catecholamine plasma membrane transport proteins


Summary: A group of membrane transport proteins that transport biogenic amine derivatives of catechol across the PLASMA MEMBRANE. Catecholamine plasma membrane transporter proteins regulate neural transmission as well as catecholamine metabolism and recycling.

Top Publications

  1. Levi F, Karaboué A, Saffroy R, Desterke C, Boige V, Smith D, et al. Pharmacogenetic determinants of outcomes on triplet hepatic artery infusion and intravenous cetuximab for liver metastases from colorectal cancer (European trial OPTILIV, NCT00852228). Br J Cancer. 2017;117:965-973 pubmed publisher
    ..VKORC1, NAT2 and ABCB1 variants predicted for HAI efficacy. Pharmacogenetics could guide the personalisation of liver-targeted medico-surgical therapies. ..
  2. Huang Y, Chen S, Xu H, Yu X, Lai H, Ho G, et al. Pre-gestational stress alters stress-response of pubertal offspring rat in sexually dimorphic and hemispherically asymmetric manner. BMC Neurosci. 2013;14:67 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide evidence that the effect of pre-gestational stress on the mPFC dopaminergic activity in response to acute stress exhibited hemispheric asymmetry and sexual dimorphism in the pubertal offspring rats. ..
  3. Cabanes J, Chazarra S, Garcia Carmona F. Kojic acid, a cosmetic skin whitening agent, is a slow-binding inhibitor of catecholase activity of tyrosinase. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1994;46:982-5 pubmed
    ..Kinetic parameters characterizing this type of inhibition were evaluated by means of nonlinear regression of product accumulation curves. ..
  4. Inoue Y, Kurihara R, Tsuchida A, Hasegawa M, Nagashima T, Mori T, et al. Efficient delivery of siRNA using dendritic poly(L-lysine) for loss-of-function analysis. J Control Release. 2008;126:59-66 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, using a combination of KG6 and Endo-Porter, a model system in which genes that influence metformin action can be identified was successfully constructed. ..
  5. Gorbunov D, Gorboulev V, Shatskaya N, Mueller T, Bamberg E, Friedrich T, et al. High-affinity cation binding to organic cation transporter 1 induces movement of helix 11 and blocks transport after mutations in a modeled interaction domain between two helices. Mol Pharmacol. 2008;73:50-61 pubmed
    ..We propose that cations bound to high-affinity sites may be translocated together with cations bound to low-affinity sites or that they may block the translocation mechanism. ..
  6. Lever J, Zou M, Parnas M, Duval R, Wirtz S, Justice J, et al. Radioiodinated azide and isothiocyanate derivatives of cocaine for irreversible labeling of dopamine transporters: synthesis and covalent binding studies. Bioconjug Chem. 2005;16:644-9 pubmed
    ..The utility of the radioligands was demonstrated by their covalent linkage to rat striatal membranes, and immunoprecipitation of a single radiolabeled band at 80 kDa corresponding to the full-length DAT. ..
  7. Scherman D, Gasnier B, Jaudon P, Henry J. Hydrophobicity of the tetrabenazine-binding site of the chromaffin granule monoamine transporter. Mol Pharmacol. 1988;33:72-7 pubmed
    ..Reserpine, haloperidol, and chlorpromazine have much lower intrinsic affinity for the TBZ-binding site. ..
  8. Arino T, Karakawa S, Ishiwata Y, Nagata M, Yasuhara M. Effect of cimetidine on pentamidine induced hyperglycemia in rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2012;693:72-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that the hyperglycemic effect of pentamidine is dependent on the concentration of pentamidine and can be enhanced by cimetidine combination. ..
  9. Rossato L, Costa V, de Pinho P, Carvalho F, de Lourdes Bastos M, Remião F. Structural isomerization of synephrine influences its uptake and ensuing glutathione depletion in rat-isolated cardiomyocytes. Arch Toxicol. 2011;85:929-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the structural isomerization of synephrine influences its toxicological profile since only m-synephrine caused GSH depletion. ..

More Information


  1. Kurata T, Muraki Y, Mizutani H, Iwamoto T, Okuda M. Elevated systemic elimination of cimetidine in rats with acute biliary obstruction: the role of renal organic cation transporter OCT2. Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 2010;25:328-34 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the renal tubular secretion of cimetidine was increased by acute cholestasis, and this increase was attributable to elevated expression levels of rOCT2 but not of rMATE1 in the rat. ..
  2. Nie W, Sweetser S, Rinella M, Green R. Transcriptional regulation of murine Slc22a1 (Oct1) by peroxisome proliferator agonist receptor-alpha and -gamma. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2005;288:G207-12 pubmed
    ..These studies may have implication for the uptake of organic cationic drugs and for lipid metabolism. ..
  3. Urakami Y. [Molecular diversity of organic cation transporter (OCT) mediating renal excretion of drugs]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 2002;122:957-65 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that rOCT1 and rOCT2 play distinct roles in the basolateral membranes of renal tubules mediating tubular secretion of cationic drugs. ..
  4. Cheng Y, Martínez Guerrero L, Wright S, Kuester R, Hooth M, Sipes I. Characterization of the inhibitory effects of N-butylpyridinium chloride and structurally related ionic liquids on organic cation transporters 1/2 and human toxic extrusion transporters 1/2-k in vitro and in vivo. Drug Metab Dispos. 2011;39:1755-61 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that ILs compete with other substrates of OCTs and MATEs and could alter the in vivo pharmacokinetics of such substrates. ..
  5. Umehara K, Iwai M, Adachi Y, Iwatsubo T, Usui T, Kamimura H. Hepatic uptake and excretion of (-)-N-{2-[(R)-3-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-2-carbonyl)piperidino]ethyl}-4-fluorobenzamide (YM758), a novel if channel inhibitor, in rats and humans. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008;36:1030-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to clarify the saturable hepatic uptake and/or the excretion mechanism by the If channel inhibitor. ..
  6. Heemskerk S, Wouterse A, Russel F, Masereeuw R. Nitric oxide down-regulates the expression of organic cation transporters (OCT) 1 and 2 in rat kidney during endotoxemia. Eur J Pharmacol. 2008;584:390-7 pubmed publisher
    ..001). These findings indicate that NO, produced by iNOS, is responsible for a down-regulation of the influx carriers, Oct1 and Oct2. ..
  7. Nakakariya M, Shima Y, Shirasaka Y, Mitsuoka K, Nakanishi T, Tamai I. Organic anion transporter OAT1 is involved in renal handling of citrulline. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2009;297:F71-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, citrulline may be useful for diagnosis of kidney function as is creatinine. ..
  8. Larsen M, Fontana A, Magalh es L, Rodrigues V, Mortensen O. A catecholamine transporter from the human parasite Schistosoma mansoni with low affinity for psychostimulants. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;177:35-41 pubmed publisher
  9. Oaks A, Sidhu A. Synuclein modulation of monoamine transporters. FEBS Lett. 2011;585:1001-6 pubmed publisher
  10. Schneider R, Meusel M, Betz B, Kersten M, Moller Ehrlich K, Wanner C, et al. Nitric oxide-induced regulation of renal organic cation transport after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2011;301:F997-F1004 pubmed publisher
    ..In principle, this may be an autocrine effect of proximal tubular epithelial cells. We conclude that rOct1, or rOct1 and rOct2 limit the rate of the renal excretion of serotonin. ..
  11. Schlatter E, Mönnich V, Cetinkaya I, Mehrens T, Ciarimboli G, Hirsch J, et al. The organic cation transporters rOCT1 and hOCT2 are inhibited by cGMP. J Membr Biol. 2002;189:237-44 pubmed
    ..The data suggest that the inhibition mediated by cGMP observed in HEK293 cells occurs most likely via a mammalian cGMP-binding protein that interacts with OCT1-2 transporters. ..
  12. Lips K, Volk C, Schmitt B, Pfeil U, Arndt P, Miska D, et al. Polyspecific cation transporters mediate luminal release of acetylcholine from bronchial epithelium. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2005;33:79-88 pubmed
    ..7 microM). The data show that OCT1 and OCT2 mediate luminal ACh release in human airways and suggest that ACh release is blocked after inhalation of budesonide. ..
  13. Yang J, Kalogerou M, Gallacher J, Sampson J, Shen M. Renal tumours in a Tsc1+/- mouse model show epigenetic suppression of organic cation transporters Slc22a1, Slc22a2 and Slc22a3, and do not respond to metformin. Eur J Cancer. 2013;49:1479-90 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that the epigenetic suppression of the organic cation transporters in Tsc-associated mouse renal tumours may contribute to the lack of response to metformin treatment. ..
  14. Gorboulev V, Shatskaya N, Volk C, Koepsell H. Subtype-specific affinity for corticosterone of rat organic cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 depends on three amino acids within the substrate binding region. Mol Pharmacol. 2005;67:1612-9 pubmed
  15. Jacobsen J, Jensen B, Skonberg C, Hansen S, Badolo L. Time-course activities of Oct1, Mrp3, and cytochrome P450s in cultures of cryopreserved rat hepatocytes. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2011;44:427-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Activities of CYP2D1 and 3A1 were reduced by ~75% and ~80%, respectively, from day 0 to day 4 in cultures, whereas activity of CYP2B1/2 was reduced by ~50% from day 0 to day 4. ..
  16. Baumann M, Partilla J, Lehner K. Psychoactive "bath salts": not so soothing. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;698:1-5 pubmed publisher
    ..More research on the pharmacology and toxicology of abused cathinones is needed to inform public health policy and develop strategies for treating medical consequence of bath salts abuse. ..
  17. De Zwart L, Scholten M, Monbaliu J, Annaert P, Van Houdt J, van den Wyngaert I, et al. The ontogeny of drug metabolizing enzymes and transporters in the rat. Reprod Toxicol. 2008;26:220-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Consideration of the ontogeny of metabolizing enzymes and transporters may improve the design and interpretation of results of toxicity studies in juvenile animals...
  18. Falowski S, Sharan A, Reyes B, Sikkema C, Szot P, Van Bockstaele E. An evaluation of neuroplasticity and behavior after deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens in an animal model of depression. Neurosurgery. 2011;69:1281-90 pubmed publisher
    ..This observed dendritic plasticity may underlie the therapeutic efficacy of this treatment. ..
  19. Porzgen P, Park S, Hirsh J, Sonders M, Amara S. The antidepressant-sensitive dopamine transporter in Drosophila melanogaster: a primordial carrier for catecholamines. Mol Pharmacol. 2001;59:83-95 pubmed
    ..The identification of a cocaine-sensitive target linked to dopaminergic neurotransmission in D. melanogaster will serve as a basis for further dissection of the genetic components of psychostimulant-mediated behavior. ..
  20. Arias H. Is the inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors by bupropion involved in its clinical actions?. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2009;41:2098-108 pubmed publisher
    ..This new evidence paves the way for further investigations using AChRs as targets for the action of safer antidepressants and novel anti-addictive compounds. ..
  21. Jin H, Hong S, Choi M, Maeng H, Kim D, Chung S, et al. Reduced antidiabetic effect of metformin and down-regulation of hepatic Oct1 in rats with ethynylestradiol-induced cholestasis. Pharm Res. 2009;26:549-59 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the effect of 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE)-induced cholestasis on the expression of organic cation transporters (Octs) in the liver and kidney, as well as the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of metformin in rats...
  22. Iniouchine M, Sibarov D, Volnova A, Jiménez Rivera C, Nozdrachev A. Blockers of monoamine transporters influence high dopamine concentration uptake in rat brain slices. Dokl Biol Sci. 2008;419:80-2 pubmed
  23. Daniels A, Reinhard J. Energy-driven uptake of the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium into chromaffin granules via the catecholamine transporter. J Biol Chem. 1988;263:5034-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, the data shows that a permanently charged compound is capable of entering the granule through the catecholamine carrier. ..
  24. Eisenhofer G. The role of neuronal and extraneuronal plasma membrane transporters in the inactivation of peripheral catecholamines. Pharmacol Ther. 2001;91:35-62 pubmed
    ..Peripheral catecholamine transporters provide important targets for clinical imaging of sympathetic nerves and diagnostic localization and treatment of neuroendocrine tumors, such as neuroblastomas and pheochromocytomas. ..
  25. Slitt A, Cherrington N, Hartley D, Leazer T, Klaassen C. Tissue distribution and renal developmental changes in rat organic cation transporter mRNA levels. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002;30:212-9 pubmed
    ..In summary, OCT mRNA was detected primarily in kidney, and the high level of renal OCT expression may explain why the kidney is a target organ for xenobiotics with cationic properties. ..
  26. Huynh T, Pacak K, Brouwers F, Abu Asab M, Worrell R, Walther M, et al. Different expression of catecholamine transporters in phaeochromocytomas from patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005;153:551-63 pubmed
    ..The findings show that, in addition to differences in catecholamine biosynthesis, phaeochromocytomas in MEN 2 and VHL syndrome also differ in expression of the transporters responsible for uptake and vesicular storage of catecholamines. ..
  27. Sturm A, Gorboulev V, Gorbunov D, Keller T, Volk C, Schmitt B, et al. Identification of cysteines in rat organic cation transporters rOCT1 (C322, C451) and rOCT2 (C451) critical for transport activity and substrate affinity. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol. 2007;293:F767-79 pubmed
    ..They indicate that cysteine 451 in rOCT1 interacts with the large intracellular loop and that cysteine 451 in both rOCT1 and rOCT2 is critical for the affinity of choline. ..
  28. Leclerc G, Boockfor F. Identification of a novel OCT1 binding site that is necessary for the elaboration of pulses of rat GnRH promoter activity. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2005;245:86-92 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the lack of an influence observed with OCT1BS-b on pulse activity indicates that OCT1 action is not general to all OCT1 sites, but specific to certain octamer sequences in the NSE region of the GnRH promoter. ..
  29. Asaka J, Terada T, Okuda M, Katsura T, Inui K. Androgen receptor is responsible for rat organic cation transporter 2 gene regulation but not for rOCT1 and rOCT3. Pharm Res. 2006;23:697-704 pubmed
    ..This is the first study to address the transcriptional mechanisms of testosterone-dependent gene regulation of the Slc22 family. ..
  30. Dohi T, Kitayama S, Morioka N, Kumagai K, Mitsuhata C, Morita K, et al. Regulation of dopamine and MPP+ transport by catecholamine transporters. Nihon Shinkei Seishin Yakurigaku Zasshi. 2004;24:43-7 pubmed
  31. Ljubojević M, Breljak D, Herak Kramberger C, Anzai N, Sabolić I. Expression of basolateral organic anion and cation transporters in experimental cadmium nephrotoxicity in rat kidney. Arch Toxicol. 2016;90:525-41 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the diminished renal secretion of OA and OC via PT in Cd nephrotoxicity may result from (a) limited loss of secretory surface (basolateral invaginations), (b) selective loss of Oats and Octs, and ..
  32. Gasnier B, Scherman D, Henry J. Inactivation of the catecholamine transporter during the preparation of chromaffin granule membrane 'ghosts'. FEBS Lett. 1987;222:215-9 pubmed
    ..The reserpine to dihydrotetrabenazine binding ratio (10-25%) is an estimate of the proportion of correctly resealed vesicles. ..
  33. Thevenod F, Ciarimboli G, Leistner M, Wolff N, Lee W, Schatz I, et al. Substrate- and cell contact-dependent inhibitor affinity of human organic cation transporter 2: studies with two classical organic cation substrates and the novel substrate cd2+. Mol Pharm. 2013;10:3045-56 pubmed publisher
    ..To predict interactions between drugs that are transported by OCTs and inhibitory drugs, it is necessary to employ the specific transported drug rather than a model substrate for in vitro measurements. ..
  34. Paris I, Martinez Alvarado P, Perez Pastene C, Vieira M, Olea Azar C, Raisman Vozari R, et al. Monoamine transporter inhibitors and norepinephrine reduce dopamine-dependent iron toxicity in cells derived from the substantia nigra. J Neurochem. 2005;92:1021-32 pubmed
    ..These results support the proposed neuroprotective role of DT-diaphorase and norepinephrine. ..
  35. Tahara H, Kusuhara H, Endou H, Koepsell H, Imaoka T, Fuse E, et al. A species difference in the transport activities of H2 receptor antagonists by rat and human renal organic anion and cation transporters. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2005;315:337-45 pubmed
  36. Schweifer N, Barlow D. The Lx1 gene maps to mouse chromosome 17 and codes for a protein that is homologous to glucose and polyspecific transmembrane transporters. Mamm Genome. 1996;7:735-40 pubmed
    ..Chr 6q has been previously associated with transient neonatal diabetes mellitus and breast cancer. ..
  37. Egenberger B, Gorboulev V, Keller T, Gorbunov D, Gottlieb N, Geiger D, et al. A substrate binding hinge domain is critical for transport-related structural changes of organic cation transporter 1. J Biol Chem. 2012;287:31561-73 pubmed publisher
    ..The data suggest that Gly-478 is located within a mechanistically important hinge domain of TMH 11 in which substrate binding induces transport-related structural changes. ..
  38. Keller T, Elfeber M, Gorboulev V, Reiländer H, Koepsell H. Purification and functional reconstitution of the rat organic cation transporter OCT1. Biochemistry. 2005;44:12253-63 pubmed
    ..Purification and reconstitution of functional active rOCT1 protein is an important step toward the biophysical characterization and crystallization. ..
  39. Yonezawa A, Masuda S, Nishihara K, Yano I, Katsura T, Inui K. Association between tubular toxicity of cisplatin and expression of organic cation transporter rOCT2 (Slc22a2) in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005;70:1823-31 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the present results indicated that renal rOCT2 expression was the major determinant of cisplatin-induced tubular toxicity. ..
  40. Luci S, Geissler S, König B, Koch A, Stangl G, Hirche F, et al. PPARalpha agonists up-regulate organic cation transporters in rat liver cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006;350:704-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that PPARalpha agonists increase carnitine concentrations in livers of rats and cells by an increased uptake of carnitine into the cell but not by an increased carnitine biosynthesis. ..
  41. Maruyama Y, Suzuki Y, Kazusaka A, Fujita S. Norsalsolinol uptake into secretory vesicles via vesicular monoamine transporter and its secretion by membrane depolarization or purinoceptor stimulation in PC12 cells. J Vet Med Sci. 2001;63:493-7 pubmed
    ..These releases were dependent on the concentrations of secretagogues. These data suggest that norsalsolinol is taken up with dopamine into secretory vesicle via vesicular catecholamine transporter. ..
  42. Song I, Choi M, Jin Q, Shim W, Shim C. Increased affinity to canalicular P-gp via formation of lipophilic ion-pair complexes with endogenous bile salts is associated with mw threshold in hepatobiliary excretion of quaternary ammonium compounds. Pharm Res. 2010;27:823-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The formation of lipophilic ion-pair complexes with bile salts, followed by stronger binding to canalicular P-gp, appears to accelerate biliary excretion of QACs with a high Mw. ..
  43. Yokoo K, Murakami R, Matsuzaki T, Yoshitome K, Hamada A, Saito H. Enhanced renal accumulation of cisplatin via renal organic cation transporter deteriorates acute kidney injury in hypomagnesemic rats. Clin Exp Nephrol. 2009;13:578-84 pubmed publisher
    ..Renal accumulation of CDDP was markedly increased in hypomagnesemic rats. These results suggest that hypomagnesemia could cause dehydration and up-regulation of rOCT2, enhancing renal accumulation of CDDP and the deterioration of AKI. ..
  44. Grover B, Buckley D, Buckley A, Cacini W. Reduced expression of organic cation transporters rOCT1 and rOCT2 in experimental diabetes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;308:949-56 pubmed
    ..This suggests that differences in rOCT2 protein may result from transcriptional and/or translational changes, whereas rOCT1 deficits may be due to posttranscriptional alterations. ..
  45. Ma L, Wu X, Ling Ling E, Wang D, Liu H. The transmembrane transport of metformin by osteoblasts from rat mandible. Arch Oral Biol. 2009;54:951-62 pubmed publisher
    ..The current results suggest that metformin could be used for dental implant topically in type 2 diabetic patients to increase the bone formation, therefore, to enhance the success rate of dental implants clinically. ..
  46. Hollenhorst M, Lips K, Wolff M, Wess J, Gerbig S, Takats Z, et al. Luminal cholinergic signalling in airway lining fluid: a novel mechanism for activating chloride secretion via Ca²?-dependent Cl? and K? channels. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;166:1388-402 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, this study focused on the effect of luminal ACh as a regulator of transepithelial ion transport in epithelial cells...
  47. Ohkura N, Shigetani Y, Yoshiba N, Yoshiba K, Okiji T. Gene expression analysis of membrane transport proteins in normal and lipopolysaccharide-inflamed rat dental pulp. J Endod. 2012;38:648-52 pubmed publisher
    ..01), and Oatp3a1 (P < .05). Rat incisor dental pulp expressed mRNAs for various transporter isoforms. The levels of mRNA expression for PG transporters were significantly up-regulated or down-regulated in LPS-inflamed dental pulp. ..
  48. Shu Y, Brown C, Castro R, Shi R, Lin E, Owen R, et al. Effect of genetic variation in the organic cation transporter 1, OCT1, on metformin pharmacokinetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2008;83:273-80 pubmed
    ..Our studies suggest that OCT1 genotype is a determinant of metformin pharmacokinetics. ..
  49. Umehara K, Shirai N, Iwatsubo T, Noguchi K, Usui T, Kamimura H. Identification of human metabolites of (-)-N-{2-[(R)-3-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-2-carbonyl)piperidino]ethyl}-4-fluorobenzamide (YM758), a novel If channel inhibitor, and investigation of the transporter-mediated renal and hepatic. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009;37:1646-57 pubmed publisher
    ..This kind of study was useful in investigating the relationship between the urinary/hepatic elimination and the transport activity for metabolites. ..
  50. Finkelstein Y, Milatovic D, Aschner M. Modulation of cholinergic systems by manganese. Neurotoxicology. 2007;28:1003-14 pubmed
    ..These observations highlight the importance of studying the role of the CNS cholinergic systems in manganese-mediated neurotoxicity. ..
  51. Morisaki T, Matsuzaki T, Yokoo K, Kusumoto M, Iwata K, Hamada A, et al. Regulation of renal organic ion transporters in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury and uremia in rats. Pharm Res. 2008;25:2526-33 pubmed publisher
    ..IS could be involved in the mechanism of down-regulation of rOAT1, rOAT3 and rMATE1 under cisplatin-induced AKI. ..
  52. Zettl H, Schubert Zsilavecz M, Siebert C. [The medicinal chemistry of tricyclic antidepressives. Targets and stereochemistry]. Pharm Unserer Zeit. 2008;37:206-13 pubmed publisher
  53. Keller T, Schwarz D, Bernhard F, Dötsch V, Hunte C, Gorboulev V, et al. Cell free expression and functional reconstitution of eukaryotic drug transporters. Biochemistry. 2008;47:4552-64 pubmed publisher
    ..The V max of PAH (-)/KG (2-) antiport was increased by Cl (-) in a manner independent of gradients, and PAH (-)/KG (2-) antiport was independent of membrane potential in the absence or presence of Cl (-). ..