Summary: A family of proteins involved in NUCLEOCYTOPLASMIC TRANSPORT. Karyopherins are heteromeric molecules composed two major types of components, ALPHA KARYOPHERINS and BETA KARYOPHERINS, that function together to transport molecules through the NUCLEAR PORE COMPLEX. Several other proteins such as RAN GTP BINDING PROTEIN and CELLULAR APOPTOSIS SUSCEPTIBILITY PROTEIN bind to karyopherins and participate in the transport process.

Top Publications

  1. Kim J, CASACCIA P. HDAC1 in axonal degeneration: A matter of subcellular localization. Cell Cycle. 2010;9:3680-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that these findings might be the framework for future studies and for the development of novel therapeutic targets for axonal damage in demyelinating conditions. ..
  2. van der Watt P, Maske C, Hendricks D, Parker M, Denny L, Govender D, et al. The Karyopherin proteins, Crm1 and Karyopherin beta1, are overexpressed in cervical cancer and are critical for cancer cell survival and proliferation. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:1829-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Since these are all critical cellular functions, alterations in the expression of the Karyopherins may have an impact on the biology of cancer cells...
  3. Huang W, Yue L, Qiu W, Wang L, Zhou X, Sun Y. Prognostic value of CRM1 in pancreas cancer. Clin Invest Med. 2009;32:E315 pubmed
    ..27-5.39). CRM1 expression demonstrated prognostic value in pancreatic cancer. Prospective studies are required to determine the prognostic role of high expression of CRM1 in pancreatic cancer. ..
  4. Okada H, Zhang X, Ben Fofana I, Nagai M, Suzuki H, Ohashi T, et al. Synergistic effect of human CycT1 and CRM1 on HIV-1 propagation in rat T cells and macrophages. Retrovirology. 2009;6:43 pubmed publisher
    ..R5 viruses produced in rat T cells and macrophages were fully infectious. The expression of both hCycT1 and hCRM1 appears to be fundamental to developing a rat model that supports robust propagation of HIV-1. ..
  5. Phadnis N, Hsieh E, Malik H. Birth, death, and replacement of karyopherins in Drosophila. Mol Biol Evol. 2012;29:1429-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we present a comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of importins (karyopherins) in Drosophila evolution...
  6. Monecke T, Haselbach D, Voß B, Russek A, Neumann P, Thomson E, et al. Structural basis for cooperativity of CRM1 export complex formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:960-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Combining these results, we propose a model for the cooperativity of CRM1 export complex assembly involving the long-range allosteric communication between the distant binding sites of GTP-bound Ran and cargo. ..
  7. Major A, Whiley P, Loveland K. Expression of nucleocytoplasmic transport machinery: clues to regulation of spermatogenic development. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:1668-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Regulation of Signaling and Cellular Fate through Modulation of Nuclear Protein Import. ..
  8. Bennasser Y, Chable Bessia C, Triboulet R, Gibbings D, Gwizdek C, Dargemont C, et al. Competition for XPO5 binding between Dicer mRNA, pre-miRNA and viral RNA regulates human Dicer levels. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2011;18:323-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This saturation also occurred during adenoviral infection and enhanced viral replication. Our study reveals an important cross-regulatory mechanism between pre-miRNA or viral small RNAs and Dicer through exportin-5. ..
  9. Nagai Fukataki M, Ohashi T, Hashimoto I, Kimura T, Hakata Y, Shida H. Nuclear and cytoplasmic effects of human CRM1 on HIV-1 production in rat cells. Genes Cells. 2011;16:203-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicated that hCRM1 exports gag mRNA to the cytoplasm, not only more efficiently than rCRM1 but also correctly, leading to efficient processing of Gag proteins and particle formation. ..

More Information


  1. Fiserova J, Goldberg M. Nucleocytoplasmic transport in yeast: a few roles for many actors. Biochem Soc Trans. 2010;38:273-7 pubmed publisher
    ..It concentrates on the role of individual proteins such as nucleoporins and karyopherins in the translocation process and relates this to how the organization of the nuclear pore complex effectively ..
  2. Walker C, Oaks J, Santhanam R, Neviani P, Harb J, Ferenchak G, et al. Preclinical and clinical efficacy of XPO1/CRM1 inhibition by the karyopherin inhibitor KPT-330 in Ph+ leukemias. Blood. 2013;122:3034-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Because XPO1 is important for leukemic cell survival, KPT-330 may represent an alternative therapy for TKI-refractory Ph(+) leukemias. ..
  3. Mohr D, Frey S, Fischer T, Guttler T, Gorlich D. Characterisation of the passive permeability barrier of nuclear pore complexes. EMBO J. 2009;28:2541-53 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that passive and facilitated NPC passage proceed through one and the same permeability barrier. ..
  4. Shen A, Wang Y, Zhao Y, Zou L, Sun L, Cheng C. Expression of CRM1 in human gliomas and its significance in p27 expression and clinical prognosis. Neurosurgery. 2009;65:153-9; discussion 159-60 pubmed publisher
    ..001). The current results showed that CRM1 and p27 expression were associated with glioma grade and that high CRM1 protein expression might be related to poor outcome. ..
  5. Kojima K, Kornblau S, Ruvolo V, Dilip A, Duvvuri S, Davis R, et al. Prognostic impact and targeting of CRM1 in acute myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2013;121:4166-74 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose a novel combinatorial approach for the therapy of AML, aimed at maximal activation of p53-mediated apoptosis by concomitant MDM2 and CRM1 inhibition. ..
  6. Schütz S, Cronauer M, Rinnab L. Inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta promotes nuclear export of the androgen receptor through a CRM1-dependent mechanism in prostate cancer cell lines. J Cell Biochem. 2010;109:1192-200 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that GSK-3beta is an important element not only in AR stability but also significantly alters nuclear translocation of the AR, thereby modulating the androgenic response of human PCa cells. ..
  7. Turner J, Marchion D, Dawson J, Emmons M, Hazlehurst L, Washausen P, et al. Human multiple myeloma cells are sensitized to topoisomerase II inhibitors by CRM1 inhibition. Cancer Res. 2009;69:6899-905 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that blocking topo IIalpha nuclear export sensitizes myeloma cells to topo II inhibitors. This method of sensitizing myeloma cells suggests a new therapeutic approach to multiple myeloma. ..
  8. Rawlinson S, Pryor M, Wright P, Jans D. CRM1-mediated nuclear export of dengue virus RNA polymerase NS5 modulates interleukin-8 induction and virus production. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15589-97 pubmed publisher
  9. Dong X, Biswas A, Chook Y. Structural basis for assembly and disassembly of the CRM1 nuclear export complex. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2009;16:558-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we provide a model for human CRM1 export complex assembly and disassembly through structural and biochemical analyses of CRM1 bound to the substrate snurportin 1 (SNUPN, also called snuportin 1). ..
  10. Sakakibara K, Saito N, Sato T, Suzuki A, Hasegawa Y, Friedman J, et al. CBS9106 is a novel reversible oral CRM1 inhibitor with CRM1 degrading activity. Blood. 2011;118:3922-31 pubmed publisher
    ..A reduced level of CRM1 protein is also observed in tumor xenografts isolated from mice treated with CBS9106. Taken together, these results indicate that CBS9106 is a novel reversible CRM1 inhibitor and a promising clinical candidate. ..
  11. Ben Efraim I, Frosst P, Gerace L. Karyopherin binding interactions and nuclear import mechanism of nuclear pore complex protein Tpr. BMC Cell Biol. 2009;10:74 pubmed publisher
    ..of the role of Tpr in nucleocytoplasmic trafficking, we explored the interactions of recombinant Tpr with the karyopherins CRM1, importin beta and importin alpha by solid phase binding assays...
  12. Bonazzi S, Eidam O, Güttinger S, Wach J, Zemp I, Kutay U, et al. Anguinomycins and derivatives: total syntheses, modeling, and biological evaluation of the inhibition of nucleocytoplasmic transport. J Am Chem Soc. 2010;132:1432-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The structural basis for this inhibition has been demonstrated by modeling the transport inhibitors into X-ray crystal structures, thus highlighting key points for successful and strong biological action of anguinomycin and LMB. ..
  13. Roscioli E, Di Francesco L, Bolognesi A, Giubettini M, Orlando S, Harel A, et al. Importin-? negatively regulates multiple aspects of mitosis including RANGAP1 recruitment to kinetochores. J Cell Biol. 2012;196:435-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal previously unrecognized importin-? functions at kinetochores exerted via RANBP2 and opposed by CRM1. ..
  14. Lapalombella R, Sun Q, Williams K, Tangeman L, Jha S, Zhong Y, et al. Selective inhibitors of nuclear export show that CRM1/XPO1 is a target in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Blood. 2012;120:4621-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these findings demonstrate that XPO1 is a valid target in CLL with minimal effects on normal cells and provide a basis for the development of SINEs in CLL and related hematologic malignancies. ..
  15. Miller A, Munkonge F, Alton E, Dean D. Identification of protein cofactors necessary for sequence-specific plasmid DNA nuclear import. Mol Ther. 2009;17:1897-903 pubmed publisher
    ..Our discovery that specific karyopherins mediate plasmid nuclear import can be used to design more effective vectors for gene delivery.
  16. Monecke T, Guttler T, Neumann P, Dickmanns A, Gorlich D, Ficner R. Crystal structure of the nuclear export receptor CRM1 in complex with Snurportin1 and RanGTP. Science. 2009;324:1087-91 pubmed publisher
    ..The structure suggests that RanGTP promotes cargo-binding to CRM1 solely through long-range conformational changes in the exportin. ..
  17. Cook A, Conti E. Nuclear export complexes in the frame. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2010;20:247-52 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Karyopherins adopt a modular HEAT-repeat architecture and are regulated by the GTPase Ran...
  18. Melo S, Moutinho C, Ropero S, Calin G, Rossi S, Spizzo R, et al. A genetic defect in exportin-5 traps precursor microRNAs in the nucleus of cancer cells. Cancer Cell. 2010;18:303-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Most importantly, the restoration of XPO5 functions reverses the impaired export of pre-miRNAs and has tumor-suppressor features. ..
  19. Chang J, Huypens P, Zhang Y, Black C, Kralli A, Gettys T. Regulation of NT-PGC-1alpha subcellular localization and function by protein kinase A-dependent modulation of nuclear export by CRM1. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:18039-50 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the function of NT-PGC-1alpha as a transcriptional co-activator is regulated by protein kinase A-dependent inhibition of CRM1-mediated export from the nucleus. ..
  20. Daugherty M, Liu B, Frankel A. Structural basis for cooperative RNA binding and export complex assembly by HIV Rev. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:1337-42 pubmed publisher
  21. Whiley P, Miyamoto Y, McLachlan R, Jans D, Loveland K. Changing subcellular localization of nuclear transport factors during human spermatogenesis. Int J Androl. 2012;35:158-69 pubmed publisher
    ..We also demonstrate for the first time that importin ?3 is nuclear in spermatocytes, when exportin-1 is cytoplasmic, suggesting that nuclear transport is altered during meiosis. ..
  22. de Larrea C, Navarro A, Tejero R, Tovar N, Diaz T, Cibeira M, et al. Impact of MiRSNPs on survival and progression in patients with multiple myeloma undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation. Clin Cancer Res. 2012;18:3697-704 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report that relates miRSNPs with prognosis in multiple myeloma either in a keratin gene (KRT81), target of diverse miRNA multiple myeloma clusters, or in the miRNA biogenesis pathway-related protein exportin-5. ..
  23. Castanotto D, Lingeman R, Riggs A, Rossi J. CRM1 mediates nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of mature microRNAs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:21655-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also find that CRM1 coimmunoprecipitates with Ago-1, Ago-2, Topo2alpha, EzH2, and Mta, consistent with a role of Argonautes and small RNAs in chromatin remodeling. ..
  24. Young J, Major A, Miyamoto Y, Loveland K, Jans D. Distinct effects of importin ?2 and ?4 on Oct3/4 localization and expression in mouse embryonic stem cells. FASEB J. 2011;25:3958-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings implicate IMP?2 and IMP?4 in specific but distinct roles in the fate choice between pluripotency and commitment to differentiation. ..
  25. Etchin J, Sun Q, Kentsis A, Farmer A, Zhang Z, Sanda T, et al. Antileukemic activity of nuclear export inhibitors that spare normal hematopoietic cells. Leukemia. 2013;27:66-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, KPT-SINE CRM1 antagonists represent a novel class of drugs that warrant further testing in AML patients. ..
  26. Etchin J, Sanda T, Mansour M, Kentsis A, Montero J, Le B, et al. KPT-330 inhibitor of CRM1 (XPO1)-mediated nuclear export has selective anti-leukaemic activity in preclinical models of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and acute myeloid leukaemia. Br J Haematol. 2013;161:117-27 pubmed publisher
  27. Lo K, Johnson A. Reengineering ribosome export. Mol Biol Cell. 2009;20:1545-54 pubmed publisher
    ..These results imply remarkable flexibility in the export pathway for the 60S subunit and help explain how different export receptors could have evolved in different eukaryotic lineages. ..
  28. Monovich L, Koch K, Burgis R, Osimboni E, Mann T, Wall D, et al. Suppression of HDAC nuclear export and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by novel irreversible inhibitors of CRM1. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009;1789:422-31 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies define a novel class of anti-hypertrophic compounds that function through irreversible inhibition of CRM1-dependent nuclear export. ..
  29. Ding Q, Zhao L, Guo H, Zheng A. The nucleocytoplasmic transport of viral proteins. Virol Sin. 2010;25:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1) protein mediates nuclear export of hundreds of viral proteins through the recognition of the leucine-rich NES. ..
  30. Hu J, Yuan R. The expression levels of stem cell markers importin13, c-kit, CD146, and telomerase are decreased in endometrial polyps. Med Sci Monit. 2011;17:BR221-227 pubmed
    ..To investigate the expression levels of importin13 (IPO13), c-kit, CD146, telomerase, caspase-3, bcl-2 and bax in endometrial polyps (EPs)...
  31. van der Watt P, Leaner V. The nuclear exporter, Crm1, is regulated by NFY and Sp1 in cancer cells and repressed by p53 in response to DNA damage. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1809:316-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, this study reveals that Crm1 transcription is inhibited by DNA damage and that the mechanism of inhibition involves p53 interfering with NFY function. ..
  32. Turner J, Dawson J, Sullivan D. Nuclear export of proteins and drug resistance in cancer. Biochem Pharmacol. 2012;83:1021-32 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe that the future development of low-toxicity, small-molecule CRM1 inhibitors may provide a new approach to treating cancer. ..
  33. Gu L, Tsuji T, Jarboui M, Yeo G, Sheehy N, Hall W, et al. Intermolecular masking of the HIV-1 Rev NLS by the cellular protein HIC: novel insights into the regulation of Rev nuclear import. Retrovirology. 2011;8:17 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies highlight that the multivalent nature of the Rev NLS for different import receptors enables Rev to adapt its nuclear trafficking strategy. ..
  34. Zaitseva L, Cherepanov P, Leyens L, Wilson S, Rasaiyaah J, Fassati A. HIV-1 exploits importin 7 to maximize nuclear import of its DNA genome. Retrovirology. 2009;6:11 pubmed publisher
    ..Lentiviruses other than HIV-1 may have evolved to use alternative nuclear import receptors to the same end. ..
  35. Ellyard J, Benk A, Taylor B, Rada C, Neuberger M. The dependence of Ig class-switching on the nuclear export sequence of AID likely reflects interaction with factors additional to Crm1 exportin. Eur J Immunol. 2011;41:485-90 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that CSR, as well as the stabilisation of AID, depend on an interaction between the AID C-terminal decapeptide and factor(s) additional to Crm1. ..
  36. Scott R, Cairo L, Van de Vosse D, Wozniak R. The nuclear export factor Xpo1p targets Mad1p to kinetochores in yeast. J Cell Biol. 2009;184:21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results reveal an important function for Xpo1p in mediating intranuclear transport events and identify a signaling pathway between kinetochores and NPCs. ..
  37. Sydorskyy Y, Srikumar T, Jeram S, Wheaton S, Vizeacoumar F, Makhnevych T, et al. A novel mechanism for SUMO system control: regulated Ulp1 nucleolar sequestration. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:4452-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We further show that the Ulp1 region previously demonstrated to interact with the karyopherins Kap95 and Kap60 (amino acids 150 to 340) is necessary and sufficient for nucleolar targeting and that enforced ..
  38. Liu Q, Yu J, Zhuo X, Jiang Q, Zhang C. Pericentrin contains five NESs and an NLS essential for its nucleocytoplasmic trafficking during the cell cycle. Cell Res. 2010;20:948-62 pubmed publisher
    ..On the basis of these results, we suggest that the NESs and NLS of pericentrin are essential for its subcellular localization and nucleocytoplasmic trafficking during the cell cycle. ..
  39. Zeng B, Hu J, Yuan R, Hu L, Zhong L, Kang K. Increased expression of importin13 in endometriosis and endometrial carcinoma. Med Sci Monit. 2012;18:CR361-7 pubmed
  40. Ranganathan P, Yu X, Na C, Santhanam R, Shacham S, Kauffman M, et al. Preclinical activity of a novel CRM1 inhibitor in acute myeloid leukemia. Blood. 2012;120:1765-73 pubmed publisher
    ..01). In summary, KPT-SINE are highly potent in vitro and in vivo in AML. The preclinical results reported here support clinical trials of KPT-SINE in AML. ..
  41. Thomson E, Tollervey D. The final step in 5.8S rRNA processing is cytoplasmic in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:976-84 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that nuclear pre-60S particles containing the 6S pre-rRNA bind Nmd3 and Crm1 and are exported to the cytoplasm prior to final maturation by Ngl2. ..
  42. Zemp I, Wild T, O Donohue M, Wandrey F, Widmann B, Gleizes P, et al. Distinct cytoplasmic maturation steps of 40S ribosomal subunit precursors require hRio2. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:1167-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, hRio2 kinase activity is essential for the recycling of hDim2, hLtv1, and hNob1 as well as for 18S-E pre-rRNA processing. Thus, hRio2 is involved in late 40S maturation at several distinct steps. ..
  43. Wagstaff K, Jans D. Importins and beyond: non-conventional nuclear transport mechanisms. Traffic. 2009;10:1188-98 pubmed publisher
  44. Pelaez R, Herrero P, Moreno F. Nuclear export of the yeast hexokinase 2 protein requires the Xpo1 (Crm1)-dependent pathway. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:20548-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study uncovers a new cargo for the Xpo1 yeast exportin and identifies Hxk2 phosphorylation at serine 14 as a regulatory mechanism that controls its nuclear exit in function of the glucose levels. ..
  45. Goeres J, Chan P, Mukhopadhyay D, Zhang H, Raught B, Matunis M. The SUMO-specific isopeptidase SENP2 associates dynamically with nuclear pore complexes through interactions with karyopherins and the Nup107-160 nucleoporin subcomplex. Mol Biol Cell. 2011;22:4868-82 pubmed publisher
    ..nuclear localization signal that mediates indirect tethering to FG-repeat-containing nucleoporins through karyopherins. A second element mediates interactions with the Nup107-160 nucleoporin subcomplex...
  46. Flemming D, Devos D, Schwarz J, Amlacher S, Lutzmann M, Hurt E. Analysis of the yeast nucleoporin Nup188 reveals a conserved S-like structure with similarity to karyopherins. J Struct Biol. 2012;177:99-105 pubmed publisher
    ..Using bioinformatic methods, we have generated a pseudo-atomic structural model of Nup188 and its related Nup192, which further strengthens the view that the large ?-solenoid structural Nups are related to karyopherins.
  47. David Watine B. Silencing nuclear pore protein Tpr elicits a senescent-like phenotype in cancer cells. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22423 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings also point to new roles for Tpr in the regulation of SUMO-1 conjugation at the nuclear pore and directly confirm Tpr involvement in the nuclear export of NES-proteins. ..
  48. Guttler T, Gorlich D. Ran-dependent nuclear export mediators: a structural perspective. EMBO J. 2011;30:3457-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review the current state of knowledge and highlight emerging principles as well as prevailing questions. ..
  49. Wälde S, Thakar K, Hutten S, Spillner C, Nath A, Rothbauer U, et al. The nucleoporin Nup358/RanBP2 promotes nuclear import in a cargo- and transport receptor-specific manner. Traffic. 2012;13:218-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, Nup358 functions as a cargo- and receptor-specific assembly platform, increasing the efficiency of nuclear import of proteins through various mechanisms. ..
  50. Soderholm J, Bird S, Kalab P, Sampathkumar Y, Hasegawa K, Uehara Bingen M, et al. Importazole, a small molecule inhibitor of the transport receptor importin-?. ACS Chem Biol. 2011;6:700-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Importazole is a valuable tool to evaluate the function of the importin-?/RanGTP pathway at specific stages during the cell cycle. ..
  51. Hilliard M, Frohnert C, Spillner C, Marcone S, Nath A, Lampe T, et al. The anti-inflammatory prostaglandin 15-deoxy-delta(12,14)-PGJ2 inhibits CRM1-dependent nuclear protein export. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:22202-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Inhibition of the CRM1 pathway by endogenously produced prostaglandin and/or exogenously applied 15d-PGJ(2) may contribute to its anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-viral effects. ..
  52. Tai Y, Landesman Y, Acharya C, Calle Y, Zhong M, Cea M, et al. CRM1 inhibition induces tumor cell cytotoxicity and impairs osteoclastogenesis in multiple myeloma: molecular mechanisms and therapeutic implications. Leukemia. 2014;28:155-65 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support clinical development of SINE CRM1 antagonists to improve patient outcome in MM. ..
  53. Roscioli E, Bolognesi A, Guarguaglini G, Lavia P. Ran control of mitosis in human cells: gradients and local signals. Biochem Soc Trans. 2010;38:1709-14 pubmed publisher
  54. Chook Y, Süel K. Nuclear import by karyopherin-?s: recognition and inhibition. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:1593-606 pubmed publisher
    ..known karyopherin-?-cargo interactions were discovered through studies of the individual cargos rather than the karyopherins, and this information is thus widely scattered in the literature...
  55. Simon Areces J, Membrive G, Garcia Fernandez C, Garcia Segura L, Arevalo M. Neurogenin 3 cellular and subcellular localization in the developing and adult hippocampus. J Comp Neurol. 2010;518:1814-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Ngn3 may play a role in neuronal development by actions in the cytoplasm. ..
  56. von Knethen A, Tzieply N, Jennewein C, Brüne B. Casein-kinase-II-dependent phosphorylation of PPARgamma provokes CRM1-mediated shuttling of PPARgamma from the nucleus to the cytosol. J Cell Sci. 2010;123:192-201 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that CK-II-dependent PPARgamma phosphorylation at Ser16 and Ser21 is necessary for CRM1/Ran/RanBP3-mediated nucleocytoplasmic translocation of PPARgamma. ..
  57. Li C, Andrake M, Dunbrack R, Enders G. A bifunctional regulatory element in human somatic Wee1 mediates cyclin A/Cdk2 binding and Crm1-dependent nuclear export. Mol Cell Biol. 2010;30:116-30 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies identify a novel bifunctional regulatory element in Wee1 that mediates cyclin A/Cdk2 association and nuclear export. ..
  58. Lachish Zalait A, Lau C, Fichtman B, Zimmerman E, Harel A, Gaylord M, et al. Transportin mediates nuclear entry of DNA in vertebrate systems. Traffic. 2009;10:1414-28 pubmed publisher
    ..We further report that histones, a known cargo of transportin, can act as an adaptor for the binding of transportin to DNA. ..
  59. Taberner F, Quilis I, Igual J. Spatial regulation of the start repressor Whi5. Cell Cycle. 2009;8:3010-8 pubmed
    ..We studied the mechanisms involved in this spatial regulation. The nuclear import depends on the beta-karyopherins of the classical import pathway Kap95 and Cse1...
  60. Gontan C, Guttler T, Engelen E, Demmers J, Fornerod M, Grosveld F, et al. Exportin 4 mediates a novel nuclear import pathway for Sox family transcription factors. J Cell Biol. 2009;185:27-34 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests that nuclear import of Sox proteins is facilitated by several parallel import pathways. ..
  61. Mingot J, Vega S, Maestro B, Sanz J, Nieto M. Characterization of Snail nuclear import pathways as representatives of C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors. J Cell Sci. 2009;122:1452-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Importantly, the identified basic residues are also conserved in other families of C(2)H(2) transcription factors whose nuclear localization requires the zinc finger region. ..
  62. Giagtzoglou N, Lin Y, Haueter C, Bellen H. Importin 13 regulates neurotransmitter release at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. J Neurosci. 2009;29:5628-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, imp13 is required in the muscles to control presynaptic release. Thus, imp13 is a novel factor that affects neurotransmitter release at the fly NMJ. Its role in the context of synaptic homeostasis is discussed. ..
  63. Koyama M, Matsuura Y. An allosteric mechanism to displace nuclear export cargo from CRM1 and RanGTP by RanBP1. EMBO J. 2010;29:2002-13 pubmed publisher
    ..Structure-based mutagenesis indicated that the HEAT9 loop also functions as an allosteric autoinhibitor to stabilize CRM1 in a conformation that is unable to bind NES-cargo in the absence of RanGTP. ..
  64. Brodie K, Henderson B. Characterization of BRCA1 protein targeting, dynamics, and function at the centrosome: a role for the nuclear export signal, CRM1, and Aurora A kinase. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:7701-16 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, Aurora A binding and phosphorylation of BRCA1 enhanced its centrosomal retention and regulation of centrosome amplification. Thus, CRM1, BARD1 and Aurora A promote the targeting and function of BRCA1 at centrosomes...
  65. Ye W, Lin W, Tartakoff A, Tao T. Karyopherins in nuclear transport of homeodomain proteins during development. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:1654-62 pubmed publisher
    ..We summarize information on (a) the roles of karyopherins for import and export of homeoproteins, (b) the regulation of their nuclear transport during development, and (..
  66. Emami S. Interplay between p53-family, their regulators, and PARPs in DNA repair. Clin Res Hepatol Gastroenterol. 2011;35:98-104 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, attention is focused on the functions of p53 in DNA repair. We highlight the recent progress in the analysis of protein signals to p53, including PARPs, and ubiquitination cascade proteins MDM2, CRM1, USP10 and 14-3-3?. ..
  67. Wild T, Horvath P, Wyler E, Widmann B, Badertscher L, Zemp I, et al. A protein inventory of human ribosome biogenesis reveals an essential function of exportin 5 in 60S subunit export. PLoS Biol. 2010;8:e1000522 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, 60S subunit export is dependent on at least two RanGTP-binding exportins in vertebrate cells. ..
  68. Guttler T, Madl T, Neumann P, Deichsel D, Corsini L, Monecke T, et al. NES consensus redefined by structures of PKI-type and Rev-type nuclear export signals bound to CRM1. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2010;17:1367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data lead to a new structure-based NES consensus, and explain why NESs differ in their affinities for CRM1 and why supraphysiological NESs bind the exportin so tightly. ..
  69. Suzuki T, Izumi H, Ohno M. Cajal body surveillance of U snRNA export complex assembly. J Cell Biol. 2010;190:603-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Similar results were obtained with U snRNAs transcribed from microinjected genes. These results reveal a novel function for CBs, which ensure that U snRNA precursors are properly bound by PHAX. ..
  70. Gudleski N, Flanagan J, Ryan E, Bewley M, Parent L. Directionality of nucleocytoplasmic transport of the retroviral gag protein depends on sequential binding of karyopherins and viral RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:9358-63 pubmed publisher
  71. Murthi A, Shaheen H, Huang H, Preston M, Lai T, Phizicky E, et al. Regulation of tRNA bidirectional nuclear-cytoplasmic trafficking in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Mol Biol Cell. 2010;21:639-49 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we implicate Tef1, the yeast orthologue of translation elongation factor eEF1A, in the tRNA reexport process and show that its subcellular distribution between the nucleus and cytoplasm is dependent upon Mtr10 and Msn5. ..
  72. Chang W, Tarn W. A role for transportin in deposition of TTP to cytoplasmic RNA granules and mRNA decay. Nucleic Acids Res. 2009;37:6600-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, our data together suggest that TRN plays a role in trafficking of TTP between the cytoplasmic granules and whereby modulates the stability of ARE-containing mRNAs...
  73. Etxebeste O, Markina Iñarrairaegui A, Garzia A, Herrero Garcia E, Ugalde U, Espeso E. KapI, a non-essential member of the Pse1p/Imp5 karyopherin family, controls colonial and asexual development in Aspergillus nidulans. Microbiology. 2009;155:3934-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Hence, factors mediating import and export across the nuclear pore complexes (karyopherins) are expected to play a key role in coordinating the developmental programme...
  74. Wang H, Tao T, Tang J, Mao Y, Li W, Peng J, et al. Importin 13 serves as a potential marker for corneal epithelial progenitor cells. Stem Cells. 2009;27:2516-26 pubmed publisher
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    ..We propose a novel and possibly quite general mechanism for nuclear import of paired-type homeodomain proteins which is critical for development. ..
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    ..Similar energetic construction is also used in multipartite nuclear localization signals to provide broad substrate specificity and rapid evolution in nuclear transport. ..
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    ..These NEIs show the potential of CRM1 inhibitors as novel and potent anticancer agents. ..
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    ..These results suggest that mDia2 continuously shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm using specific nuclear transport machinery composing of importin-alpha/beta and CRM1. ..