glucose transporter type 3


Summary: A major glucose transporter found in NEURONS.

Top Publications

  1. Rudlowski C, Moser M, Becker A, Rath W, Buttner R, Schroder W, et al. GLUT1 mRNA and protein expression in ovarian borderline tumors and cancer. Oncology. 2004;66:404-10 pubmed
    ..The close relationship between GLUT1 mRNA and protein expression points towards the potential relevance of GLUT1 as a diagnostic tool and therapeutic target in ovarian cancer. ..
  2. Watanabe M, Naraba H, Sakyo T, Kitagawa T. DNA damage-induced modulation of GLUT3 expression is mediated through p53-independent extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling in HeLa cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2010;8:1547-57 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings may contribute to the development of new chemotherapeutic drugs based on the GLUT3-dependent metabolism of glucose. ..
  3. Ayala F, Rocha R, Carvalho K, Carvalho A, da Cunha I, Lourenço S, et al. GLUT1 and GLUT3 as potential prognostic markers for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Molecules. 2010;15:2374-87 pubmed publisher
  4. Weisová P, Concannon C, Devocelle M, Prehn J, Ward M. Regulation of glucose transporter 3 surface expression by the AMP-activated protein kinase mediates tolerance to glutamate excitation in neurons. J Neurosci. 2009;29:2997-3008 pubmed publisher
    ..In summary, our data suggest that the activation of AMPK and its regulation of cell surface GLUT3 expression is critical in mediating neuronal tolerance to excitotoxicity. ..
  5. Estilo C, O charoenrat P, Talbot S, Socci N, Carlson D, Ghossein R, et al. Oral tongue cancer gene expression profiling: Identification of novel potential prognosticators by oligonucleotide microarray analysis. BMC Cancer. 2009;9:11 pubmed publisher
  6. Schmidt S, Richter M, Montag D, Sartorius T, Gawlik V, Hennige A, et al. Neuronal functions, feeding behavior, and energy balance in Slc2a3+/- mice. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E1084-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, our data indicate that, in contrast to Slc2a1, a single allele of Slc2a3 is sufficient for maintenance of neuronal energy supply, motor abilities, learning and memory, and feeding behavior. ..
  7. Meneses A, Medina R, Kato S, Pinto M, Jaque M, Lizama I, et al. Regulation of GLUT3 and glucose uptake by the cAMP signalling pathway in the breast cancer cell line ZR-75. J Cell Physiol. 2008;214:110-6 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, we demonstrate and characterize for the first time, an up-regulation of GLUT3 mRNA, protein and glucose uptake by the cAMP pathway in breast cancer cells. ..
  8. Shin B, Fujikura K, Suzuki T, Tanaka S, Takata K. Glucose transporter GLUT3 in the rat placental barrier: a possible machinery for the transplacental transfer of glucose. Endocrinology. 1997;138:3997-4004 pubmed
    ..The asymmetric distribution of GLUT3 across the placental barrier may suggest asymmetric transfer of glucose, which would be beneficial to provide a stable milieu for fetal development. ..
  9. Maher F, Davies Hill T, Simpson I. Substrate specificity and kinetic parameters of GLUT3 in rat cerebellar granule neurons. Biochem J. 1996;315 ( Pt 3):827-31 pubmed
    ..The high affinity and transport activity of the neuronal glucose transporter GLUT3 appears to be an appropriate adaptation to meet the demands of neuronal metabolism at prevailing interstitial brain glucose concentrations (1-2 mM). ..

More Information


  1. Krzeslak A, Wójcik Krowiranda K, Forma E, Jóźwiak P, Romanowicz H, Bienkiewicz A, et al. Expression of GLUT1 and GLUT3 glucose transporters in endometrial and breast cancers. Pathol Oncol Res. 2012;18:721-8 pubmed publisher
    ..GLUT1 and GLUT3 seem to be important markers in endometrial and breast tumors differentiation. ..
  2. Nagamatsu S, Kornhauser J, Burant C, Seino S, Mayo K, Bell G. Glucose transporter expression in brain. cDNA sequence of mouse GLUT3, the brain facilitative glucose transporter isoform, and identification of sites of expression by in situ hybridization. J Biol Chem. 1992;267:467-72 pubmed
    ..Antisera to mouse GLUT3 immunoblotted a series of proteins of 45-50 kDa in mouse brain plasma membranes. These results are consistent with GLUT3 being a neuronal glucose transporter. ..
  3. Rajakumar A, Thamotharan S, Raychaudhuri N, Menon R, Devaskar S. Trans-activators regulating neuronal glucose transporter isoform-3 gene expression in mammalian neurons. J Biol Chem. 2004;279:26768-79 pubmed
    ..We speculate that phosphorylated CREB and Sp3 also interacted to bring about GLUT 3 expression in response to development/cell differentiation and neurotransmission. ..
  4. Simpson I, Dwyer D, Malide D, Moley K, Travis A, Vannucci S. The facilitative glucose transporter GLUT3: 20 years of distinction. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;295:E242-53 pubmed publisher
  5. Wu X, Freeze H. GLUT14, a duplicon of GLUT3, is specifically expressed in testis as alternative splice forms. Genomics. 2002;80:553-7 pubmed
    ..Interestingly, the ortholog of GLUT14 is not found in mice. The multiple duplications of GLUT genes suggest that the GLUT family probably emerged by gene duplications and mutations during evolution in different lineages. ..
  6. Baer S, Casaubon L, Schwartz M, Marcogliese A, Younes M. Glut3 expression in biopsy specimens of laryngeal carcinoma is associated with poor survival. Laryngoscope. 2002;112:393-6 pubmed
    ..0385). Immunohistochemical detection of Glut3 in biopsy specimens of SCC of the larynx is a marker of poorer prognosis. ..
  7. Khan J, Rajakumar R, McKnight R, Devaskar U, Devaskar S. Developmental regulation of genes mediating murine brain glucose uptake. Am J Physiol. 1999;276:R892-900 pubmed
  8. Duelli R, Maurer M, Staudt R, Sokoloff L, Kuschinsky W. Correlation between local glucose transporter densities and local 3-O-methylglucose transport in rat brain. Neurosci Lett. 2001;310:101-4 pubmed
    ..Inasmuch as 3-O-MG is transported by the same transporter as glucose, these results indicate that the local densities of glucose transporters determine local glucose transport rates in the brain. ..
  9. Lesage J, Hahn D, Leonhardt M, Blondeau B, Breant B, Dupouy J. Maternal undernutrition during late gestation-induced intrauterine growth restriction in the rat is associated with impaired placental GLUT3 expression, but does not correlate with endogenous corticosterone levels. J Endocrinol. 2002;174:37-43 pubmed
    ..Moreover, the present results are not compatible with a role of maternal corticosterone in the development of growth-restricted rat fetuses. ..
  10. Tsukioka M, Matsumoto Y, Noriyuki M, Yoshida C, Nobeyama H, Yoshida H, et al. Expression of glucose transporters in epithelial ovarian carcinoma: correlation with clinical characteristics and tumor angiogenesis. Oncol Rep. 2007;18:361-7 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that characteristic differences in the patterns of glucose uptake can exist according to the histological type and that GLUT1, GLUT3 and GLUT4 could be related to tumor angiogenesis in epithelial ovarian carcinoma...
  11. Chen Y, Shin B, Thamotharan S, Devaskar S. Creb1-Mecp2-(m)CpG complex transactivates postnatal murine neuronal glucose transporter isoform 3 expression. Endocrinology. 2013;154:1598-611 pubmed publisher
    ..Recruitment of Creb1-Mecp2 by glut3-(m)CpG contributes towards transactivation, formulating an escape from (m)CpG-induced gene suppression, and thereby promoting developmental neuronal glut3 gene transcription and expression. ..
  12. Charnley N, Airley R, Du Plessis D, West C, Brock C, Barnett C, et al. No relationship between 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and expression of Glut-1 and -3 and hexokinase I and II in high-grade glioma. Oncol Rep. 2008;20:537-42 pubmed
  13. Shikhman A, Brinson D, Lotz M. Distinct pathways regulate facilitated glucose transport in human articular chondrocytes during anabolic and catabolic responses. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2004;286:E980-5 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, anabolic and catabolic stimuli regulate facilitated glucose transport in human articular chondrocytes via different effector and signaling mechanisms, and they have distinct effects on glycolysis. ..
  14. Choeiri C, Staines W, Miki T, Seino S, Renaud J, Teutenberg K, et al. Cerebral glucose transporters expression and spatial learning in the K-ATP Kir6.2(-/-) knockout mice. Behav Brain Res. 2006;172:233-9 pubmed
    ..Rather, in light of the effects of K-ATP channel modulators on memory, the memory deficits in the Kir6.2(-/-) K-ATP mice are more likely due to the absence of the Kir6.2 and possible disruption of the GLUT4 activity in the brain. ..
  15. Ganguly A, Devaskar S. Glucose transporter isoform-3-null heterozygous mutation causes sexually dimorphic adiposity with insulin resistance. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2008;294:E1144-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the male GLUT3(+/-) mice expressed decreased insulin-responsive GLUT4 in white adipose tissue and skeletal muscle sarcolemma. We conclude that the GLUT3(+/-) male mice develop adult-onset adiposity with insulin resistance. ..
  16. Matsuzu K, Segade F, Matsuzu U, Carter A, Bowden D, Perrier N. Differential expression of glucose transporters in normal and pathologic thyroid tissue. Thyroid. 2004;14:806-12 pubmed
    ..Other GLUTs were statistically unchanged in pathologic tissues. These results are consistent with the theory that GLUT1 is upregulated during carcinogenesis and may play a major role in enhanced glucose uptake in thyroid cancer cells. ..
  17. Ganguly A, McKnight R, Raychaudhuri S, Shin B, Ma Z, Moley K, et al. Glucose transporter isoform-3 mutations cause early pregnancy loss and fetal growth restriction. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E1241-55 pubmed
    ..This critical life-sustaining functional role for GLUT3 in embryonic development provides the basis for investigating the existence of human GLUT3 mutations with similar consequences during early pregnancy. ..
  18. Sankar R, Thamotharan S, Shin D, Moley K, Devaskar S. Insulin-responsive glucose transporters-GLUT8 and GLUT4 are expressed in the developing mammalian brain. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2002;107:157-65 pubmed
    ..These insulin-responsive isoforms may have a unique role in augmenting substrate delivery under conditions of increased demand. ..
  19. Novakovic B, Gordon L, Robinson W, Desoye G, Saffery R. Glucose as a fetal nutrient: dynamic regulation of several glucose transporter genes by DNA methylation in the human placenta across gestation. J Nutr Biochem. 2013;24:282-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings warrant a reexamination of the role of additional GLUT family members in the placenta in pregnancy and disease. ..
  20. Schmidt S, Hommel A, Gawlik V, Augustin R, Junicke N, Florian S, et al. Essential role of glucose transporter GLUT3 for post-implantation embryonic development. J Endocrinol. 2009;200:23-33 pubmed publisher
    ..5. GLUT3 was detected in placental cone, in the visceral ectoderm and in the mesoderm of 7.5-day-old wild-type embryos. Our data indicate that GLUT3 is essential for the development of early post-implanted embryos. ..
  21. Yu S, Zhao T, Guo M, Fang H, Ma J, Ding A, et al. Hypoxic preconditioning up-regulates glucose transport activity and glucose transporter (GLUT1 and GLUT3) gene expression after acute anoxic exposure in the cultured rat hippocampal neurons and astrocytes. Brain Res. 2008;1211:22-9 pubmed publisher
  22. Fei X, Qi M, Wu B, Song Y, Wang Y, Li T. MicroRNA-195-5p suppresses glucose uptake and proliferation of human bladder cancer T24 cells by regulating GLUT3 expression. FEBS Lett. 2012;586:392-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, miR-195-5p is a novel and also the first identified miRNA that targets GLUT3, and the aberrant decreased expression of miR-195-5p and consequent GLUT3 up-regulation may contribute to bladder carcinogenesis. ..
  23. Colville C, Seatter M, Jess T, Gould G, Thomas H. Kinetic analysis of the liver-type (GLUT2) and brain-type (GLUT3) glucose transporters in Xenopus oocytes: substrate specificities and effects of transport inhibitors. Biochem J. 1993;290 ( Pt 3):701-6 pubmed
    ..Km and Ki values for each substrate and inhibitor are presented for each isoform, together with further analysis of the binding sites for alternative substrates for these transporter isoforms. ..
  24. Pantaleon M, Harvey M, Pascoe W, James D, Kaye P. Glucose transporter GLUT3: ontogeny, targeting, and role in the mouse blastocyst. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997;94:3795-800 pubmed
    ..Thus the vectorial expression of GLUT3 into the apical membrane domains of the outer cells of the morula, which in turn form the TE cells of the blastocyst, is required for blastocyst formation. ..
  25. Ha T, Chi S. CAV1/caveolin 1 enhances aerobic glycolysis in colon cancer cells via activation of SLC2A3/GLUT3 transcription. Autophagy. 2012;8:1684-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our study suggests that elevated CAV1 expression may contribute to colorectal tumor progression by providing tumor cells growth and survival advantages under nutritional stress conditions. ..
  26. Phillips T, Ferraz I, Bell S, Clegg P, Carter S, Mobasheri A. Differential regulation of the GLUT1 and GLUT3 glucose transporters by growth factors and pro-inflammatory cytokines in equine articular chondrocytes. Vet J. 2005;169:216-22 pubmed
    ..The data presented support a critical role for glucose in the responses of equine articular chondrocytes to pro-inflammatory cytokines and anabolic endocrine factors. ..
  27. Fu Y, Maianu L, Melbert B, Garvey W. Facilitative glucose transporter gene expression in human lymphocytes, monocytes, and macrophages: a role for GLUT isoforms 1, 3, and 5 in the immune response and foam cell formation. Blood Cells Mol Dis. 2004;32:182-90 pubmed
    ..The role for high levels of the fructose transporter GLUT 5 in macrophages and foam cells is unknown since interstitial and circulating fructose concentrations are low in these cells. ..
  28. Hahn T, Barth S, Graf R, Engelmann M, Beslagic D, Reul J, et al. Placental glucose transporter expression is regulated by glucocorticoids. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1999;84:1445-52 pubmed
  29. Ha T, Her N, Lee M, Ryu B, Lee J, Han J, et al. Caveolin-1 increases aerobic glycolysis in colorectal cancers by stimulating HMGA1-mediated GLUT3 transcription. Cancer Res. 2012;72:4097-109 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data show that elevated CAV1 upregulates glucose uptake and ATP production through HMGA1-mediated GLUT3 transcription, suggesting that CAV1 may render tumor cells growth advantages by enhancing aerobic glycolysis. ..
  30. Olson A, Pessin J. Structure, function, and regulation of the mammalian facilitative glucose transporter gene family. Annu Rev Nutr. 1996;16:235-56 pubmed
    ..GLUT4 is the insulin-regulated glucose transporter found in adipose tissues, heart muscles, and skeletal muscles that is responsible for insulin-regulated glucose disposal. ..
  31. Shin B, McKnight R, Devaskar S. Glucose transporter GLUT8 translocation in neurons is not insulin responsive. J Neurosci Res. 2004;75:835-44 pubmed
    ..This stimulus, which is necessary for uncoupling the "cytoplasmic vesicular anchor" of GLUT8, would be crucial for its glucose-transporting function. ..
  32. Zovein A, Flowers Ziegler J, Thamotharan S, Shin D, Sankar R, Nguyen K, et al. Postnatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury alters mechanisms mediating neuronal glucose transport. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2004;286:R273-82 pubmed
  33. Zhou R, Vander Heiden M, Rudin C. Genotoxic exposure is associated with alterations in glucose uptake and metabolism. Cancer Res. 2002;62:3515-20 pubmed
    ..Mitochondrial responses to the resulting rapid decrease in metabolic substrates may play an important role in initiation of apoptotic cell death. ..
  34. Craik J, Stewart M, Cheeseman C. GLUT-3 (brain-type) glucose transporter polypeptides in human blood platelets. Thromb Res. 1995;79:461-9 pubmed
    ..Only traces of GLUT-1 (erythrocyte type) glucose transporter polypeptides were detected, and there was no evidence of GLUT-2 (liver type) transporter on immunoblots of platelet proteins. ..
  35. Simpson I, Chundu K, Davies Hill T, Honer W, Davies P. Decreased concentrations of GLUT1 and GLUT3 glucose transporters in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Ann Neurol. 1994;35:546-51 pubmed
    ..The reductions in GLUT3 were greater than the loss of synapses, and should be considered as a potential cause of the deficits in glucose metabolism. ..
  36. Tomioka S. Water transport by glucose transporter type 3 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Neuroreport. 2012;23:21-5 pubmed publisher
    The hypothesis that the facilitative glucose transporter type 3 (GLUT3) in the brain also exhibits water channel properties similar to that of GLUT1 was tested in Xenopus oocytes expressing human GLUT3 or GLUT1...
  37. Yu J, Li J, Zhang S, Xu X, Zheng M, Jiang G, et al. IGF-1 induces hypoxia-inducible factor 1?-mediated GLUT3 expression through PI3K/Akt/mTOR dependent pathways in PC12 cells. Brain Res. 2012;1430:18-24 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we showed that the expression of GLUT3 in response to IGF-1 was dependent on PI-3-kinase and mTOR activity, and required the transcription factor HIF-1?. ..
  38. Mobasheri A, Richardson S, Mobasheri R, Shakibaei M, Hoyland J. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 and facilitative glucose transporters GLUT1 and GLUT3: putative molecular components of the oxygen and glucose sensing apparatus in articular chondrocytes. Histol Histopathol. 2005;20:1327-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This working model provides, for the first time, a unifying hypothesis to explain how chondrocytes might sense and respond to low oxygen tensions and alterations in extracellular glucose. ..
  39. Lim J, Perwick R, Li B, Donaldson P. Comparison of the expression and spatial localization of glucose transporters in the rat, bovine and human lens. Exp Eye Res. 2017;161:193-204 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these studies have identified GLUT1 to be the primary transporter that mediates glucose uptake in the rat, bovine and human lens. ..
  40. Oliveira P, Alves M, Rato L, Laurentino S, Silva J, Sa R, et al. Effect of insulin deprivation on metabolism and metabolism-associated gene transcript levels of in vitro cultured human Sertoli cells. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2012;1820:84-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report regarding the effect of insulin-deprivation on hSC metabolism. ..
  41. Kawakami T, Yoshimi M, Kadota Y, Inoue M, Sato M, Suzuki S. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 2014;275:134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that excessive and exogenous ER stress may induce functional abnormalities in the placenta, at least in part, with altered GLUT and vascular-related gene expression, resulting in low infant birth weight. ..
  42. van Baardwijk A, Dooms C, van Suylen R, Verbeken E, Hochstenbag M, Dehing Oberije C, et al. The maximum uptake of (18)F-deoxyglucose on positron emission tomography scan correlates with survival, hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha and GLUT-1 in non-small cell lung cancer. Eur J Cancer. 2007;43:1392-8 pubmed
    ..9% versus 62.5%, p=0.025), than tumours with a low SUV(max). No significant difference was found in the expression of CAIX, Ki-67 and GLUT-3. This study supports preclinical data that hypoxia is associated with a higher uptake of FDG. ..
  43. Baumann M, Zamudio S, Illsley N. Hypoxic upregulation of glucose transporters in BeWo choriocarcinoma cells is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor-1. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007;293:C477-85 pubmed
  44. Heiser P, Singh S, Krieg J, Vedder H. Effects of different antipsychotics and the antidepressant mirtazapine on glucose transporter mRNA levels in human blood cells. J Psychiatr Res. 2006;40:374-9 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that direct effects of psychotropic drugs on cellular GLUT4 and GLUT5 may be involved in the metabolic dysfunctions occurring during psychopharmacological treatment. ..
  45. Urner F, Sakkas D. A possible role for the pentose phosphate pathway of spermatozoa in gamete fusion in the mouse. Biol Reprod. 1999;60:733-9 pubmed
    ..The existence of an NADPH-regulated event that influences the ability of the sperm to fuse with the oocyte is envisaged. ..
  46. Yamaguchi M, Sakata M, Ogura K, Miyake A. Gestational changes of glucose transporter gene expression in the mouse placenta and decidua. J Endocrinol Invest. 1996;19:567-9 pubmed
    ..1 kb to 2.7 kb in the mouse placenta detected by Northern blot analysis. These findings suggest the presence of a difference in the gestational modulation of the level of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in the uteroplacental system. ..
  47. Riera M, Galardo M, Pellizzari E, Meroni S, Cigorraga S. Molecular mechanisms involved in Sertoli cell adaptation to glucose deprivation. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009;297:E907-14 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest that Sertoli cells adapt to conditions of glucose deprivation to ensure an adequate lactate concentration in the microenvironment where germ cell development occurs. ..
  48. Li L, Zhou S, Zhao K, Wang S, Wu Q, Fan J, et al. Clinical significance of FDG single-photon emission computed tomography: Computed tomography in the diagnosis of head and neck cancers and study of its mechanism. Cancer Biother Radiopharm. 2008;23:701-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Glut-1 may largely mediate basal glucose transport in HNC cells. ..
  49. Maratou E, Hadjidakis D, Kollias A, Tsegka K, Peppa M, Alevizaki M, et al. Studies of insulin resistance in patients with clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;160:785-90 pubmed publisher
  50. Wooding F, Dantzer V, Klisch K, Jones C, Forhead A. Glucose transporter 1 localisation throughout pregnancy in the carnivore placenta: light and electron microscope studies. Placenta. 2007;28:453-64 pubmed
    ..GT1 is invariably present on both apical and basal surfaces of the cyto- and syncytiotrophoblast in all carnivore species examined and the pattern of development is described from implantation to term. ..
  51. Korgun E, Demir R, Sedlmayr P, Desoye G, Arikan G, Puerstner P, et al. Physiological leukocytosis during pregnancy is associated with changes in glucose transporter expression of maternal peripheral blood granulocytes and monocytes. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2002;48:110-6 pubmed
    ..GLUT1, 3 and 4 are abundantly expressed in granulocytes and monocytes. The particular isoforms are differentially regulated during pregnancy, suggesting an individual functional significance. ..
  52. Reagan L, Magarinos A, Yee D, Swzeda L, Van Bueren A, McCall A, et al. Oxidative stress and HNE conjugation of GLUT3 are increased in the hippocampus of diabetic rats subjected to stress. Brain Res. 2000;862:292-300 pubmed
    ..In addition, increases in HNE protein conjugation of GLUT3 provide a potential mechanism for stress- and diabetes-mediated decreases in hippocampal neuronal glucose utilization. ..
  53. Roy V, Krishna A. Changes in glucose and carnitine levels and their transporters in utero-tubal junction in relation to sperm storage in the vespertilionid bat, Scotophilus heathi. J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol. 2013;319:517-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Increases in expression of GLUT4 and GLUT8 in late winter suggest a role for these GLUTs in increasing sperm motility prior to fertilization. ..