this pathway. ..
  48. Fan W, Kou H, Shen D, LeRoy E. Identification of altered expression of ADP/ATP translocase during cellular senescence in vitro. Exp Gerontol. 1998;33:457-65 pubmed
  49. Maedler K, Spinas G, Dyntar D, Moritz W, Kaiser N, Donath M. Distinct effects of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids on beta-cell turnover and function. Diabetes. 2001;50:69-76 pubmed
  50. Wang X, Salinas K, Zuo X, Kucejova B, Chen X. Dominant membrane uncoupling by mutant adenine nucleotide translocase in mitochondrial diseases. Hum Mol Genet. 2008;17:4036-44 pubmed publisher
    ..mtDNA disintegration is a phenotype co-lateral to mitochondrial damages. These findings provide mechanistic insights into the pathogenesis of the Ant1-induced diseases. ..
  51. Wiedemann N, Pfanner N, Ryan M. The three modules of ADP/ATP carrier cooperate in receptor recruitment and translocation into mitochondria. EMBO J. 2001;20:951-60 pubmed
    ..We propose a new concept for import of the hydrophobic carrier proteins into mitochondria where multiple signals cooperate in receptor recruitment, outer membrane translocation via loop formation and assembly in the inner membrane. ..
  52. Grzyb K, Skorkowski E. [Creatine kinase isoenzymes--characterization and functions in cell]. Postepy Biochem. 2008;54:274-83 pubmed
    ..Mt-CK with its substrates also activates oxidative phosphorylation and effectively inhibits formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore. Any destabilization of octamer structure would induce an apoptosis process. ..
  53. Detke S, Elsabrouty R. Leishmania mexicana amazonensis: plasma membrane adenine nucleotide translocator and chemotaxis. Exp Parasitol. 2008;118:408-19 pubmed
    ..ATP is a chemorepellant for Leishmania and cells treated with atractyloside, an inhibitor of ANT, no longer exhibit negative chemotaxis for this compound. ..
  54. Chang K, MIN K. Drosophila melanogaster homolog of Down syndrome critical region 1 is critical for mitochondrial function. Nat Neurosci. 2005;8:1577-85 pubmed
    ..These results identify nebula/DSCR1 as a regulator of mitochondrial function and integrity and further suggest that an increased level of DSCR1 may contribute to the mitochondrial dysfunction seen in Down syndrome. ..
  55. Notario B, Manchado C, Zamora M, Mampel T, Viñas O. Assessment of membrane-bound mammal mitochondrial adenine nucleotide translocase topography by experimental antibodies. Biochemistry. 2003;42:820-8 pubmed
    ..The results clearly show that these loops have a matrix orientation and thus support the six transmembrane segment model of ANT topography in the inner mitochondrial membrane. ..
  56. Samartsev V, Belosludtsev K, Chezganova S, Zeldi I. Effect of ethanol on the palmitate-induced uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation in liver mitochondria. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2002;67:1240-7 pubmed
    ..Possible mechanisms of fatty acid translocation from one transporter to another are discussed. ..
  57. Ledesma A, de Lacoba M, Arechaga I, Rial E. Modeling the transmembrane arrangement of the uncoupling protein UCP1 and topological considerations of the nucleotide-binding site. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2002;34:473-86 pubmed
    ..The purine ring interacts with the matrix loops while the polyphosphate chain is stabilized through interactions with essential Arg residues in the TMH and whose side chains face the core of the helix bundle. ..
  58. Notario B, Zamora M, Viñas O, Mampel T. All-trans-retinoic acid binds to and inhibits adenine nucleotide translocase and induces mitochondrial permeability transition. Mol Pharmacol. 2003;63:224-31 pubmed
    ..These observations establish a novel mechanism for atRA action, which could control both energetic and apoptotic mitochondrial processes in situations such as retinoic acid treatment. ..
  59. Pereira C, Chaves S, Alves S, Salin B, Camougrand N, Manon S, et al. Mitochondrial degradation in acetic acid-induced yeast apoptosis: the role of Pep4 and the ADP/ATP carrier. Mol Microbiol. 2010;76:1398-410 pubmed publisher
    ..The finding that both mitochondrial AAC proteins and the vacuolar Pep4p interfere with mitochondrial degradation suggests a complex regulation and interplay between mitochondria and the vacuole in yeast programmed cell death...
  60. Haferkamp I, Hackstein J, Voncken F, Schmit G, Tjaden J. Functional integration of mitochondrial and hydrogenosomal ADP/ATP carriers in the Escherichia coli membrane reveals different biochemical characteristics for plants, mammals and anaerobic chytrids. Eur J Biochem. 2002;269:3172-81 pubmed
  61. Ning X, Chen S, Xu C, Li L, Yao L, Qian K, et al. Hypothermic protection of the ischemic heart via alterations in apoptotic pathways as assessed by gene array analysis. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002;92:2200-7 pubmed
    ..These data imply that hypothermia modifies signaling pathways for apoptosis and suggest possible mechanisms for hypothermia-induced myocardial protection. ..
  62. Santamaria M, Lanave C, Saccone C. The evolution of the adenine nucleotide translocase family. Gene. 2004;333:51-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the logo analysis has been carried out to characterize the conservation features of ANT proteins particularly in their three similar domains originated by duplication...
  63. Hatanaka T, Hashimoto M, Majima E, Shinohara Y, Terada H. Significant effect of the N-terminal region of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier on its efficient expression in yeast mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 2001;276:28881-8 pubmed
    ..Based on our results, we discuss the role of the N-terminal region in efficient expression of bAAC1 and yAAC2 in yeast mitochondria. ..
  64. Mokhova E, Khailova L. Involvement of mitochondrial inner membrane anion carriers in the uncoupling effect of fatty acids. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2005;70:159-63 pubmed
  65. Bakker S, Gans R, ter Maaten J, Teerlink T, Westerhoff H, Heine R. The potential role of adenosine in the pathophysiology of the insulin resistance syndrome. Atherosclerosis. 2001;155:283-90 pubmed
    ..Along the same lines, hyperuricaemia can be explained by the fact that adenosine is broken down to urate and because of increased renal urate retention. ..
  66. Fischer C, Yamada K, Fitzgerald D. Kinetic mechanism for single-stranded DNA binding and translocation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Isw2. Biochemistry. 2009;48:2960-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We also provide evidence that this slow initiation process may correspond to the second step of a two-step DNA binding mechanism by yIsw2 and a quantitative description of the kinetics of this DNA binding mechanism. ..
  67. Bouillaud F, Weissenbach J, Ricquier D. Complete cDNA-derived amino acid sequence of rat brown fat uncoupling protein. J Biol Chem. 1986;261:1487-90 pubmed
    ..We found a significant sequence homology between the uncoupling protein and the ADP/ATP carrier and propose that the nucleotide binding site of the uncoupling protein is localized at the C-terminal end. ..
  68. Kolbe H, Wohlrab H. Sequence of the N-terminal formic acid fragment and location of the N-ethylmaleimide-binding site of the phosphate transport protein from beef heart mitochondria. J Biol Chem. 1985;260:15899-906 pubmed
    ..The inhibitory action of N-ethylmaleimide on the phosphate transport mechanism is discussed. ..
  69. Hofer T, Servais S, Seo A, Marzetti E, Hiona A, Upadhyay S, et al. Bioenergetics and permeability transition pore opening in heart subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar mitochondria: effects of aging and lifelong calorie restriction. Mech Ageing Dev. 2009;130:297-307 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, the age-related reduction of Ca(2+) retention capacity in IFM may explain the increased susceptibility to stress-induced cell death in the aged myocardium...
  70. Rasmussen U, Wohlrab H. Bovine cardiac mitochondrial ADP/ATP-carrier: two distinct mRNAs and an unusually short 3'-noncoding sequence. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1986;138:850-7 pubmed
    ..The predicted amino acid sequence confirms the reported sequence from Val207 to the C-terminal Val297, which has been proposed (residue 279-291) to contribute to a nucleotide binding site. ..
  71. Mills K, Ellison J, Mathews K. The Ant1 gene maps near Klk3 on proximal mouse chromosome 8. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:707 pubmed
  72. Sirrenberg C, Bauer M, Guiard B, Neupert W, Brunner M. Import of carrier proteins into the mitochondrial inner membrane mediated by Tim22. Nature. 1996;384:582-5 pubmed
    ..Import of proteins of the AAC family is independent of Tim23, and import of matrix targeting signals containing preproteins is independent of Tim22. ..
  73. Qi X, Cai Y, Gong L, Liu L, Chen F, Xiao Y, et al. Role of mitochondrial permeability transition in human renal tubular epithelial cell death induced by aristolochic acid. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2007;222:105-10 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggested that MPT plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of HK-2 cell injury induced by AAI and implied that MPT might contribute to human nephrotoxicity of aristolochic acid. ..
  74. Winkler H, Neuhaus H. Non-mitochondrial ATP transport. Trends Biochem Sci. 1999;24:64-8 pubmed
    ..Recent molecular and biochemical studies are providing deeper insight into the functional and evolutionary relationships between the bacterial and the plant transport proteins. ..
  75. Atlante A, Bobba A, de Bari L, Fontana F, Calissano P, Marra E, et al. Caspase-dependent alteration of the ADP/ATP translocator triggers the mitochondrial permeability transition which is not required for the low-potassium-dependent apoptosis of cerebellar granule cells. J Neurochem. 2006;97:1166-81 pubmed
  76. Trezeguet V, Le Saux A, David C, Gourdet C, Fiore C, Dianoux A, et al. A covalent tandem dimer of the mitochondrial ADP/ATP carrier is functional in vivo. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000;1457:81-93 pubmed
  77. Smith C, Thorsness P. Formation of an energized inner membrane in mitochondria with a gamma-deficient F1-ATPase. Eukaryot Cell. 2005;4:2078-86 pubmed
    ..Analysis of the suppressing mutation by blue native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also revealed that the alpha(3)beta(3) heterohexamer can form in the absence of the gamma subunit. ..
  78. Feldkamp T, Kribben A, Weinberg J. F1FO-ATPase activity and ATP dependence of mitochondrial energization in proximal tubules after hypoxia/reoxygenation. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2005;16:1742-51 pubmed
  79. Dassa E, Dahout Gonzalez C, Dianoux A, Brandolin G. Functional characterization and purification of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADP/ATP carrier-iso 1 cytochrome c fusion protein. Protein Expr Purif. 2005;40:358-69 pubmed
    ..Large-scale purification of Anc2-Cyc1(His6)p-CATR complex opens up novel possibilities for the use of crystallographic approaches to the yeast ADP/ATP carrier. ..
  80. Pebay Peyroula E, Brandolin G. Nucleotide exchange in mitochondria: insight at a molecular level. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2004;14:420-5 pubmed
    ..The analysis of residues located in the cavity hints at the mechanism of binding of adenine nucleotides. Additionally, the presence of conserved proline residues in three sharply kinked helices suggests a translocation mechanism. ..
  81. Zara V, Palmisano I, Rassow J, Palmieri F. Biogenesis of the dicarboxylate carrier (DIC): translocation across the mitochondrial outer membrane and subsequent release from the TOM channel are membrane potential-independent. J Mol Biol. 2001;310:965-71 pubmed
    ..The DIC should be a suitable model protein for the characterization of deltapsi-independent functions of the intermembrane space Tim proteins. ..
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