aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator


Summary: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is a basic HELIX-LOOP-HELIX MOTIF containing protein that forms a complex with DIOXIN RECEPTOR. The complex binds xenobiotic regulatory elements and activates transcription of a variety of genes including UDP GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. AhR nuclear translocator is also a subunit of HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1.

Top Publications

  1. Qin X, Zaha H, Nagano R, Yoshinaga J, Yonemoto J, Sone H. Xenoestrogens down-regulate aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 mRNA expression in human breast cancer cells via an estrogen receptor alpha-dependent mechanism. Toxicol Lett. 2011;206:152-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that ARNT2 expression is modulated by xenoestrogens by an ESR1-dependent mechanism in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. ..
  2. Arndt S, Bosserhoff A. TANGO is a tumor suppressor of malignant melanoma. Int J Cancer. 2006;119:2812-20 pubmed
    ..Our studies, therefore, indicate that reduction of TANGO expression contributes to tumor progression. These results taken together provide the first indications for a tumor suppressor role of TANGO gene in human malignant melanoma. ..
  3. Kim J, Stallcup M. Role of the coiled-coil coactivator (CoCoA) in aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated transcription. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:49842-8 pubmed
    ..Our data support a physiological role for CoCoA as a transcriptional coactivator in AHR/ARNT-mediated transcription. ..
  4. Dougherty E, Pollenz R. Analysis of Ah receptor-ARNT and Ah receptor-ARNT2 complexes in vitro and in cell culture. Toxicol Sci. 2008;103:191-206 pubmed
    ..Thus, ARNT2 has the ability to dimerize with the liganded AHR in vitro and is influenced by the activating ligand yet appears to be limited in its ability to influence AHR-mediated signaling in cell culture. ..
  5. Kollara A, Brown T. Functional interaction of nuclear receptor coactivator 4 with aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;346:526-34 pubmed
    ..These findings thus demonstrate a functional interaction between NcoA4 and AhR that may alter AhR activity to affect disease development and progression. ..
  6. Calvani M, Rapisarda A, Uranchimeg B, Shoemaker R, Melillo G. Hypoxic induction of an HIF-1alpha-dependent bFGF autocrine loop drives angiogenesis in human endothelial cells. Blood. 2006;107:2705-12 pubmed
    ..These results uncover the existence of an HIF-1alpha-bFGF amplification pathway that mediates survival and sprouting of endothelial cells under hypoxic conditions. ..
  7. Arndt S, Bosserhoff A. Reduced expression of TANGO in colon and hepatocellular carcinomas. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:885-91 pubmed
    ..Thus, functional relevant loss of TANGO expression may contribute to general tumor development and progression, and may provide a new target for therapeutic strategies. ..
  8. Tomita S, Jiang H, Ueno T, Takagi S, Tohi K, Maekawa S, et al. T cell-specific disruption of arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt) gene causes resistance to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced thymic involution. J Immunol. 2003;171:4113-20 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that ARNT in T lineage cells is essential for TCDD-mediated thymic involution. ..
  9. Sekine H, Mimura J, Yamamoto M, Fujii Kuriyama Y. Unique and overlapping transcriptional roles of arylhydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt) and Arnt2 in xenobiotic and hypoxic responses. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:37507-16 pubmed

More Information


  1. Yim S, Shah Y, Tomita S, Morris H, Gavrilova O, Lambert G, et al. Disruption of the Arnt gene in endothelial cells causes hepatic vascular defects and partial embryonic lethality in mice. Hepatology. 2006;44:550-60 pubmed
    ..The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt), also called Hif-1beta, serves as an obligate heterodimerization partner of Hif-1alpha ..
  2. Soshilov A, Denison M. Role of the Per/Arnt/Sim domains in ligand-dependent transformation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:32995-3005 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides insights into mechanisms of AhR transformation, dimerization of PAS domain proteins, and Hsp90 dissociation in activation of its client proteins. ..
  3. Huang W, Chen S, Chang W, Chang K, Chang W, Chen B. Involvement of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in EGF-induced c-Jun/Sp1-mediated gene expression. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2010;67:3523-33 pubmed publisher
    b>Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) binds to other basic helix-loop-helix Per/ARNT/Sim (bHLH-PAS) proteins to form functional transcriptional complexes in order to regulate specific biological pathways...
  4. Boutros P, Moffat I, Franc M, Tijet N, Tuomisto J, Pohjanvirta R, et al. Dioxin-responsive AHRE-II gene battery: identification by phylogenetic footprinting. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;321:707-15 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these results demonstrate that the AHRE-II induction mechanism is employed by multiple genes and provide the first categorization of the gene battery of a ligand-activated coactivator. ..
  5. Chang K, Shen M, Lee M, Wang W, Su W, Chang W, et al. Epidermal growth factor-activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator/HIF-1{beta} signal pathway up-regulates cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression associated with squamous cell carcinoma. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9908-16 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we were interested in examining the potential role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)/HIF-1beta in tumor growth under normoxic conditions, specifically when cells are ..
  6. Liang Y, Li W, Yang B, Tao Z, Sun H, Wang L, et al. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is associated with tumor growth and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma. Int J Cancer. 2012;130:1745-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we investigated the role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), another bHLH/PAS protein, in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
  7. Hill A, Heiden T, Heideman W, Peterson R. Potential roles of Arnt2 in zebrafish larval development. Zebrafish. 2009;6:79-91 pubmed publisher
    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is a basic helix-loop-helix-PAS heterodimeric transcription factor that dimerizes with other basic helix-loop-helix-PAS proteins to mediate biological responses...
  8. Dror V, Kalynyak T, Bychkivska Y, Frey M, Tee M, Jeffrey K, et al. Glucose and endoplasmic reticulum calcium channels regulate HIF-1beta via presenilin in pancreatic beta-cells. J Biol Chem. 2008;283:9909-16 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings provide a mechanistic understanding of the signaling pathways activated when intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and metabolic activity are suppressed in diabetes and islet transplantation. ..
  9. Hu C, Iyer S, Sataur A, Covello K, Chodosh L, Simon M. Differential regulation of the transcriptional activities of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha) and HIF-2alpha in stem cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2006;26:3514-26 pubmed
    ..HIF-2alpha repression may explain why patients with mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene display cancerous lesions in specific tissue types. ..
  10. Chapman Smith A, Whitelaw M. Novel DNA binding by a basic helix-loop-helix protein. The role of the dioxin receptor PAS domain. J Biol Chem. 2006;281:12535-45 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first insights for understanding mechanisms of selective dimerization and DNA interaction that distinguish bHLH.PAS proteins from the broader bHLH superfamily. ..
  11. Sullivan A, Nelson L, Frias A, Porter T, Branch D, Silver R. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator gene polymorphism in patients with recurrent miscarriage. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2006;55:51-3 pubmed
    The human aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator gene (ARNT) is crucial for embryonic development. Knockout of ARNT is embryonic lethal...
  12. Wache S, Hoagland E, Zeigler G, Swanson H. Role of arginine residues 14 and 15 in dictating DNA binding stability and transactivation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor/aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator heterodimer. Gene Expr. 2005;12:231-43 pubmed
    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and its DNA binding partner, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) are basic helix-loop-helix/PAS proteins...
  13. Beischlag T, Taylor R, Rose D, Yoon D, Chen Y, Lee W, et al. Recruitment of thyroid hormone receptor/retinoblastoma-interacting protein 230 by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is required for the transcriptional response to both dioxin and hypoxia. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:54620-8 pubmed
    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator/hypoxia-inducible factor (ARNT/HIF-1 beta) mediates an organism's response to various environmental cues, including those to chemical carcinogens, such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-rho-..
  14. Beischlag T, Luis Morales J, Hollingshead B, Perdew G. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor complex and the control of gene expression. Crit Rev Eukaryot Gene Expr. 2008;18:207-50 pubmed
    ..A major focus of this review is to highlight experimental efforts to characterize nonclassical mechanisms of AhR-mediated modulation of gene transcription. ..
  15. Lee K, Zhang H, Qian D, Rey S, Liu J, Semenza G. Acriflavine inhibits HIF-1 dimerization, tumor growth, and vascularization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:17910-5 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide proof of principle that small molecules can inhibit dimerization of HIF-1 and have potent inhibitory effects on tumor growth and vascularization. ..
  16. Evans B, Karchner S, Allan L, Pollenz R, Tanguay R, Jenny M, et al. Repression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signaling by AHR repressor: role of DNA binding and competition for AHR nuclear translocator. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;73:387-98 pubmed
    ..We propose a mechanism of AHRR action involving "transrepression" of AHR signaling through protein-protein interactions rather than by inhibition of the formation or DNA binding of the AHR-ARNT complex...
  17. Nukaya M, Walisser J, Moran S, Kennedy G, Bradfield C. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in hepatocytes is required for aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated adaptive and toxic responses in liver. Toxicol Sci. 2010;118:554-63 pubmed publisher
    ..the idea that the regulation of adaptive metabolism requires an AHR partnership with the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)...
  18. Saito K, Chen M, Bard F, Chen S, Zhou H, Woodley D, et al. TANGO1 facilitates cargo loading at endoplasmic reticulum exit sites. Cell. 2009;136:891-902 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that TANGO1 exports other cargoes in cells that do not secrete collagen VII. However, TANGO1 does not enter the budding carrier, which represents a unique mechanism to load cargo into COPII carriers. ..
  19. Rüegg J, Swedenborg E, Wahlström D, Escande A, Balaguer P, Pettersson K, et al. The transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator functions as an estrogen receptor beta-selective coactivator, and its recruitment to alternative pathways mediates antiestrogenic effects of dioxin. Mol Endocrinol. 2008;22:304-16 pubmed
    ..Moreover, we show for the first time that the inhibitory effects of dioxin are more pronounced on ERbeta than on ERalpha. ..
  20. Gu C, Gonzalez J, Zhang T, Kamel Reid S, Wells R. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) modulates the antioxidant response in AML cells. Leuk Res. 2013;37:1750-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that ARNT expression in AML cells augments antioxidant response and confers resistance to ROS inducers. This suggests ARNT may modulate ROS signaling and drug response in AML. ..
  21. Huang X, Powell Coffman J, Jin Y. The AHR-1 aryl hydrocarbon receptor and its co-factor the AHA-1 aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator specify GABAergic neuron cell fate in C. elegans. Development. 2004;131:819-28 pubmed
    ..Such functions of AHRs require a cofactor, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), and the cytoplasmic chaperonins HSP90 and XAP2...
  22. Freeburg P, Abrahamson D. Divergent expression patterns for hypoxia-inducible factor-1beta and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear transporter-2 in developing kidney. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2004;15:2569-78 pubmed
    ..The differential distribution patterns for HIF-1beta and -2beta suggest divergent roles during kidney development for these highly related bHLH-PAS proteins. ..
  23. Lee K, Park J, Chun Y. Non-hypoxic transcriptional activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in concert with a novel hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha isoform. Nucleic Acids Res. 2004;32:5499-511 pubmed
    b>Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) belongs to the basic helix-loop-helix Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH PAS) protein which dimerizes with other PAS proteins...
  24. Kewley R, Whitelaw M. Phosphorylation inhibits DNA-binding of alternatively spliced aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005;338:660-7 pubmed
    The basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM homology (bHLH/PAS) transcription factor ARNT (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator) is a key component of various pathways which induce the transcription of cytochrome P450 and hypoxia ..
  25. Gunton J, Kulkarni R, Yim S, Okada T, Hawthorne W, Tseng Y, et al. Loss of ARNT/HIF1beta mediates altered gene expression and pancreatic-islet dysfunction in human type 2 diabetes. Cell. 2005;122:337-49 pubmed
    ..Together, these data suggest an important role for decreased ARNT and altered gene expression in the impaired islet function of human type 2 diabetes. ..
  26. Pillai R, Huypens P, Huang M, Schaefer S, Sheinin T, Wettig S, et al. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator/hypoxia-inducible factor-1{beta} plays a critical role in maintaining glucose-stimulated anaplerosis and insulin release from pancreatic {beta}-cells. J Biol Chem. 2011;286:1014-24 pubmed publisher
    ..One potential regulator of the metabolic phenotype of ?-cells is the transcription factor aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)/hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?...
  27. Sogawa K, Numayama Tsuruta K, Takahashi T, Matsushita N, Miura C, Nikawa J, et al. A novel induction mechanism of the rat CYP1A2 gene mediated by Ah receptor-Arnt heterodimer. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2004;318:746-55 pubmed
    ..A dominant negative mutant of the AhR to XRE activated the enhancer. Collectively, these results demonstrate that a novel induction mechanism is present in which the AhR-Arnt heterodimer functions as a coactivator. ..
  28. Kung A, Zabludoff S, France D, Freedman S, Tanner E, Vieira A, et al. Small molecule blockade of transcriptional coactivation of the hypoxia-inducible factor pathway. Cancer Cell. 2004;6:33-43 pubmed
  29. Partch C, Card P, Amezcua C, Gardner K. Molecular basis of coiled coil coactivator recruitment by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT). J Biol Chem. 2009;284:15184-92 pubmed publisher
    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) serves as the obligate heterodimeric partner for bHLH-PAS proteins involved in sensing and coordinating transcriptional responses to xenobiotics, hypoxia, and developmental ..
  30. Qin X, Wei F, Yoshinaga J, Yonemoto J, Tanokura M, Sone H. siRNA-mediated knockdown of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 affects hypoxia-inducible factor-1 regulatory signaling and metabolism in human breast cancer cells. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:3310-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggested that ARNT2 might play an important role in the modulation of HIF-1-regulated signaling and metabolism. ..
  31. Card P, Erbel P, Gardner K. Structural basis of ARNT PAS-B dimerization: use of a common beta-sheet interface for hetero- and homodimerization. J Mol Biol. 2005;353:664-77 pubmed
    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is a promiscuous bHLH-PAS (Per-ARNT-Sim) protein that forms heterodimeric transcriptional regulator complexes with several other bHLH-PAS subunits to control a variety of ..
  32. Hankinson O. Why does ARNT2 behave differently from ARNT?. Toxicol Sci. 2008;103:1-3 pubmed publisher
  33. Kozu S, Tajiri R, Tsuji T, Michiue T, Saigo K, Kojima T. Temporal regulation of late expression of Bar homeobox genes during Drosophila leg development by Spineless, a homolog of the mammalian dioxin receptor. Dev Biol. 2006;294:497-508 pubmed
  34. Choi H, Chun Y, Kim S, Kim M, Park J. Curcumin inhibits hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by degrading aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator: a mechanism of tumor growth inhibition. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;70:1664-71 pubmed
    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a transcription factor composed of HIF-1alpha and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT), plays a key role in cell survival and angiogenesis in hypoxic tumors, and many efforts have been ..
  35. Scheuermann T, Tomchick D, Machius M, Guo Y, Bruick R, Gardner K. Artificial ligand binding within the HIF2alpha PAS-B domain of the HIF2 transcription factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:450-5 pubmed publisher
    The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) basic helix-loop-helix Per-aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-Sim (bHLH-PAS) transcription factors are master regulators of the conserved molecular mechanism by which metazoans sense ..
  36. Oda Y, Nakajima M, Mohri T, Takamiya M, Aoki Y, Fukami T, et al. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in human liver is regulated by miR-24. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2012;260:222-31 pubmed publisher
    b>Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) forms a heterodimer with aryl hydrocarbon receptor or hypoxia inducible factor 1? to mediate biological responses to xenobiotic exposure and hypoxia...
  37. Weir L, Robertson D, Leigh I, Vass J, Panteleyev A. Hypoxia-mediated control of HIF/ARNT machinery in epidermal keratinocytes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2011;1813:60-72 pubmed publisher
  38. Lau S, Lin S, Stokes R, Cheng K, Baldock P, Enriquez R, et al. Synergistic effects of genetic beta cell dysfunction and maternal glucose intolerance on offspring metabolic phenotype in mice. Diabetologia. 2011;54:910-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In ?Arnt mice, exposure to GDM and inheritance of genetic beta cell dysfunction had additive effects on male offspring obesity; severity of the offspring phenotype correlated with maternal glycaemia. ..
  39. Partch C, Gardner K. Coactivators necessary for transcriptional output of the hypoxia inducible factor, HIF, are directly recruited by ARNT PAS-B. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108:7739-44 pubmed publisher
    ..heterodimer composed of an oxygen-labile HIF-? subunit and a constitutively expressed aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) subunit, which dimerize via basic helix-loop-helix and PAS domains, and recruit ..
  40. Fleming C, Billiard S, Di Giulio R. Hypoxia inhibits induction of aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity in topminnow hepatocarcinoma cells in an ARNT-dependent manner. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 2009;150:383-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study supports the hypothesis that HIF-1alpha is able to sequester ARNT from AhR and limit the activity of the AhR pathway, but suggests that the converse is not true. ..
  41. Labrecque M, Takhar M, Hollingshead B, Prefontaine G, Perdew G, Beischlag T. Distinct roles for aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator and ah receptor in estrogen-mediated signaling in human cancer cell lines. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e29545 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide us with further insight into the mechanisms of transcription factor crosstalk and putative therapeutic targets in estrogen-positive cancers. ..
  42. Walisser J, Bunger M, Glover E, Harstad E, Bradfield C. Patent ductus venosus and dioxin resistance in mice harboring a hypomorphic Arnt allele. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:16326-31 pubmed
    ..Taken in sum, these experiments demonstrate that ARNT is an essential component of AHR developmental signaling and shed light on the mechanism of dioxin toxicity. ..
  43. Ikuta T, Kobayashi Y, Kawajiri K. Cell density regulates intracellular localization of aryl hydrocarbon receptor. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:19209-16 pubmed
    ..The p38 MAPK-mediated phosphorylation of the NES and its dephosphorylation, regulated by cell-cell contact signals, may have pivotal roles in the novel AhR relocalization. ..
  44. Chan Y, Kalpana S, Chang W, Chang W, Chen B. Expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator enhances cisplatin resistance by upregulating MDR1 expression in cancer cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2013;84:591-602 pubmed publisher
    ..We demonstrate that the expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is critical during the development of cisplatin resistance...
  45. Martinez V, Kennedy S, Doolan P, Gammell P, Joyce H, Kenny E, et al. Drug metabolism-related genes as potential biomarkers: analysis of expression in normal and tumour breast tissue. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2008;110:521-30 pubmed
    ..0028). Multivariate analysis indicated GST A1 expression to be an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (P = 0.045). Our results suggest a possible use of ARNT2 and GST A1 as prognostic breast cancer biomarkers. ..
  46. Das S, Sharma N, Chu W, Wang H, Elbein S. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) gene as a positional and functional candidate for type 2 diabetes and prediabetic intermediate traits: Mutation detection, case-control studies, and gene expression analysis. BMC Med Genet. 2008;9:16 pubmed publisher
    ..Common ARNT variants are unlikely to explain the linkage signal on chromosome 1q, but may alter insulin secretion in nondiabetic subjects. Our studies cannot exclude a role for rare variants or variants of small (< 1.6) effect size. ..
  47. Sun H, Liu Y, Huang Y, Pan S, Huang D, Guh J, et al. YC-1 inhibits HIF-1 expression in prostate cancer cells: contribution of Akt/NF-kappaB signaling to HIF-1alpha accumulation during hypoxia. Oncogene. 2007;26:3941-51 pubmed
    ..Overall, we identify a potential molecular mechanism whereby YC-1 serves to reduce HIF-1 expression. ..
  48. Wang X, Suzuki R, Lee K, Tran T, Gunton J, Saha A, et al. Ablation of ARNT/HIF1beta in liver alters gluconeogenesis, lipogenic gene expression, and serum ketones. Cell Metab. 2009;9:428-39 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that a deficiency of ARNT action in the liver, coupled with that in beta cells, could contribute to the metabolic phenotype of human type 2 diabetes. ..
  49. Kim J, Zheng H, Kim S, Park J, Park K, Ho W, et al. Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in KATP channel-mediated insulin secretion in INS-1 insulinoma cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;379:1048-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) has been known to participate in cellular responses to xenobiotic and hypoxic stresses, as a common partner of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and hypoxia inducible factor-1/2alpha...
  50. Czech M. ARNT misbehavin' in diabetic beta cells. Nat Med. 2006;12:39-40 pubmed
  51. Wang Y, Li Y, Wang D, Li Y, Chang A, Chan W. Suppression of the hypoxia inducible factor-1 function by redistributing the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator from nucleus to cytoplasm. Cancer Lett. 2012;320:111-21 pubmed publisher
    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) heterodimerizes with hypoxia inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?), followed by upregulation of genes that are essential for carcinogenesis...
  52. Labrecque M, Préfontaine G, Beischlag T. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) family of proteins: transcriptional modifiers with multi-functional protein interfaces. Curr Mol Med. 2013;13:1047-65 pubmed
    ..Understanding the DNA binding-independent functions of ARNT may identify novel therapeutic options for the treatment of a large spectrum of disease states. ..
  53. Arpiainen S, Lämsä V, Pelkonen O, Yim S, Gonzalez F, Hakkola J. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator and upstream stimulatory factor regulate Cytochrome P450 2a5 transcription through a common E-box site. J Mol Biol. 2007;369:640-52 pubmed
    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) belongs to the basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors and regulates several genes as heterodimers with other bHLH proteins...